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Target tier policy #2803

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- Feature Name: `target_tier_policy`
- Start Date: 2019-09-20
- RFC PR: [rust-lang/rfcs#0000](https://github.com/rust-lang/rfcs/pull/0000)
- Rust Issue: [rust-lang/rust#0000](https://github.com/rust-lang/rust/issues/0000)

# Summary
[summary]: #summary

We should have an official, objective policy for adding new (tier 3) targets,
and for raising targets to tier 2 (with rustup builds) or even tier 1.

# Motivation
[motivation]: #motivation

Rust developers regularly implement new targets in the Rust compiler, and
reviewers of pull requests for such new targets would like a clear, consistent
policy to cite for accepting or rejecting such targets. Currently, individual
reviewers do not know what overall policy to apply, and whether to apply solely
their own judgment or defer to a Rust governance team.

Rust developers regularly ask how they can raise an existing target to tier 2
(and in particular how they can make it available via rustup), and occasionally
ask what it would take to add a new tier 1 target. The Rust project has no
clear policy for target tiers. People not only don't know, they don't know who
to ask or where to start.

(See https://forge.rust-lang.org/platform-support.html for more information
about targets and tiers.)

# Guide-level explanation
[guide-level-explanation]: #guide-level-explanation

At a high level, the three tiers break down as follows:

- Tier 3 targets provide no guarantees of support.
- Tier 2 targets will always build, but may not pass tests.
- Tier 1 targets will always build and pass tests.

Adding a new tier 3 target imposes minimal requirements; we focus primarily on
avoiding disruption to other ongoing Rust development.

Tier 2 and tier 1 targets place work on the Rust community as a whole, to avoid
breaking the target. Thus, these tiers require commensurate efforts from the
maintainers of the target, to demonstrate value and to minimize any disruptions
to ongoing Rust development.

# Reference-level explanation
[reference-level-explanation]: #reference-level-explanation

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@farnz

farnz Nov 6, 2019

I think this is a good point to make it clear that you should meet the requirements for a tier before opening the asoociated promotion PR.

Something like:

You should normally ensure that your target meet the tier requirements before posting a PR.
In general, we would prefer to delay adding a target to a tier until it is clear that the target
has been meeting the standards set for the tier for a significant time period.

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@carols10cents

carols10cents Nov 8, 2019

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for a significant time period.

If we add this language, we should define in this RFC what the time period is. A release cycle? 2 release cycles?

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@Centril

Centril Nov 8, 2019

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That time should ideally also be a function of the tier, with more time for tier 1.

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@Lokathor

Lokathor Nov 8, 2019

I would expect something more, like 6 months, which means yes we need to be more specific it two people are picking very different assumptions.

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@XAMPPRocky

XAMPPRocky Nov 8, 2019

What would a PR promoting a tier look like? As far as I know there's no tight coupling between a tier and the code & infrastructure. It's not like we have a TOML file that enforces the tier structure, it's mainly a social commitment. You could make a PR updating the documentation on forge, but this doesn't seem like best place to have the promotion discussion.

It would also be reasonable for the procedure for promoting or demoting to be out of scope of this RFC. Since we've never done this before I think it might be best to create the procedure when we actually want to promote a platform, rather than discuss and try to reason around a hypothetical promotion.

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@farnz

farnz Nov 8, 2019

What would a PR promoting a tier look like? As far as I know there's no tight coupling between a tier and the code & infrastructure. It's not like we have a TOML file that enforces the tier structure, it's mainly a social commitment. You could make a PR updating the documentation on forge, but this doesn't seem like best place to have the promotion discussion.

It would also be reasonable for the procedure for promoting or demoting to be out of scope of this RFC. Since we've never done this before I think it might be best to create the procedure when we actually want to promote a platform, rather than discuss and try to reason around a hypothetical promotion.

The bit of my comment I care about is telling people that promotion to a higher tier (or addition to tier 3) trails meeting the requirements.

In other words, let's call out that you not only can meet the standards for any of the support tiers without being promoted into that tier, but that you should expect to meet the standards first, for long enough that people watching the process can look at your historic behaviour, and then go into the tier promotion process, whatever that might be.

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@Lokathor

Lokathor Nov 8, 2019

In the past I've been told that the bar for Tier 3 is as low as "file a PR to get your target specification into rustc's files, and make sure core can build".

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@jethrogb

jethrogb Nov 9, 2019

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What would a PR promoting a tier look like?

Isn't that obvious? It's a PR that changes the CI such that it now gates changes to master in accordance with the tier policy. Like rust-lang/rust#57130.

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@XAMPPRocky

XAMPPRocky Nov 9, 2019

@jethrogb Your answer doesn't actually describe what that PR would be though. What does a person need to use, where do they need to add it, how can they test it, where do they document it, who do they ask to review it?

Your PR example for instance is actually a good example of it's not so obvious.

As I understand that PR only makes fortanix a tier 2 target platform, if I wanted to make it so I could build rustc, cargo, or tools on fortanix, what would I need to do?

Elsewhere in this thread, team members have said that promotion should go through the infra, release, and compiler teams. However that wasn't the process that, that PR went through, so who should I be asking for a review for promotion?

I think the answers to these questions are only obvious if you have picked up on this information through osmosis, which is why it should be documented. Though as I said I don't think this needs to be included with this policy though, it could be added later.

Requirements for each tier:

## Tier 3 target policy

At this tier, the Rust project provides no official support for a target, so we
place minimal requirements on the introduction of targets.

- No central decision is required to add a new tier 3 target. Reviewers may
always use their own best judgment regarding the quality of work, and the
suitability of a target for the Rust project.
- If a reviewer wishes to consult a broader team for additional guidance, they
should contact the compiler team.
- If a proposed target or target-specific patch substantially changes code
shared with other targets (not just target-specific code), the reviewer
should consult the compiler team.
- If the proposer of a target wishes to appeal the rejection of a target, they
may contact the compiler team.
- Tier 3 targets must use naming consistent with any existing targets; for
instance, a target for a similar CPU or OS should not gratuitously use an
inconsistent name for that CPU or OS. Targets should normally use the same
names as used elsewhere in the broader ecosystem (such as in other
toolchains), unless they have a very good reason to diverge.
- Tier 3 targets may have unusual requirements to build or use, but must not
create legal issues for the Rust project or for developers who work on those
targets.
- Where possible, tier 3 targets may wish to provide documentation for the Rust
community for how to build and run tests for the platform, ideally using
emulation.
- Tier 3 targets must not impose burden on the authors of pull requests, or
other developers in the community, to maintain the target. In particular,
do not post comments (automated or manual) on a PR that suggests a block on
the PR based on the target. (A PR author may choose to help with a tier 3
target but is not required to.)
- Patches adding or updating tier 3 targets must not break any existing target.

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@Ixrec

Ixrec Nov 4, 2019

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Is "any existing target" supposed to mean just tier 1+2 targets, or does it include other tier 3 targets too? (are there any groups of closely related tier 3 targets where this could plausibly become a practical issue?)

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@farnz

farnz Nov 6, 2019

I would hope it includes other tier 3 targets. For example, if your target implements RV32IMC, you shouldn't be allowed to break the behaviour of atomics on a target that implements RV32GC by using target-specific features that let you emulate atomics on your platform for all RISC-V users.

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@Aaron1011

Aaron1011 Nov 9, 2019

Does this mean that platform-independent changes to rustc (e.g. changing an internal libstd method) are allowed to break tier 3 targets, but platform-specific changes for a specific tier 3 target may not break other tier 3 targets?

- If a tier 3 target shows no signs of activity and has not built for some
time, and removing it would improve the quality of the Rust codebase, we may
post a PR to remove it; any such PR will be CCed to people who have
previously worked on the platform, to check potential interest.

## Tier 2 target policy

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Centril Nov 4, 2019

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One concerning aspect of e.g. tier 2 targets is that they sometimes may use unimplemented!() in the standard library and then place a burden on PRs such as rust-lang/rust#56410. It would be good to discuss the use of unimplemented!().


At this tier, the Rust project guarantees that a target builds, and will reject
patches that fail to build on a target. Thus, we place requirements that ensure
the target will not block forward progress of the Rust project.

- Any new tier 2 target requires compiler team approval based on these
requirements.
- In addition, the infrastructure team must approve the integration of the
target into CI, and the CI-related requirements. This review and approval
will typically take place in the PR adding the target to CI.
- A tier 2 target must have value to people other than its maintainers.
- Any new tier 2 target must have a designated team of developers on call to
consult on target-specific build-breaking issues, or if necessary to develop
target-specific language or library implementation details. (This team should
in almost all cases have at least 2 developers.)
- The target must not place undue burden on Rust developers not specifically
concerned with that target. Rust developers may be expected to not
gratuitously break a tier 2 target, but are not expected to become experts in
every tier 2 target, and are not expected to provide target-specific
implementations for every tier 2 target.
- Where possible, tier 2 targets should provide documentation for the Rust
community for how to build and run tests for the platform, ideally using
emulation.
- The target development team should not only fix target-specific issues, but
should use any such issue as an opportunity to educate the Rust community
about portability to their target, and enhance their documentation of the
target.
- The target must build reliably in CI.
- Building the target must not take substantially longer than other targets.
- Tier 2 targets must support building on the existing targets used for CI
infrastructure.
- Tier 2 targets must not impose burden on the authors of pull requests, or
other developers in the community, to ensure that tests pass for the target.
In particular, do not post comments (automated or manual) on a PR that
suggests a block on the PR based on tests failing for the target. (A PR
author must not break the build of a tier 2 target, but need not ensure the
tests pass for a tier 2 target, even if notified that they fail.)
- The target development team should regularly run the testsuite for the
target, and should fix any test failures in a reasonably timely fashion.
- A tier 2 target may be demoted or removed if it no longer meets these
requirements. Any proposal for demotion or removal will be CCed to people who
have previously worked on the platform, and will be communicated widely to
the Rust community before being dropped from a stable release.

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@jethrogb

jethrogb Nov 6, 2019

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@alexcrichton has previously made this comment about a tier 2 target:

As with all other platforms we reserve the right to turn this off at any point in time to land otherwise critical changes to the standard library. In practice we've only done this once or twice (adding u128 and disabling some targets is what comes to mind), but I just want to make sure that it's explicit that we're not going to provide a long-term guarantee that this target is available one every single nightly in the future.

Is this stance still intended to be part of the tier 2 policy? If so, is that intended to be captured by this point? I feel like it could be made more clear.

- All tier 3 requirements apply.

Note: some tier 2 platforms additionally have binaries built to run on them as
a host (such as `rustc` and `cargo`). Such a platform must meet all the
requirements above, and must additionally get the compiler and infrastructure
team to approve the building of host tools.

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@pietroalbini

pietroalbini Nov 4, 2019

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Do we want to mention what happens with other tools as well? For example, we build Clippy, rustfmt and such on ARM, but they've been broken for a while.

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@jethrogb

jethrogb Nov 6, 2019

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Related: As discussed when resolving rust-lang/rust#65335, some people including myself think it's a good idea to build "hello world" with the dist artifacts for all tier 2 targets. Should we capture this in this RFC?


## Tier 1 target policy

At this tier, the Rust project guarantees that a target builds and passes all
tests, and will reject patches that fail to build or pass the testsuite on a
target. We hold tier 1 targets to our highest standard of requirements.

- Any new tier 1 target requires compiler team approval based on these
requirements.
- In addition, the infrastructure team must approve the integration of the
target into CI, and the CI-related requirements. This review and approval
will typically take place in the PR adding the target to CI.
- In addition, the release team must approve the long-term viability of the
target, and the additional work of supporting the target.
- Tier 1 targets must have substantial, widespread interest within the
developer community, and must serve the ongoing needs of multiple production

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@rylev

rylev Nov 4, 2019

What are the risks associated with a high profile (i.e., well known and well funded) user of Rust needing support for a target that (at least in the short/medium term) is not deemed useful by the wider community? Does this risk a split of the ecosystem or an exit of that user from the Rust community? Presumably targets can be de-facto tier 1 without having official status, and it would be up to the high profile user to work with the community to ensure the target meets their needs without inconveniencing wider Rust development.

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@Centril

Centril Nov 5, 2019

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Do you have anything specific in mind here?

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@XAMPPRocky

XAMPPRocky Nov 6, 2019

What are the risks associated with a high profile (i.e., well known and well funded) user of Rust needing support for a target that (at least in the short/medium term) is not deemed useful by the wider community

Would you expand on what you would mean by support? It's not likely that the Rust community would implement and maintain platform that they don't deem useful, a user is however free maintain a platform themselves and submit patches to Rust (as along as they also follow the rules for that tier).

Does this risk a split of the ecosystem or an exit of that user from the Rust community?

I don't think platform support alone is controversial enough for a split or exit. It would require other external factors as well. (e.g. providing a level of support within a tight timeline, or politics.) Is your concern that to develop the target to a tier 1 quality might cause too much churn for Rust developers to review? If this was the case it wouldn't be unreasonable for the user to have a fork for them to work on, and upstream patches at a longer pace (kind of like how rust treats LLVM) until the platform is more stable in rustc, though I suspect this wouldn't be needed in reality.

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@rylev

rylev Nov 7, 2019

Let's take Fuchsia as an example. This is unlikely to be important to anyone outside of Google in the near time. Are there risks associated with Google not having wider community support for that target?

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@Centril

Centril Nov 8, 2019

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@rylev That's a bit of an open-ended question. =P

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@XAMPPRocky

XAMPPRocky Nov 8, 2019

@rylev Well I think firstly it's important to know whether you the user want the platform to be a host or target platform, e.g. Do you want developers to be able to build and run their code on the platform itself or is it satisfactory if they only compile to that platform and use another for development? A target platform doesn't need support everything a host platform does, so it would be lower impact. At the cost of not being able to develop on the platform itself, which may be fine depending on your use case.

With this there's the risk of having to put in the initial work investment and continued maintenance to ensure that the platform continues to compile, build, and work for the end software being built with new compilers. This cost increases with the amount of tooling you want to offer on the host platform and how much you want the platform to be tier 1 quality. There's also the work to implement the standard library for your platform if it's radically different than others.

users of Rust across multiple organizations or projects. A tier 1 target may
be demoted or removed if it becomes obsolete or no longer meets this
requirement.
- The target must build and pass tests reliably in CI.
- Building the target and running the testsuite for the target must not take
substantially longer than other targets.
- If running the testsuite requires additional infrastructure (such as systems
running the target), the target development team shall arrange to provide
such resources to the Rust project, to the satisfaction and approval of the
Rust infrastructure team.
- Tier 1 targets must provide documentation for the Rust community for how to
build and run tests for the platform, using emulation if possible, or
dedicated hardware if necessary.
- A tier 1 target may be demoted or removed if it no longer meets these
requirements. Any proposal for demotion or removal will be communicated
widely to the Rust community, both when initially proposed and before being
dropped from a stable release.
- All tier 2 requirements apply.

# Drawbacks
[drawbacks]: #drawbacks

While these criteria attempt to document the policy, that policy still involves
human judgment. Targets must fulfill the spirit of the requirements as well, as
determined by the judgment of the approving teams.

# Rationale and alternatives
[rationale-and-alternatives]: #rationale-and-alternatives

The set of approving teams for each tier arose out of discussion with the
various teams involved with aspects of the Rust project impacted by new
targets.


# Prior art
[prior-art]: #prior-art

This attempts to formalize and document Rust policy around targets and
architectures. https://forge.rust-lang.org/release/platform-support.html
documents some of that policy.

Future expansions of such policy may find requirements from other communities

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@ehuss

ehuss Nov 6, 2019

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I assume Rust's tiered approach is derived from firefox's tiers, is that true? I tried to find other languages/tools using a similar tiered approach, but only found node had something similar. I know sometimes in web development projects will have "grades" for browser support.

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useful as examples, such as Debian's [arch
policy](https://release.debian.org/bullseye/arch_policy.html) and [archive
criteria](https://ftp-master.debian.org/archive-criteria.html).

# Unresolved questions

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@rylev

rylev Nov 4, 2019

This document seems to aim to give high level guidance vs specifying specific procedure when it comes to who exactly is responsible for the final decision for promoting and demoting a target to different tiers and how exactly that decision should be made. Should there be specific guidance as to who gets ultimate say if there is open disagreement with a decision? Is the specific policy of how such a decision is made left up to the discretion of the responsible team and is this document meant to be the only guidance to those teams for how they should make those decisions?

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@XAMPPRocky

XAMPPRocky Nov 4, 2019

@rylev That is an interesting question, since to my knowledge there haven't been any intentional promotions or demotions of a platform since 1.0. To me platform promotions are a core team decision as it involves coordinating with multiple teams to provide the stability to the target.

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@pietroalbini

pietroalbini Nov 4, 2019

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The way I see it, each of the three teams involved in this (compiler, infra, release) has a clearly defined stake in the decision, and if any of them is not comfortable promoting the target they should be able to veto the promotion:

  • If the compiler team can't ensure "tier 1 quality" for the target and nobody is available to do the development work there is little point in promoting the target.
  • If the infrastructure team can't provide CI for the platform the only guarantee we give for tier 1 platforms (they're tested on CI) goes out of the window.
  • If the release team doesn't think the platform is viable in the long term or that shipping releases for it is going to be too cumbersome why are we doing the promotion?

I don't see how the core team needs to get involved in the decision.

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XAMPPRocky Nov 4, 2019

@pietroalbini I would call a decision made between the compiler, infra, and release leads a core team decision, and I don't see why it couldn't involve other team's if they had concerns, and we already have the core team meetings which are recorded and have the public portion published.

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@Centril

Centril Nov 4, 2019

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The leads are not the teams tho. That's a difference between like 3 and 30 people. We currently don't give special significance to team leaders this way and I don't see why we would start with a decision of such importance as tier 1 status.

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XAMPPRocky Nov 5, 2019

No one is saying that three people are making the full decision, however there won't be a RFC that requires 30 people to approve. The point of a team lead is to represent their team and its members, it doesn't require everyone to be personally involved. RFC 1068 states that the core team "Sets the priorities and release schedule", and "Focuses on broad, cross-cutting concerns". Now that document is quite old, however I don't think that section has changed much, and to me platform target support falls under both those responsibilities.

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Centril Nov 5, 2019

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No one is saying that three people are making the full decision, however there won't be a RFC that requires 30 people to approve.

I don't see anything wrong with 30 people (probably less as some people are on several teams) approving a decision as big as adding a new tier 1 target. It's not like we do that every day, in fact, it hasn't happened for years.

The point of a team lead is to represent their team and its members, it doesn't require everyone to be personally involved.

I think we can let the team decide, if they want, to delegate to someone on the team if it is a regular task that needs delegation for time-resource reasons. As for tier 3 targets, they are added regularly by anyone familiar with the compiler internals of adding target on a regular basis; it doesn't even require approval from any team.

RFC 1068 states that the core team "Sets the priorities and release schedule", and "Focuses on broad, cross-cutting concerns". Now that document is quite old, however I don't think that section has changed much, and to me platform target support falls under both those responsibilities.

I don't think it does; The domain expertise required for making decisions about targets mainly resides in the compiler, infra, and release teams. It may not reside in the team leads of those teams but it should in the collective knowledge of each whole team.

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XAMPPRocky Nov 5, 2019

I don't think it does; The domain expertise required for making decisions about targets mainly resides in the compiler, infra, and release teams. It may not reside in the team leads of those teams but it should in the collective knowledge of each whole team.

The platform support promotion isn't solely a technical decision. Tiers are a form of guarantee not a statement of intent. To discuss whether a platform should be promoted we'd have to already have the compiler support and release infrastructure required in place and functioning. The technical requirements are a prerequisite to even having the discussion of promotion.

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Centril Nov 5, 2019

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Judging whether we have e.g. the CI budget or whether e.g. whether there aren't any unimplemented!()s are indeed some sort of technical requirements. However, the purpose of team review here is to make sure that problems don't slip through the cracks. Having the watchful eye of many people rather than just 3 team leads, who are typically some of the most busy people on the team, makes it more likely that things don't slip through.

Also, I don't really understand why non-technical decisions would better be made by leads rather than by the whole team (again, within the discretion of the team to delegate, sometimes to someone who isn't the lead).

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XAMPPRocky Nov 6, 2019

@Centril Sorry I don't think I'm being clear. What I'm trying to say is that in order to get to the point where we could have a discussion about promoting a platform, those technical problems would have to already be solved. For example; we wouldn't make the decision to promote x86_64-unknown-redox from tier 2 to tier 1 and then try to make that platform tier 1 quality. That would be putting the cart before the horse. To me a platform should already be de-facto tier 1 before we would commit to making that happen, and that is something that part is something that is up to the teams to agree to work together to provide that.

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Centril Nov 8, 2019

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@XAMPPRocky Oh sure; that seems right, but the function of team review would be to do a final verification that it is indeed the case that a tier 2 platform satisfies the wrt. the technical requirements of libstd impl maturity, CI budget, maintainers, etc. are met for tier 1 and can be promoted.

[unresolved-questions]: #unresolved-questions

- Where, precisely, should we post the official policy?

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Centril Nov 4, 2019

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The forge, probably?

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XAMPPRocky Nov 4, 2019

Yeah I think PR might be better suited as a PR directly to forge with a RFC decision like rust-forge#266.

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Centril Nov 4, 2019

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I prefer to have the RFC here rather than on the forge for the sake of visibility and community participation.

- How should we track the maintainers of a target, so that we can page them if
we need an issue addressed involving that target? Can we do so using github
teams, so that we can mention them in an issue or PR to get their attention?

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Centril Nov 4, 2019

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GH teams seems good yeah; any drawbacks?

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pietroalbini Nov 4, 2019

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The drawback of GitHub membership is the "Member" badge, which might give external contributors' comments an "official" appearance. Instead we could add them (like icebreakers-llvm) as a "marker team" in the team repo, and ping them with:

@rustbot ping team-name

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XAMPPRocky Nov 4, 2019

I would hesitate on adding a whole bunch of teams without being sure that it's worth the overhead. At least initially I think putting a table at the end of this document containing the platforms and the people who maintain them, would be enough for most cases, and we can add teams for platforms that have a large enough group of maintainers.


# Future possibilities
[future-possibilities]: #future-possibilities

Eventually, as more targets seek tier 1 status, we may want to document more
criteria used to evaluate requirements such as "long-term viability of the
target". We should also update these requirements if corner cases arise.

Some of our existing ports may not meet all of these criteria today. We may
wish to audit existing ports against these criteria, but this RFC does not
constitute a commitment to do so in a timely fashion.

This RFC should not serve as the canonical home of the most up-to-date version
of this policy; the official policy should live on rust-lang.org and in
official documentation.
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