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5c6be3f Feb 27, 2016
@ubsan @jethrogb
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Add syntactic sugar for working with the Result type which models common exception handling constructs.

The new constructs are:

  • An ? operator for explicitly propagating "exceptions".

  • A catch { ... } expression for conveniently catching and handling "exceptions".

The idea for the ? operator originates from RFC PR 204 by @aturon.

Motivation and overview

Rust currently uses the enum Result type for error handling. This solution is simple, well-behaved, and easy to understand, but often gnarly and inconvenient to work with. We would like to solve the latter problem while retaining the other nice properties and avoiding duplication of functionality.

We can accomplish this by adding constructs which mimic the exception-handling constructs of other languages in both appearance and behavior, while improving upon them in typically Rustic fashion. Their meaning can be specified by a straightforward source-to-source translation into existing language constructs, plus a very simple and obvious new one. (They may also, but need not necessarily, be implemented in this way.)

These constructs are strict additions to the existing language, and apart from the issue of keywords, the legality and behavior of all currently existing Rust programs is entirely unaffected.

The most important additions are a postfix ? operator for propagating "exceptions" and a catch {..} expression for catching them. By an "exception", for now, we essentially just mean the Err variant of a Result, though the Unresolved Questions includes some discussion of extending to other types.

? operator

The postfix ? operator can be applied to Result values and is equivalent to the current try!() macro. It either returns the Ok value directly, or performs an early exit and propagates the Err value further out. (So given my_result: Result<Foo, Bar>, we have my_result?: Foo.) This allows it to be used for e.g. conveniently chaining method calls which may each "throw an exception":


Naturally, in this case the types of the "exceptions thrown by" foo() and bar() must unify. Like the current try!() macro, the ? operator will also perform an implicit "upcast" on the exception type.

When used outside of a catch block, the ? operator propagates the exception to the caller of the current function, just like the current try! macro does. (If the return type of the function isn't a Result, then this is a type error.) When used inside a catch block, it propagates the exception up to the innermost catch block, as one would expect.

Requiring an explicit ? operator to propagate exceptions strikes a very pleasing balance between completely automatic exception propagation, which most languages have, and completely manual propagation, which we'd have apart from the try! macro. It means that function calls remain simply function calls which return a result to their caller, with no magic going on behind the scenes; and this also increases flexibility, because one gets to choose between propagation with ? or consuming the returned Result directly.

The ? operator itself is suggestive, syntactically lightweight enough to not be bothersome, and lets the reader determine at a glance where an exception may or may not be thrown. It also means that if the signature of a function changes with respect to exceptions, it will lead to type errors rather than silent behavior changes, which is a good thing. Finally, because exceptions are tracked in the type system, and there is no silent propagation of exceptions, and all points where an exception may be thrown are readily apparent visually, this also means that we do not have to worry very much about "exception safety".

Exception type upcasting

In a language with checked exceptions and subtyping, it is clear that if a function is declared as throwing a particular type, its body should also be able to throw any of its subtypes. Similarly, in a language with structural sum types (a.k.a. anonymous enums, polymorphic variants), one should be able to throw a type with fewer cases in a function declaring that it may throw a superset of those cases. This is essentially what is achieved by the common Rust practice of declaring a custom error enum with From impls for each of the upstream error types which may be propagated:

enum MyError {

impl From<io::Error> for MyError { ... }
impl From<json::Error> for MyError { ... }

Here io::Error and json::Error can be thought of as subtypes of MyError, with a clear and direct embedding into the supertype.

The ? operator should therefore perform such an implicit conversion, in the nature of a subtype-to-supertype coercion. The present RFC uses the std::convert::Into trait for this purpose (which has a blanket impl forwarding from From). The precise requirements for a conversion to be "like" a subtyping coercion are an open question; see the "Unresolved questions" section.

catch expressions

This RFC also introduces an expression form catch {..}, which serves to "scope" the ? operator. The catch operator executes its associated block. If no exception is thrown, then the result is Ok(v) where v is the value of the block. Otherwise, if an exception is thrown, then the result is Err(e). Note that unlike other languages, a catch block always catches all errors, and they must all be coercable to a single type, as a Result only has a single Err type. This dramatically simplifies thinking about the behavior of exception-handling code.

Note that catch { foo()? } is essentially equivalent to foo(). catch can be useful if you want to coalesce multiple potential exceptions -- catch { foo()?.bar()?.baz()? } -- into a single Result, which you wish to then e.g. pass on as-is to another function, rather than analyze yourself. (The last example could also be expressed using a series of and_then calls.)

Detailed design

The meaning of the constructs will be specified by a source-to-source translation. We make use of an "early exit from any block" feature which doesn't currently exist in the language, generalizes the current break and return constructs, and is independently useful.

Early exit from any block

The capability can be exposed either by generalizing break to take an optional value argument and break out of any block (not just loops), or by generalizing return to take an optional lifetime argument and return from any block, not just the outermost block of the function. This feature is only used in this RFC as an explanatory device, and implementing the RFC does not require exposing it, so I am going to arbitrarily choose the break syntax for the following and won't discuss the question further.

So we are extending break with an optional value argument: break 'a EXPR. This is an expression of type ! which causes an early return from the enclosing block specified by 'a, which then evaluates to the value EXPR (of course, the type of EXPR must unify with the type of the last expression in that block). This works for any block, not only loops.

A completely artificial example:

'a: {
    let my_thing = if have_thing() {
    } else {
        break 'a None
    println!("found thing: {}", my_thing);

Here if we don't have a thing, we escape from the block early with None.

If no value is specified, it defaults to (): in other words, the current behavior. We can also imagine there is a magical lifetime 'fn which refers to the lifetime of the whole function: in this case, break 'fn is equivalent to return.

Again, this RFC does not propose generalizing break in this way at this time: it is only used as a way to explain the meaning of the constructs it does propose.

Definition of constructs

Finally we have the definition of the new constructs in terms of a source-to-source translation.

In each case except the first, I will provide two definitions: a single-step "shallow" desugaring which is defined in terms of the previously defined new constructs, and a "deep" one which is "fully expanded".

Of course, these could be defined in many equivalent ways: the below definitions are merely one way.

  • Construct:



    match EXPR {
        Ok(a)  => a,
        Err(e) => break 'here Err(e.into())

    Where 'here refers to the innermost enclosing catch block, or to 'fn if there is none.

    The ? operator has the same precedence as ..

  • Construct:

    catch {


    'here: {


    'here: {
        Ok(match foo() {
            Ok(a) => a,
            Err(e) => break 'here Err(e.into())

The fully expanded translations get quite gnarly, but that is why it's good that you don't have to write them!

In general, the types of the defined constructs should be the same as the types of their definitions.

(As noted earlier, while the behavior of the constructs can be specified using a source-to-source translation in this manner, they need not necessarily be implemented this way.)

As a result of this RFC, both Into and Result would have to become lang items.


Without any attempt at completeness, here are some things which should be true:

  • catch { foo() } = Ok(foo())
  • catch { Err(e)? } = Err(e.into())
  • catch { try_foo()? } = try_foo().map_err(Into::into)

(In the above, foo() is a function returning any type, and try_foo() is a function returning a Result.)

Feature gates

The two major features here, the ? syntax and catch expressions, will be tracked by independent feature gates. Each of the features has a distinct motivation, and we should evaluate them independently.

Unresolved questions

These questions should be satisfactorally resolved before stabilizing the relevant features, at the latest.

Optional match sugar

Originally, the RFC included the ability to match the errors caught by a catch by writing catch { .. } match { .. }, which could be translated as follows:

  • Construct:

    catch {
    } match {
        A(a) => baz(a),
        B(b) => quux(b)


      match (catch {
      }) {
          Ok(a) => a,
          Err(e) => match e {
              A(a) => baz(a),
              B(b) => quux(b)


    match ('here: {
        Ok(match foo() {
            Ok(a) => a,
            Err(e) => break 'here Err(e.into())
    }) {
        Ok(a) => a,
        Err(e) => match e {
            A(a) => baz(a),
            B(b) => quux(b)

However, it was removed for the following reasons:

  • The catch (originally: try) keyword adds the real expressive "step up" here, the match (originally: catch) was just sugar for unwrap_or.
  • It would be easy to add further sugar in the future, once we see how catch is used (or not used) in practice.
  • There was some concern about potential user confusion about two aspects:
    • catch { } yields a Result<T,E> but catch { } match { } yields just T;
    • catch { } match { } handles all kinds of errors, unlike try/catch in other languages which let you pick and choose.

It may be worth adding such a sugar in the future, or perhaps a variant that binds irrefutably and does not immediately lead into a match block.

Choice of keywords

The RFC to this point uses the keyword catch, but there are a number of other possibilities, each with different advantages and drawbacks:

  • try { ... } catch { ... }

  • try { ... } match { ... }

  • try { ... } handle { ... }

  • catch { ... } match { ... }

  • catch { ... } handle { ... }

  • catch ... (without braces or a second clause)

Among the considerations:

  • Simplicity. Brevity.

  • Following precedent from existing, popular languages, and familiarity with respect to their analogous constructs.

  • Fidelity to the constructs' actual behavior. For instance, the first clause always catches the "exception"; the second only branches on it.

  • Consistency with the existing try!() macro. If the first clause is called try, then try { } and try!() would have essentially inverse meanings.

  • Language-level backwards compatibility when adding new keywords. I'm not sure how this could or should be handled.

Semantics for "upcasting"

What should the contract for a From/Into impl be? Are these even the right traits to use for this feature?

Two obvious, minimal requirements are:

  • It should be pure: no side effects, and no observation of side effects. (The result should depend only on the argument.)

  • It should be total: no panics or other divergence, except perhaps in the case of resource exhaustion (OOM, stack overflow).

The other requirements for an implicit conversion to be well-behaved in the context of this feature should be thought through with care.

Some further thoughts and possibilities on this matter, only as brainstorming:

  • It should be "like a coercion from subtype to supertype", as described earlier. The precise meaning of this is not obvious.

  • A common condition on subtyping coercions is coherence: if you can compound-coerce to go from A to Z indirectly along multiple different paths, they should all have the same end result.

  • It should be lossless, or in other words, injective: it should map each observably-different element of the input type to observably-different elements of the output type. (Observably-different means that it is possible to write a program which behaves differently depending on which one it gets, modulo things that "shouldn't count" like observing execution time or resource usage.)

  • It should be unambiguous, or preserve the meaning of the input: impl From<u8> for u32 as x as u32 feels right; as (x as u32) * 12345 feels wrong, even though this is perfectly pure, total, and injective. What this means precisely in the general case is unclear.

  • The types converted between should the "same kind of thing": for instance, the existing impl From<u32> for Ipv4Addr feels suspect on this count. (This perhaps ties into the subtyping angle: Ipv4Addr is clearly not a supertype of u32.)


If we later want to generalize this feature to other types such as Option, as described below, will we be able to do so while maintaining backwards-compatibility?

Monadic do notation

There have been many comparisons drawn between this syntax and monadic do notation. Before stabilizing, we should determine whether we plan to make changes to better align this feature with a possible do notation (for example, by removing the implicit Ok at the end of a catch block). Note that such a notation would have to extend the standard monadic bind to accommodate rich control flow like break, continue, and return.


  • Increases the syntactic surface area of the language.

  • No expressivity is added, only convenience. Some object to "there's more than one way to do it" on principle.

  • If at some future point we were to add higher-kinded types and syntactic sugar for monads, a la Haskell's do or Scala's for, their functionality may overlap and result in redundancy. However, a number of challenges would have to be overcome for a generic monadic sugar to be able to fully supplant these features: the integration of higher-kinded types into Rust's type system in the first place, the shape of a Monad trait in a language with lifetimes and move semantics, interaction between the monadic control flow and Rust's native control flow (the "ambient monad"), automatic upcasting of exception types via Into (the exception (Either, Result) monad normally does not do this, and it's not clear whether it can), and potentially others.


  • Don't.

  • Only add the ? operator, but not catch expressions.

  • Instead of a built-in catch construct, attempt to define one using macros. However, this is likely to be awkward because, at least, macros may only have their contents as a single block, rather than two. Furthermore, macros are excellent as a "safety net" for features which we forget to add to the language itself, or which only have specialized use cases; but generally useful control flow constructs still work better as language features.

  • Add first-class checked exceptions, which are propagated automatically (without an ? operator).

    This has the drawbacks of being a more invasive change and duplicating functionality: each function must choose whether to use checked exceptions via throws, or to return a Result. While the two are isomorphic and converting between them is easy, with this proposal, the issue does not even arise, as exception handling is defined in terms of Result. Furthermore, automatic exception propagation raises the specter of "exception safety": how serious an issue this would actually be in practice, I don't know - there's reason to believe that it would be much less of one than in C++.

  • Wait (and hope) for HKTs and generic monad sugar.

Future possibilities

Expose a generalized form of break or return as described

This RFC doesn't propose doing so at this time, but as it would be an independently useful feature, it could be added as well.

throw and throws

It is possible to carry the exception handling analogy further and also add throw and throws constructs.

throw is very simple: throw EXPR is essentially the same thing as Err(EXPR)?; in other words it throws the exception EXPR to the innermost catch block, or to the function's caller if there is none.

A throws clause on a function:

fn foo(arg: Foo) -> Bar throws Baz { ... }

would mean that instead of writing return Ok(foo) and return Err(bar) in the body of the function, one would write return foo and throw bar, and these are implicitly turned into Ok or Err for the caller. This removes syntactic overhead from both "normal" and "throwing" code paths and (apart from ? to propagate exceptions) matches what code might look like in a language with native exceptions.

Generalize over Result, Option, and other result-carrying types

Option<T> is completely equivalent to Result<T, ()> modulo names, and many common APIs use the Option type, so it would be useful to extend all of the above syntax to Option, and other (potentially user-defined) equivalent-to-Result types, as well.

This can be done by specifying a trait for types which can be used to "carry" either a normal result or an exception. There are several different, equivalent ways to formulate it, which differ in the set of methods provided, but the meaning in any case is essentially just that you can choose some types Normal and Exception such that Self is isomorphic to Result<Normal, Exception>.

Here is one way:

trait ResultCarrier {
    type Normal;
    type Exception;
    fn embed_normal(from: Normal) -> Self;
    fn embed_exception(from: Exception) -> Self;
    fn translate<Other: ResultCarrier<Normal=Normal, Exception=Exception>>(from: Self) -> Other;

For greater clarity on how these methods work, see the section on impls below. (For a simpler formulation of the trait using Result directly, see further below.)

The translate method says that it should be possible to translate to any other ResultCarrier type which has the same Normal and Exception types. This may not appear to be very useful, but in fact, this is what can be used to inspect the result, by translating it to a concrete, known type such as Result<Normal, Exception> and then, for example, pattern matching on it.


  1. For all x, translate(embed_normal(x): A): B = embed_normal(x): B.
  2. For all x, translate(embed_exception(x): A): B = embed_exception(x): B.
  3. For all carrier, translate(translate(carrier: A): B): A = carrier: A.

Here I've used explicit type ascription syntax to make it clear that e.g. the types of embed_ on the left and right hand sides are different.

The first two laws say that embedding a result x into one result-carrying type and then translating it to a second result-carrying type should be the same as embedding it into the second type directly.

The third law says that translating to a different result-carrying type and then translating back should be a no-op.

impls of the trait

impl<T, E> ResultCarrier for Result<T, E> {
    type Normal = T;
    type Exception = E;
    fn embed_normal(a: T) -> Result<T, E> { Ok(a) }
    fn embed_exception(e: E) -> Result<T, E> { Err(e) }
    fn translate<Other: ResultCarrier<Normal=T, Exception=E>>(result: Result<T, E>) -> Other {
        match result {
            Ok(a)  => Other::embed_normal(a),
            Err(e) => Other::embed_exception(e)

As we can see, translate can be implemented by deconstructing ourself and then re-embedding the contained value into the other result-carrying type.

impl<T> ResultCarrier for Option<T> {
    type Normal = T;
    type Exception = ();
    fn embed_normal(a: T) -> Option<T> { Some(a) }
    fn embed_exception(e: ()) -> Option<T> { None }
    fn translate<Other: ResultCarrier<Normal=T, Exception=()>>(option: Option<T>) -> Other {
        match option {
            Some(a) => Other::embed_normal(a),
            None    => Other::embed_exception(())

Potentially also:

impl ResultCarrier for bool {
    type Normal = ();
    type Exception = ();
    fn embed_normal(a: ()) -> bool { true }
    fn embed_exception(e: ()) -> bool { false }
    fn translate<Other: ResultCarrier<Normal=(), Exception=()>>(b: bool) -> Other {
        match b {
            true  => Other::embed_normal(()),
            false => Other::embed_exception(())

The laws should be sufficient to rule out any "icky" impls. For example, an impl for Vec where an exception is represented as the empty vector, and a normal result as a single-element vector: here the third law fails, because if the Vec has more than one element to begin with, then it's not possible to translate to a different result-carrying type and then back without losing information.

The bool impl may be surprising, or not useful, but it is well-behaved: bool is, after all, isomorphic to Result<(), ()>.

Other miscellaneous notes about ResultCarrier

  • Our current lint for unused results could be replaced by one which warns for any unused result of a type which implements ResultCarrier.

  • If there is ever ambiguity due to the result-carrying type being underdetermined (experience should reveal whether this is a problem in practice), we could resolve it by defaulting to Result.

  • Translating between different result-carrying types with the same Normal and Exception types should, but may not necessarily currently be, a machine-level no-op most of the time.

    We could/should make it so that:

    • repr(Option<T>) = repr(Result<T, ()>)
    • repr(bool) = repr(Option<()>) = repr(Result<(), ()>)

    If these hold, then translate between these types could in theory be compiled down to just a transmute. (Whether LLVM is smart enough to do this, I don't know.)

  • The translate() function smells to me like a natural transformation between functors, but I'm not category theorist enough for it to be obvious.

Alternative formulations of the ResultCarrier trait

All of these have the form:

trait ResultCarrier {
    type Normal;
    type Exception;

and differ only in the methods, which will be given.

Explicit isomorphism with Result

fn from_result(Result<Normal, Exception>) -> Self;
fn to_result(Self) -> Result<Normal, Exception>;

This is, of course, the simplest possible formulation.

The drawbacks are that it, in some sense, privileges Result over other potentially equivalent types, and that it may be less efficient for those types: for any non-Result type, every operation requires two method calls (one into Result, and one out), whereas with the ResultCarrier trait in the main text, they only require one.


  • For all x, from_result(to_result(x)) = x.
  • For all x, to_result(from_result(x)) = x.

Laws for the remaining formulations below are left as an exercise for the reader.

Avoid privileging Result, most naive version

fn embed_normal(Normal) -> Self;
fn embed_exception(Exception) -> Self;
fn is_normal(&Self) -> bool;
fn is_exception(&Self) -> bool;
fn assert_normal(Self) -> Normal;
fn assert_exception(Self) -> Exception;

Of course this is horrible.

Destructuring with HOFs (a.k.a. Church/Scott-encoding)

fn embed_normal(Normal) -> Self;
fn embed_exception(Exception) -> Self;
fn match_carrier<T>(Self, FnOnce(Normal) -> T, FnOnce(Exception) -> T) -> T;

This is probably the right approach for Haskell, but not for Rust.

With this formulation, because they each take ownership of them, the two closures may not even close over the same variables!

Destructuring with HOFs, round 2

trait BiOnceFn {
    type ArgA;
    type ArgB;
    type Ret;
    fn callA(Self, ArgA) -> Ret;
    fn callB(Self, ArgB) -> Ret;

trait ResultCarrier {
    type Normal;
    type Exception;
    fn normal(Normal) -> Self;
    fn exception(Exception) -> Self;
    fn match_carrier<T>(Self, BiOnceFn<ArgA=Normal, ArgB=Exception, Ret=T>) -> T;

Here we solve the environment-sharing problem from above: instead of two objects with a single method each, we use a single object with two methods! I believe this is the most flexible and general formulation (which is however a strange thing to believe when they are all equivalent to each other). Of course, it's even more awkward syntactically.