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Pare back the std::hash module's API to improve ergonomics of usage and definitions. While an alternative scheme more in line with what Java and C++ have is considered, the current std::hash module will remain largely as-is with modifications to its core traits.


There are a number of motivations for this RFC, and each will be explained in term.

API ergonomics

Today the API of the std::hash module is sometimes considered overly complicated and it may not be pulling its weight. As a recap, the API looks like:

trait Hash<H: Hasher> {
    fn hash(&self, state: &mut H);
trait Hasher {
    type Output;
    fn reset(&mut self);
    fn finish(&self) -> Self::Output;
trait Writer {
    fn write(&mut self, data: &[u8]);

The Hash trait is implemented by various types where the H type parameter signifies the hashing algorithm that the impl block corresponds to. Each Hasher is opaque when taken generically and is frequently paired with a bound of Writer to allow feeding in arbitrary bytes.

The purpose of not having a Writer supertrait on Hasher or on the H type parameter is to allow hashing algorithms that are not byte-stream oriented (e.g. Java-like algorithms). Unfortunately all primitive types in Rust are only defined for Hash<H> where H: Writer + Hasher, essentially forcing a byte-stream oriented hashing algorithm for all hashing.

Some examples of using this API are:

use std::hash::{Hash, Hasher, Writer, SipHasher};

impl<S: Hasher + Writer> Hash<S> for MyType {
    fn hash(&self, s: &mut S) {
        // don't want to hash field2

fn sip_hash<T: Hash<SipHasher>>(t: &T) -> u64 {
    let mut s = SipHasher::new_with_keys(0, 0);
    t.hash(&mut s);

Forcing many impl blocks to require Hasher + Writer becomes onerous over times and also requires at least 3 imports for a custom implementation of hash. Taking a generically hashable T is also somewhat cumbersome, especially if the hashing algorithm isn't known in advance.

Overall the std::hash API is generic enough that its usage is somewhat verbose and becomes tiresome over time to work with. This RFC strives to make this API easier to work with.

Forcing byte-stream oriented hashing

Much of the std::hash API today is oriented around hashing a stream of bytes (blocks of &[u8]). This is not a hard requirement by the API (discussed above), but in practice this is essentially what happens everywhere. This form of hashing is not always the most efficient, although it is often one of the more flexible forms of hashing.

Other languages such as Java and C++ have a hashing API that looks more like:

trait Hash {
    fn hash(&self) -> usize;

This expression of hashing is not byte-oriented but is also much less generic (an algorithm for hashing is predetermined by the type itself). This API is encodable with today's traits as:

struct Slot(u64);

impl Hash<Slot> for MyType {
    fn hash(&self, slot: &mut Slot) {
        *slot = Slot(self.precomputed_hash);

impl Hasher for Slot {
    type Output = u64;
    fn reset(&mut self) { *self = Slot(0); }
    fn finish(&self) -> u64 { self.0 }

This form of hashing (which is useful for performance sometimes) is difficult to work with primarily because of the frequent bounds on Writer for hashing.

Non-applicability for well-known hashing algorithms

One of the current aspirations for the std::hash module was to be appropriate for hashing algorithms such as MD5, SHA*, etc. The current API has proven inadequate, however, for the primary reason of hashing being so generic. For example it should in theory be possible to calculate the SHA1 hash of a byte slice via:

let data: &[u8] = ...;
let hash = std::hash::hash::<&[u8], Sha1>(data);

There are a number of pitfalls to this approach:

  • Due to slices being able to be hashed generically, each byte will be written individually to the Sha1 state, which is likely to not be very efficient.
  • Due to slices being able to be hashed generically, the length of the slice is first written to the Sha1 state, which is likely not desired.

The key observation is that the hash values produced in a Rust program are not reproducible outside of Rust. For this reason, APIs for reproducible hashes to be verified elsewhere will explicitly not be considered in the design for std::hash. It is expected that an external crate may wish to provide a trait for these hashing algorithms and it would not be bounded by std::hash::Hash, but instead perhaps a "byte container" of some form.

Detailed design

This RFC considers two possible designs as a replacement of today's std::hash API. One is a "minor refactoring" of the current API while the other is a much more radical change towards being conservative. This section will propose the minor refactoring change and the other may be found in the Alternatives section.


The new API of std::hash would be:

trait Hash {
    fn hash<H: Hasher>(&self, h: &mut H);

    fn hash_slice<H: Hasher>(data: &[Self], h: &mut H) {
        for piece in data {

trait Hasher {
    fn write(&mut self, data: &[u8]);
    fn finish(&self) -> u64;

    fn write_u8(&mut self, i: u8) { ... }
    fn write_i8(&mut self, i: i8) { ... }
    fn write_u16(&mut self, i: u16) { ... }
    fn write_i16(&mut self, i: i16) { ... }
    fn write_u32(&mut self, i: u32) { ... }
    fn write_i32(&mut self, i: i32) { ... }
    fn write_u64(&mut self, i: u64) { ... }
    fn write_i64(&mut self, i: i64) { ... }
    fn write_usize(&mut self, i: usize) { ... }
    fn write_isize(&mut self, i: isize) { ... }

This API is quite similar to today's API, but has a few tweaks:

  • The Writer trait has been removed by folding it directly into the Hasher trait. As part of this movement the Hasher trait grew a number of specialized write_foo methods which the primitives will call. This should help regain some performance losses where forcing a byte-oriented stream is a performance loss.

  • The Hasher trait no longer has a reset method.

  • The Hash trait's type parameter is on the method, not on the trait. This implies that the trait is no longer object-safe, but it is much more ergonomic to operate over generically.

  • The Hash trait now has a hash_slice method to slice a number of instances of Self at once. This will allow optimization of the Hash implementation of &[u8] to translate to a raw write as well as other various slices of primitives.

  • The Output associated type was removed in favor of an explicit u64 return from finish.

The purpose of this API is to continue to allow APIs to be generic over the hashing algorithm used. This would allow HashMap continue to use a randomly keyed SipHash as its default algorithm (e.g. continuing to provide DoS protection, more information on this below). An example encoding of the alternative API (proposed below) would look like:

impl Hasher for u64 {
    fn write(&mut self, data: &[u8]) {
        for b in data.iter() { self.write_u8(*b); }
    fn finish(&self) -> u64 { *self }

    fn write_u8(&mut self, i: u8) { *self = combine(*self, i); }
    // and so on...

HashMap and HashState

For both this recommendation as well as the alternative below, this RFC proposes removing the HashState trait and Hasher structure (as well as the hash_state module) in favor of the following API:

struct HashMap<K, V, H = DefaultHasher>;

impl<K: Eq + Hash, V> HashMap<K, V> {
    fn new() -> HashMap<K, V, DefaultHasher> {

impl<K: Eq, V, H: Fn(&K) -> u64> HashMap<K, V, H> {
    fn with_hasher(hasher: H) -> HashMap<K, V, H>;

impl<K: Hash> Fn(&K) -> u64 for DefaultHasher {
    fn call(&self, arg: &K) -> u64 {
        let (k1, k2) = self.siphash_keys();
        let mut s = SipHasher::new_with_keys(k1, k2);
        arg.hash(&mut s);

The precise details will be affected based on which design in this RFC is chosen, but the general idea is to move from a custom trait to the standard Fn trait for calculating hashes.


  • This design is a departure from the precedent set by many other languages. In doing so, however, it is arguably easier to implement Hash as it's more obvious how to feed in incremental state. We also do not lock ourselves into a particular hashing algorithm in case we need to alternate in the future.

  • Implementations of Hash cannot be specialized and are forced to operate generically over the hashing algorithm provided. This may cause a loss of performance in some cases. Note that this could be remedied by moving the type parameter to the trait instead of the method, but this would lead to a loss in ergonomics for generic consumers of T: Hash.

  • Manual implementations of Hash are somewhat cumbersome still by requiring a separate Hasher parameter which is not necessarily always desired.

  • The API of Hasher is approaching the realm of serialization/reflection and it's unclear whether its API should grow over time to support more basic Rust types. It would be unfortunate if the Hasher trait approached a full-blown Encoder trait (as rustc-serialize has).


As alluded to in the "Detailed design" section the primary alternative to this RFC, which still improves ergonomics, is to remove the generic-ness over the hashing algorithm.


The new API of std::hash would be:

trait Hash {
    fn hash(&self) -> usize;

fn combine(a: usize, b: usize) -> usize;

The Writer, Hasher, and SipHasher structures/traits would all be removed from std::hash. This definition is more or less the Rust equivalent of the Java/C++ hashing infrastructure. This API is a vast simplification of what exists today and allows implementations of Hash as well as consumers of Hash to quite ergonomically work with hash values as well as hashable objects.

Note: The choice of usize instead of u64 reflects C++'s choice here as well, but it is quite easy to use one instead of the other.

Hashing algorithm

With this definition of Hash, each type must pre-ordain a particular hash algorithm that it implements. Using an alternate algorithm would require a separate newtype wrapper.

Most implementations would still use #[derive(Hash)] which will leverage hash::combine to combine the hash values of aggregate fields. Manual implementations which only want to hash a select number of fields would look like:

impl Hash for MyType {
    fn hash(&self) -> usize {
        // ignore field2
        (&self.field1, &self.field3).hash()

A possible implementation of combine can be found in the boost source code.

HashMap and DoS protection

Currently one of the features of the standard library's HashMap implementation is that it by default provides DoS protection through two measures:

  1. A strong hashing algorithm, SipHash 2-4, is used which is fairly difficult to find collisions with.
  2. The SipHash algorithm is randomly seeded for each instance of HashMap. The algorithm is seeded with a 128-bit key.

These two measures ensure that each HashMap is randomly ordered, even if the same keys are inserted in the same order. As a result, it is quite difficult to mount a DoS attack against a HashMap as it is difficult to predict what collisions will happen.

The Hash trait proposed above, however, does not allow SipHash to be implemented generally any more. For example #[derive(Hash)] will no longer leverage SipHash. Additionally, there is no input of state into the hash function, so there is no random state per-HashMap to generate different hashes with.

Denial of service attacks against hash maps are no new phenomenon, they are well known and have been reported in Python, Ruby (other ruby), Perl, and many other languages/frameworks. Rust has taken a fairly proactive step from the start by using a strong and randomly seeded algorithm since HashMap's inception.

In general the standard library does not provide many security-related guarantees beyond memory safety. For example the new Read::read_to_end function passes a safe buffer of uninitialized data to implementations of read using various techniques to prevent memory safety issues. A DoS attack against a hash map is such a common and well known exploit, however, that this RFC considers it critical to consider the design of Hash and its relationship with HashMap.

Mitigation of DoS attacks

Other languages have mitigated DoS attacks via a few measures:

  • C++ specifies that the return value of hash is not guaranteed to be stable across program executions, allowing for a global salt to be mixed into hashes calculated.
  • Ruby has a global seed which is randomly initialized on startup and is used when hashing blocks of memory (e.g. strings).
  • PHP and Tomcat have added limits to the maximum amount of keys allowed from a POST HTTP request (to limit the size of auto-generated maps). This strategy is not necessarily applicable to the standard library.

It has been claimed, however, that a global seed may only mitigate some of the simplest attacks. The primary downside is that a long-running process may leak the "global seed" through some other form which could compromise maps in that specific process.

One possible route to mitigating these attacks with the Hash trait above could be:

  1. All primitives (integers, etc) are combined with a global random seed which is initialized on first use.
  2. Strings will continue to use SipHash as the default algorithm and the initialization keys will be randomly initialized on first use.

Given the information available about other DoS mitigations in hash maps for other languages, however, it is not clear that this will provide the same level of DoS protection that is available today. For example @DaGenix explains well that we may not be able to provide any form of DoS protection guarantee at all.

Alternative Drawbacks

  • One of the primary drawbacks to the proposed Hash trait is that it is now not possible to select an algorithm that a type should be hashed with. Instead each type's definition of hashing can only be altered through the use of a newtype wrapper.

  • Today most Rust types can be hashed using a byte-oriented algorithm, so any number of these algorithms (e.g. SipHash, Fnv hashing) can be used. With this new Hash definition they are not easily accessible.

  • Due to the lack of input state to hashing, the HashMap type can no longer randomly seed each individual instance but may at best have one global seed. This consequently elevates the risk of a DoS attack on a HashMap instance.

  • The method of combining hashes together is not proven among other languages and is not guaranteed to provide the guarantees we want. This departure from the may have unknown consequences.

Unresolved questions

  • To what degree should HashMap attempt to prevent DoS attacks? Is it the responsibility of the standard library to do so or should this be provided as an external crate on
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