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Spy is a lightweight stubbing framework with support for method spies, constant stubs, and object mocks.

Spy supports ruby 2.7.0+.

Spy features that were completed were tested against the rspec-mocks tests so it covers all cases that rspec-mocks does.

Inspired by the spy api of the jasmine javascript testing framework.

Why use this instead of rspec-mocks, mocha, or etc

  • Spy will raise error when you try to stub/spy a method that doesn't exist
    • when you change your method name your unit tests will break
    • no more fantasy tests
  • Spy arity matches original method
    • Your tests will raise an error if you use the wrong arity
  • Spy visibility matches original method
    • Your tests will raise an error if you try to call the method incorrectly
  • Simple call log api
    • easier to read tests
    • use ruby to test ruby instead of a dsl
  • no expectations
    • really who thought that was a good idea?
  • absolutely no polution of global object space
  • no polution of instance variables for stubbed objects

Fail faster, code faster.

Why not to use this

  • mocking null objects is not supported(yet)
  • no argument matchers for Spy::Subroutine#has_been_called_with
  • cannot watch all calls to an object to check order in which they are called
  • cannot transfer nested constants when stubbing a constant
    • i don't think anybody uses this anyway
    • nobody on github does
  • #with is not supported
    • you can usually just check the call logs.
    • if you do need to use this. It is probably a code smell. You either need to abstract your method more or add separate tests.
  • you want to use dumb double, Spy has smart mocks, they are better
  • you use mock_model and stub_model


Add this line to your application's Gemfile:

gem 'spy'

And then execute:

$ bundle

Or install it yourself as:

$ gem install spy


Method Stubs

A method stub overrides a pre-existing method and records all calls to specified method. You can set the spy to return either the original method or your own custom implementation.

Spy support 2 different ways of spying an existing method on an object.

Spy.on(book, title: "East of Eden")
Spy.on(book, :title).and_return("East of Eden")
Spy.on(book, :title).and_return { "East of Eden" }

book.title  #=> "East of Eden"

Spy will raise an error if you try to stub on a method that doesn't exist. You can force the creation of a stub on method that didn't exist but it really isn't suggested., :flamethrower).hook(force:true).and_return("burnninante")

You can also stub instance methods of Classes and Modules. This is equivalent to rspec-mock's allow_any_instance_of(Module)

Spy.on_instance_method(Book, :title).and_return("Cannery Row") "Siddhartha").title   #=> "Cannery Row" "The Big Cheese").title   #=> "Cannery Row"

Test Mocks

A test mock is an object that quacks like a given class but will raise an error when the method is not stubbed. Spy will not let you stub a method that wasn't on the mocked class. You can spy on the classes and call through to the original method.

book = Spy.mock(Book) # Must be a class
Spy.on(book, first_name: "Neil", last_name: "Gaiman")
Spy.on(book, :author).and_call_through #=> "Neil Gaiman"

book.responds_to? :title #=> true
book.title #=> Spy::NeverHookedError: 'title' was never hooked on mock spy.

To stub methods during instantiation just add arguments.

book = Spy.mock(Book, :first_name, author: "Neil Gaiman")

Arbitrary Handling

If you need to have a custom method based in the method inputs just send a block to #and_return

Spy.on(book, :read_page).and_return do |page, &block|
  "awesome " * page

An error will raise if the arity of the block is larger than the arity of the original method. However this can be overidden with the force argument.

Spy.on(book, :read_page).and_return(force: true) do |a, b, c, d|

Method Spies

When you stub a method it returns a spy. A spy records what calls have been made to a given method.

validator = Spy.mock(Validator)
validate_spy = Spy.on(validator, :validate)
validate_spy.has_been_called? #=> false

validator.validate("01234")   #=> nil
validate_spy.has_been_called? #=> true
validate_spy.has_been_called_with?("01234") #=> true

You can also retrieve a method spy on demand

Spy.get(validator, :validate)

Calling through

If you just want to make sure if a method is called and not override the output you can just use the #and_call_through method

Spy.on(book, :read_page).and_call_through

By if the original method never existed it will call #method_missing on the spied object.

Call Logs

When a spy is called on it records a call log. A call log contains the object it was called on, the arguments and block that were sent to method and what it returned.

read_page_spy = Spy.on(book, read_page: "hello world")
book.read_page(5) { "this is a block" }
read_page_spy.calls.size #=> 3
first_call = read_page_spy.calls.first
first_call.object #=> book
first_call.args   #=> [5]
first_call.block  #=> { "this is a block" }
first_call.result #=> "hello world"
first_call.called_from #=> "file_name.rb:line_number"

Test Framework Integration


in your test_helper.rb add this line after you include your framework

require 'spy/integration'

In your test file

  def test_title
    book =
    title_spy = Spy.on(book, :title)

    assert_received book, :title

    assert title_spy.has_been_called?
    assert_equal 2, title_spy.calls.count


In spec_helper.rb

require "rspec/autorun"
require "spy/integration"
RSpec.configure do |c|
  c.mock_with Spy::RspecAdapter

In your test

describe Book do
  it "title can be called" do
    book =
    page_spy = Spy.on(book, page)

    expect(book).to have_received(:page)
    expect(book).to have_received(:page).with(1)
    expect(book).to have_received(:page).with(2)

    expect(page_spy).to have_been_called
    expect(page_spy.calls.count).to eq(2)


  1. Fork it
  2. Create your feature branch (git checkout -b my-new-feature)
  3. Commit your changes (git commit -am 'Add some feature')
  4. Push to the branch (git push origin my-new-feature)
  5. Create new Pull Request


A simple opinionated mocking framework. All the features of rspec-mocks and more in half the code.







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