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Alive-NJ is a reimplementation of the Automated LLVM's InstCombine Verifier, written by Nuno Lopes, David Menendez, Santosh Nagarakatte, and John Regehr and detailed in the paper "Provably Correct Peephole Optimizations with Alive", presented at PLDI 2015.

Alive-NJ is intended to facilitate experimentation with Alive semantics and extension of Alive into new areas.


Alive requires Python 2.7 and Z3 4.3.2 or later.

Z3 can be obtained from


To verify all the optimizations in a file:

./ [file [file...]]

Alive-NJ reads from standard input if no arguments are given.

To get a list of options:

./ --help

Differences from Alive

Alive-NJ adds these features:

  • Support for floating-point
    • half, float, double, fp128, and x86_fp80 types
    • Instructions: fadd, fsub, fmul, fdiv, frem, fcmp, fptosi, fptoui, sitofp, uitofp, fpext, fptrunc
    • Symbolic constants, integer literals, and expressions using +, -, *, /, and % may be integer or floating point
    • Floating-point literals
    • Special values nan, inf, -inf, and -0.0
    • Precondition comparisons use IEEE semantics for floats (thus, C == 0.0 is satisfied when C is positive or negative zero, and C == nan is never satisfied)
    • Predicate fpsame(C1,C2) is satisfied when C1 and C2 are structurally equal (meaning fpsame(nan,nan) is true, but fpsame(0.0, -0.0) is not)
  • Full replaceability of undef: If %x is undef, then xor %x, %x is undef
  • New constant symbols may be defined in the target, for example, C2 = trunc(C1). These symbols are in scope in the precondition and target, so zext(C2) == C1 is a valid precondition. Note that, unlike trunc(C1), all uses of C2 will have the same type.
  • Checks for compile-time undefined behavior. For example, a precondition C1 % C2 == 0 will be rejected unless C2 is guaranteed to be nonzero.
  • An explicit poison value.
  • Support for the recently-proposed freeze instruction.
  • Choice of semantics for verification, using the --translator option. Available translators include:
    • smtundef Uses undef when the conditions of fast-math attributes are violated.
    • smtpoison Uses poison when the conditions of fast-math attributes are violated.
    • poisononly Allows the freeze instruction, and prevents poison from propagating through the unchosen branch of a select instruction.

We have found the following bugs with the floating point support in Alive-NJ:

Alive-NJ does not include, or does not fully implement, these features:

  • C++ code generation
  • Flag inference
  • Memory operations (alloca, store, load, getelementpointer)
  • Pointer types
  • Composition of optimizations and non-termination checking

Precondition Inference

Alive-NJ includes a tool for inferring preconditions for Alive optimizations, detailed in the paper "Alive-Infer: Data-Driven Precondition Inference for Peephole Optimizations in LLVM". You might use this tool if an optimization you have developed is invalid, and you need to find a stronger precondition, or if you want to weaken the precondition of an optimization so that it can be used on more programs.


To infer preconditions for all optimizations given in a file:

./ [file [file...]]

Alive-Infer reads from standard input if no files are given.

To get a list of options:

./ --help

Most options can be negated. For example, --incompletes vs --no-incompletes. In case of a conflict, the last option wins.

Alive-Infer only returns preconditions which are valid, meaning they reject all input programs where the optimization would change the semantics. Alive-Infer attempts to find preconditions which accept all input programs where the optimization is valid. This may result in too-complex preconditions, or require too much time to run.

If --incompletes is set, Alive-Infer will also generate valid and succinct preconditions which may exclude some input programs where the optimization is valid.

Input format

Alive-Infer extends the Alive language with headers which provide more information to the inference engine. To illustrate:

Name: AndOrXor:1628-1
Feature: isPowerOf2(-C2 ^ -C1)
Feature: -C2 ^ -C1 == (C3-C2) ^ (C3-C1)
Feature: abs(C1-C2) u> C3
Assume: C1 != 0 && C2 != 0
Pre: C1 u> C3 && C2 u> C3 && isPowerOf2(C1 ^ C2)
  %a1     = add i29 %A, C1
  %a2     = add %A, C2
  %cmp1   = icmp ult %a1, C3
  %cmp2   = icmp ult %a2, C3
  %r      = or %cmp1, %cmp2
  %newand = and %A, ~(C1^C2)
  %newadd = add %newand, umax(C1, C2)
  %r      = icmp ult %newadd, C3

Feature: headers suggest predicates to the inference engine. Use --no-features to ignore these headers.

Assume: headers indicate conditions that should never occur. The precondition is not required to accept or reject input programs which violate the assumptions. Use --no-assumptions to ignore these headers.

Pre: headers are normally ignored during inference. However, certain options tell Alive-Infer to use this specified precondition:

  • If --pre-features is set, Alive-Infer will treat the predicates in Pre: as if they had been suggested using Feature:.
  • If --assume-pre is set, Alive-Infer will treat Pre: as if it were Assume:.
  • If --strengthen is set, Alive-Infer will attempt to find a precondition which makes the optimization valid and implies the given precondition.


If you find yourself using the same options frequently, you can customize by creating a copy and adding keyword arguments to its call to main().

For example, to make --pre-features set by default, use:

main(pre_features = True)


Alive-Infer does not infer predicates involving dataflow analysis, such as WillNotOverflowSignedAdd or MaskedValueIsZero, or type casts, such as zext and trunc. Alive-Infer does not currently support floating-point.


Alive (Automated LLVM's InstCombine Verifier) with automated reasoning for both integer and floating point peephole optimizations in LLVM






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