Permalink
Find file Copy path
Fetching contributors…
Cannot retrieve contributors at this time
128 lines (98 sloc) 5.51 KB

Summary

This RFC proposes to allow library authors to use a #[deprecated] attribute, with optional since = "version" and note = "free text"fields. The compiler can then warn on deprecated items, while rustdoc can document their deprecation accordingly.

Motivation

Library authors want a way to evolve their APIs; which also involves deprecating items. To do this cleanly, they need to document their intentions and give their users enough time to react.

Currently there is no support from the language for this oft-wanted feature (despite a similar feature existing for the sole purpose of evolving the Rust standard library). This RFC aims to rectify that, while giving a pleasant interface to use while maximizing usefulness of the metadata introduced.

Detailed design

Public API items (both plain fns, methods, trait- and inherent implementations as well as const definitions, type definitions, struct fields and enum variants) can be given a #[deprecated] attribute. All possible fields are optional:

  • since is defined to contain the version of the crate at the time of deprecating the item, following the semver scheme. Rustc does not know about versions, thus the content of this field is not checked (but will be by external lints, e.g. rust-clippy.
  • note should contain a human-readable string outlining the reason for deprecating the item and/or what to use instead. While this field is not required, library authors are strongly advised to make use of it. The string is interpreted as plain unformatted text (for now) so that rustdoc can include it in the item's documentation without messing up the formatting.

On use of a deprecated item, rustc will warn of the deprecation. Note that during Cargo builds, warnings on dependencies get silenced. While this has the upside of keeping things tidy, it has a downside when it comes to deprecation:

Let's say I have my llogiq crate that depends on foobar which uses a deprecated item of serde. I will never get the warning about this unless I try to build foobar directly. We may want to create a service like crater to warn on use of deprecated items in library crates, however this is outside the scope of this RFC.

rustdoc will show deprecation on items, with a [deprecated] box that may optionally show the version and note where available.

The language reference will be extended to describe this feature as outlined in this RFC. Authors shall be advised to leave their users enough time to react before removing a deprecated item.

The internally used feature can either be subsumed by this or possibly renamed to avoid a name clash.

Intended Use

Crate author Anna wants to evolve her crate's API. She has found that one type, Foo, has a better implementation in the rust-foo crate. Also she has written a frob(Foo) function to replace the earlier Foo::frobnicate(self) method.

So Anna first bumps the version of her crate (because deprecation is always done on a version change) from 0.1.1 to 0.2.1. She also adds the following prefix to the Foo type:

extern crate rust_foo;

#[deprecated(since = "0.2.1",
    note="The rust_foo version is more advanced, and this crate's will likely be discontinued")]
struct Foo { .. }

Users of her crate will see the following once they cargo update and build:

src/foo_use.rs:27:5: 27:8 warning: Foo is marked deprecated as of version 0.2.1
src/foo_use.rs:27:5: 27:8 note: The rust_foo version is more advanced, and this crate's will likely be discontinued

Rust-clippy will likely gain more sophisticated checks for deprecation:

  • future_deprecation will warn on items marked as deprecated, but with a version lower than their crates', while current_deprecation will warn only on those items marked as deprecated where the version is equal or lower to the crates' one.
  • deprecation_syntax will check that the since field really contains a semver number and not some random string.

Clippy users can then activate the clippy checks and deactivate the standard deprecation checks.

Drawbacks

  • Once the feature is public, we can no longer change its design

Alternatives

  • Do nothing
  • make the since field required and check that it's a single version
  • require either reason or use be present
  • reason could include markdown formatting
  • rename the reason field to note to clarify its broader usage. (done!)
  • add a note field and make reason a field with specific meaning, perhaps even predefine a number of valid reason strings, as JEP277 currently does
  • Add a use field containing a plain text of what to use instead
  • Add a use field containing a path to some function, type, etc. to replace the current feature. Currently with the rustc-private feature, people are describing a replacement in the reason field, which is clearly not the original intention of the field
  • Optionally, cargo could offer a new dependency category: "doc-dependencies" which are used to pull in other crates' documentations to link them (this is obviously not only relevant to deprecation)

Unresolved questions

  • What other restrictions should we introduce now to avoid being bound to a possibly flawed design?
  • Can / Should the std library make use of the #[deprecated] extensions?
  • Bikeshedding: Are the names good enough?