Skip to content
Switch branches/tags

Latest commit

281: [RFC] Rename `send` to `write`. r=therealprof a=Dirbaio

`send` and `write` are essentially synonymous. All the traits use `write`, except `nb::spi::FullDuplex`, which uses `send`.

This PR renames it to `write`. Instances of `send` in the docs are also replaced, for consistency.

Co-authored-by: Dario Nieuwenhuis <>

Git stats


Failed to load latest commit information.


A Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) for embedded systems

This project is developed and maintained by the HAL team.

API reference


At the moment we are working towards a 1.0.0 release (see #177). During this process we will release alpha versions like 1.0.0-alpha.1 and 1.0.0-alpha.2. Alpha releases are not guaranteed to be compatible with each other. They are provided as early previews for community testing and preparation for the final release. If you use an alpha release, we recommend you choose an exact version specification in your Cargo.toml like: embedded-hal = "=1.0.0-alpha.2"

See below for a way to implement both an embedded-hal 0.2.x version and an -alpha version side by side in a HAL.

How-to: add a new trait

This is the suggested approach to adding a new trait to embedded-hal

Research / Discussion

Ideally, before proposing a new trait, or set of traits, you should check for an existing issue suggesting the need for the trait, as well as any related works / use cases / requirements that are useful to consider in the design of the trait.

These issues will be labeled as discussion in the issue tracker.

Implementation / Demonstration

Proposed traits should then be implemented and demonstrated, either by forking embedded-hal or by creating a new crate with the intent of integrating this into embedded-hal once the traits have stabilized. You may find cargo workspaces and patch useful for the forking approach.

Traits should be demonstrated with at least two implementations on different platforms and one generic driver built on the trait. Where it is possible we suggest an implementation on a microcontroller, and implementation for linux, and a driver (or drivers where requirements are more complex) with bounds using the trait.

Proposing a trait

Once the trait has been demonstrated a PR should be opened to merge the new trait(s) into embedded-hal. This should include a link to the previous discussion issue.

If there is determined to be more than one alternative then there should be further discussion to try to single out the best option. Once there is consensus this will be merged into the embedded-hal repository.

These issues / PRs will be labeled as proposals in the issue tracker.

Implementations and drivers

For a list of embedded-hal implementations and driver crates check the awesome-embedded-rust list.

Adding support for an embedded-hal -alpha version in a HAL implementation

It is possible for HAL implementations to support both the latest 0.2.x version of embedded-hal as well as the latest 1.0.0-alpha version side by side. This has several big advantadges:

  • Allows for a more gradual upgrade process within the community.
  • Allows for a faster upgrade to 1.0 once it comes out.
  • Provides more oportunities to test the new embedded-hal version.

This approach has been implemented in LPC8xx HAL. Here are the steps:

  1. Add a dependency to the latest embedded-hal version to Cargo.toml. Use the package attribute to refer to it by another name, to prevent name collision (example).
  2. Import the traits into the module where they should be implemented. Change their name using as to prevent name collisions (example).
  3. Implement the traits next to their non-alpha versions (example).

While none of this is hard, some HAL maintainers might prefer not to add a dependency on an alpha version. The main drawback of this approach is that it requires ongoing updates, as new embedded-hal alpha versions come out. As stated before, embedded-hal -alpha versions are not guaranteed to be compatible with each other.

Minimum Supported Rust Version (MSRV)

This crate is guaranteed to compile on stable Rust 1.35 and up. It might compile with older versions but that may change in any new patch release.


Licensed under either of

at your option.


Unless you explicitly state otherwise, any contribution intentionally submitted for inclusion in the work by you, as defined in the Apache-2.0 license, shall be dual licensed as above, without any additional terms or conditions.

Code of Conduct

Contribution to this crate is organized under the terms of the Rust Code of Conduct, the maintainer of this crate, the HAL team, promises to intervene to uphold that code of conduct.


A Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) for embedded systems




No packages published