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Ryo - Privacy for eveRYOne
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README.md

Ryo

Copyright (c) 2019, Ryo Currency Project

Copyright (c) 2014-2017, The Monero Project

Copyright (c) 2012-2013, The Cryptonote developers

Copyright (c) 2017, Sumokoin.org

Development Resources

Please note that code is developed on the dev branch, if you want to check out the latest updates, before they are merged on main branch, please refer there. Master branch will always point to a version that we consider stable, so you can download the code by simply typing git clone https://github.com/ryo-currency/ryo-currency.git

Introduction

Ryo (両 in Japanese: one syllable) is the most secure, private and untraceable cryptocurrency out there. Ryo originated from the Tael, an ancient Far East unit of weight standard used for exchanging gold and silver. Based on the foundations of Monero, Ryo emerged and is poised to dominate the privacy conscious crypto scene. Backed by a full-featured and balanced development team headed by the legendary fireice_uk and psychocrypt.

Our blockchain ensures the highest level of privacy out there by from the get-go having(1) Ring Confidential Transactions (RingCT) (2) and hardcoding minimum transaction mixin to 25. These settings significantly reduce the chance of being identified, traced or attacked by blockchain statistical analysis.

Ryo developers implemented, uniform transaction ID system. The system hides the very fact that you use payment ID in your transaction, since all transactions now have uniform ID in it. This feature is first of its kind among any Cryptonote currencies and is retrofitted with old payment ID system.

Ryo has a very high privacy setting that is suitable for all high confidential transactions as well as for storage of value without being traced, monitored or identified. We call this true fungibility. This means that each coin is equal and interchangeable; it is highly unlikely that any coin can ever by blacklisted due to previous transactions. Over the course of many years these characteristics will pay off as crypto attacks become more sophisticated with much greater computation power in the future.

Coin Supply & Emission

  • Total supply: 88,188,888 coins in 20 years, then 263,000 coins will be emitted yearly to account for inflation.

  • More than 80 million coins are available for community mining.

  • 8,790,000 Ryo coins were burned to get rid of the original Sumokoin premine burned premine keyimages. Additionally, 100,000 coins were premined and instantly unlocked to Sumokoin devs in 2017. The pre-mined coins have been frozen/burned as announced on reddit. This can be verified using those instructions.

  • After 2 rounds of community debates (pt1 / pt2) 8,000,000 Ryo coins were introduced as development fund which is located in 2/3 multisig wallet and emitted on weekly basis next 6 years. In an effort to provide transparency to the community on how the development fund is allocated, Ryo dev team built the following Dev-Fund Explorer page: Dev fund explorer

  • Coin symbol: RYO

  • Coin Units:

    • 1 nanoRyo  = 0.000000001 RYO (10-9-the smallest coin unit)
    • 1 microRyo = 0.000001 RYO (10-6)
    • 1 milliRyo = 0.001 RYO (10-3)
  • Hash algorithm: CryptoNight GPU (Proof-Of-Work)

  • Emission scheme: Ryo's block reward changes every 6-months according to the following "Camel" distribution. Our emission scheme is inspired by real-world mining production comparable to crude oil, coal and gas which is often slow at first, accelerated in the next few years before declining and becoming depleted. However, the emission path of Ryo is generally not that far apart from Bitcoin.

I have Sumokoin, how can I claim my Ryo?

  • You can claim your Ryo, if you had Sumokoin before they forked at block #137500. Ryo Currency as a chain fork kept all the transactions -and thus coins you had in your wallet- up and until Sumokoin forked at block #137500. To further secure your Ryo, we're going to tie the coins to a block after the fork.
  • First, install the latest Ryo wallet. Run it and generate a new wallet. Write down the seed words. Copy the PRIMARY ADDRESS under the RECEIVE tab. Then from the Ryo wallet Atom, click MENU - SWITCH WALLET » RESTORE WALLET FROM SEED and restore your Ryo from the same seeds used for your old Sumokoin wallet.
  • Send all your coins to the new Ryo PRIMARY ADDRESS you copied before. After this, you can safely transact Sumokoin, it's important to first move your Ryo, before you move your Sumokoin.
  • If you are comfortable using the CLI, you can just SWEEP ALL Ryo to yourself instead of all the above.

About this Project and licensing details

This is the core implementation of Ryo. It is free to get and modify for your own usage, however, you can't distribute modified copies from this repository.

Ryo-libre is open source and completely free to use version of this repository without restrictions which is updated on yearly basis. There are no restrictions on anyone creating an alternative implementation of Ryo that uses the protocol and network in a compatible manner. (Read more about Ryo-libre)

Precompiled binaries

Along with each release you can find our precompiled binaries. To verify that the downloaded binaries are created by one of our developer please verify the checksums. The authenticity of the checksums can be verified with the PGP-key's.

Compiling Ryo from source

Dependencies

The following table summarizes the tools and libraries required to build. A few of the libraries are also included in this repository (marked as "Vendored"). By default, the build uses the library installed on the system, and ignores the vendored sources. However, if no library is found installed on the system, then the vendored source will be built and used. The vendored sources are also used for statically-linked builds because distribution packages often include only shared library binaries (.so) but not static library archives (.a).

Dep Min. version Vendored Debian/Ubuntu pkg Arch pkg Fedora Optional Purpose
GCC 4.7.3 NO build-essential base-devel gcc NO
CMake 3.0.0 NO cmake cmake cmake NO
pkg-config any NO pkg-config base-devel pkgconf NO
Boost 1.58 NO libboost-all-dev boost boost-devel NO C++ libraries
OpenSSL basically any NO libssl-dev openssl openssl-devel NO sha256 sum
libzmq 3.0.0 NO libzmq3-dev zeromq cppzmq-devel NO ZeroMQ library
libunbound 1.4.16 YES libunbound-dev unbound unbound-devel NO DNS resolver
libsodium ? NO libsodium-dev ? libsodium-devel NO libsodium
libminiupnpc 2.0 YES libminiupnpc-dev miniupnpc miniupnpc-devel YES NAT punching
libunwind any NO libunwind8-dev libunwind libunwind-devel YES Stack traces
liblzma any NO liblzma-dev xz xz-devel YES For libunwind
libreadline 6.3.0 NO libreadline6-dev readline readline-devel YES Input editing
ldns 1.6.17 NO libldns-dev ldns ldns-devel YES SSL toolkit
expat 1.1 NO libexpat1-dev expat expat-devel YES XML parsing
GTest 1.5 YES libgtest-dev^ gtest gtest-devel YES Test suite
Doxygen any NO doxygen doxygen doxygen YES Documentation
Graphviz any NO graphviz graphviz graphviz YES Documentation

[^] On Debian/Ubuntu libgtest-dev only includes sources and headers. You must build the library binary manually. This can be done with the following command sudo apt-get install libgtest-dev && cd /usr/src/gtest && sudo cmake . && sudo make && sudo mv libg* /usr/lib/

Debian / Ubuntu one liner for all dependencies
sudo apt update && sudo apt install build-essential cmake pkg-config libboost-all-dev libssl-dev libzmq3-dev libunbound-dev libsodium-dev libunwind8-dev liblzma-dev libreadline6-dev libldns-dev libexpat1-dev doxygen graphviz libpgm-dev

Cloning the repository

This repo does not use submodules, so simply clone this repo:

$ git clone https://github.com/ryo-currency/ryo-currency.git

If you already have a repo cloned, initialize and update:

$ cd ryo-currency

Build instructions

Ryo uses the CMake build system and a top-level Makefile that invokes cmake commands as needed.

On Linux and OS X

  • Install the dependencies

  • Change to the root of the source code directory, change to the most recent release branch, and build:

      cd ryo-currency
      git checkout tags/0.4.0.0
      make
    

    Optional: If your machine has several cores and enough memory, enable parallel build by running make -j<number of threads> instead of make. For this to be worthwhile, the machine should have one core and about 2GB of RAM available per thread.

    Note: If cmake can not find zmq.hpp file on OS X, installing zmq.hpp from https://github.com/zeromq/cppzmq to /usr/local/include should fix that error.

    Note: The instructions above will compile the most stable release of the Ryo software. If you would like to use and test the most recent software, use git checkout master. The master branch may contain updates that are both unstable and incompatible with release software, though testing is always encouraged.

  • The resulting executables can be found in build/release/bin

  • Add PATH="$PATH:$HOME/ryo/build/release/bin" to .profile

  • Run Ryo with ryod --detach

  • Optional: build and run the test suite to verify the binaries:

      make release-test
    

    NOTE: core_tests test may take a few hours to complete.

  • Optional: to build binaries suitable for debugging:

       make debug
    
  • Optional: to build statically-linked binaries:

       make release-static
    

Dependencies need to be built with -fPIC. Static libraries usually aren't, so you may have to build them yourself with -fPIC. Refer to their documentation for how to build them.

  • Optional: build documentation in doc/html (omit HAVE_DOT=YES if graphviz is not installed):

      HAVE_DOT=YES doxygen Doxyfile
    

On the Raspberry Pi

Tested on a Raspberry Pi Zero with a clean install of minimal Raspbian Stretch (2017-09-07 or later) from https://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads/raspbian/. If you are using Raspian Jessie, please see note in the following section.

  • apt-get update && apt-get upgrade to install all of the latest software

  • Install the dependencies for Ryo from the 'Debian' column in the table above.

  • Enable zram:

	sudo zramctl --find --size=1024M # Note the device name
	sudo mkswap <device name>
	sudo swapon <device name>
  • Clone ryo and checkout most recent release version:
        git clone https://github.com/ryo-currency/ryo-currency.git
	cd ryo-currency
	git checkout tags/0.2.0
  • Build:
        make release
  • Wait 4-6 hours

  • The resulting executables can be found in build/release/bin

  • Add PATH="$PATH:$HOME/ryo/build/release/bin" to .profile

  • Run Ryo with ryod --detach

  • You may wish to reduce the size of the swap file after the build has finished, and delete the boost directory from your home directory

Note for Raspbian Jessie users:

If you are using the older Raspbian Jessie image, compiling Ryo is a bit more complicated. The version of Boost available in the Debian Jessie repositories is too old to use with Ryo, and thus you must compile a newer version yourself. The following explains the extra steps, and has been tested on a Raspberry Pi 2 with a clean install of minimal Raspbian Jessie.

  • As before, apt-get update && apt-get upgrade to install all of the latest software, and enable zram
	sudo zramctl --find --size=1024M # Note the device name
	sudo mkswap <device name>
	sudo swapon <device name>
  • Then, install the dependencies for Ryo except libunwind and libboost-all-dev

  • Install the latest version of boost (this may first require invoking apt-get remove --purge libboost* to remove a previous version if you're not using a clean install):

	cd
	wget https://sourceforge.net/projects/boost/files/boost/1.64.0/boost_1_64_0.tar.bz2
	tar xvfo boost_1_64_0.tar.bz2
	cd boost_1_64_0
	./bootstrap.sh
	sudo ./b2
  • Wait ~8 hours
	sudo ./bjam install

On Windows:

Binaries for Windows are built on Windows using the MinGW toolchain within MSYS2 environment. The MSYS2 environment emulates a POSIX system. The toolchain runs within the environment and cross-compiles binaries that can run outside of the environment as a regular Windows application.

Preparing the Build Environment

  • Download and install the MSYS2 installer, either the 64-bit or the 32-bit package, depending on your system.

  • Open the MSYS shell via the MSYS2 Shell shortcut

  • Update packages using pacman:

      pacman -Syuu
    
  • Exit the MSYS shell using Alt+F4

  • Edit the properties for the MSYS2 Shell shortcut changing "msys2_shell.bat" to "msys2_shell.cmd -mingw64" for 64-bit builds or "msys2_shell.cmd -mingw32" for 32-bit builds

  • Restart MSYS shell via modified shortcut and update packages again using pacman:

      pacman -Syuu
    
  • Install dependencies:

    To build for 64-bit Windows:

      pacman -S mingw-w64-x86_64-toolchain make mingw-w64-x86_64-cmake mingw-w64-x86_64-boost mingw-w64-x86_64-openssl mingw-w64-x86_64-zeromq mingw-w64-x86_64-libsodium
    

    To build for 32-bit Windows:

      pacman -S mingw-w64-i686-toolchain make mingw-w64-i686-cmake mingw-w64-i686-boost mingw-w64-i686-openssl mingw-w64-i686-zeromq mingw-w64-i686-libsodium
    
  • Open the MingW shell via MinGW-w64-Win64 Shell shortcut on 64-bit Windows or MinGW-w64-Win64 Shell shortcut on 32-bit Windows. Note that if you are running 64-bit Windows, you will have both 64-bit and 32-bit MinGW shells.

Cloning

  • To git clone, run:

      git clone https://github.com/ryo-currency/ryo-currency.git
    

Building

  • Change to the cloned directory, run:

      cd ryo-currency
    
  • If you would like a specific version/tag, do a git checkout for that version. eg. '0.2.0'. If you dont care about the version and just want binaries from master, skip this step:

      git checkout 0.2.0
    
  • If you are on a 64-bit system, run:

      make release-static-win64
    
  • If you are on a 32-bit system, run:

      make release-static-win32
    
  • The resulting executables can be found in build/release/bin

  • Optional: to build Windows binaries suitable for debugging on a 64-bit system, run:

      make debug-static-win64
    
  • Optional: to build Windows binaries suitable for debugging on a 32-bit system, run:

      make debug-static-win32
    
  • The resulting executables can be found in build/debug/bin

On FreeBSD:

The project can be built from scratch by following instructions for Linux above. If you are running ryo in a jail you need to add the flag: allow.sysvipc=1 to your jail configuration, otherwise lmdb will throw the error message: Failed to open lmdb environment: Function not implemented.

We expect to add Ryo into the ports tree in the near future, which will aid in managing installations using ports or packages.

On OpenBSD:

OpenBSD < 6.2

This has been tested on OpenBSD 5.8.

You will need to add a few packages to your system. pkg_add db cmake gcc gcc-libs g++ miniupnpc gtest.

The doxygen and graphviz packages are optional and require the xbase set.

The Boost package has a bug that will prevent librpc.a from building correctly. In order to fix this, you will have to Build boost yourself from scratch. Follow the directions here (under "Building Boost"): https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/blob/master/doc/build-openbsd.md

You will have to add the serialization, date_time, and regex modules to Boost when building as they are needed by Ryo.

To build: env CC=egcc CXX=eg++ CPP=ecpp DEVELOPER_LOCAL_TOOLS=1 BOOST_ROOT=/path/to/the/boost/you/built make release-static-64

OpenBSD >= 6.2

You will need to add a few packages to your system. pkg_add cmake miniupnpc zeromq libiconv.

The doxygen and graphviz packages are optional and require the xbase set.

Build the Boost library using clang. This guide is derived from: https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/blob/master/doc/build-openbsd.md

We assume you are compiling with a non-root user and you have doas enabled.

Note: do not use the boost package provided by OpenBSD, as we are installing boost to /usr/local.

# Create boost building directory
mkdir ~/boost
cd ~/boost

# Fetch boost source
ftp -o boost_1_64_0.tar.bz2 https://netcologne.dl.sourceforge.net/project/boost/boost/1.64.0/boost_1_64_0.tar.bz2

# MUST output: (SHA256) boost_1_64_0.tar.bz2: OK
echo "7bcc5caace97baa948931d712ea5f37038dbb1c5d89b43ad4def4ed7cb683332 boost_1_64_0.tar.bz2" | sha256 -c
tar xfj boost_1_64_0.tar.bz2

# Fetch and apply boost patches, required for OpenBSD
ftp -o boost_test_impl_execution_monitor_ipp.patch https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openbsd/ports/bee9e6df517077a7269ff0dfd57995f5c6a10379/devel/boost/patches/patch-boost_test_impl_execution_monitor_ipp
ftp -o boost_config_platform_bsd_hpp.patch https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openbsd/ports/90658284fb786f5a60dd9d6e8d14500c167bdaa0/devel/boost/patches/patch-boost_config_platform_bsd_hpp

# MUST output: (SHA256) boost_config_platform_bsd_hpp.patch: OK
echo "1f5e59d1154f16ee1e0cc169395f30d5e7d22a5bd9f86358f738b0ccaea5e51d boost_config_platform_bsd_hpp.patch" | sha256 -c
# MUST output: (SHA256) boost_test_impl_execution_monitor_ipp.patch: OK
echo "30cec182a1437d40c3e0bd9a866ab5ddc1400a56185b7e671bb3782634ed0206 boost_test_impl_execution_monitor_ipp.patch" | sha256 -c

cd boost_1_64_0
patch -p0 < ../boost_test_impl_execution_monitor_ipp.patch
patch -p0 < ../boost_config_platform_bsd_hpp.patch

# Start building boost
echo 'using clang : : c++ : <cxxflags>"-fvisibility=hidden -fPIC" <linkflags>"" <archiver>"ar" <striper>"strip"  <ranlib>"ranlib" <rc>"" : ;' > user-config.jam
./bootstrap.sh --without-icu --with-libraries=chrono,filesystem,program_options,system,thread,test,date_time,regex,serialization,locale --with-toolset=clang
./b2 toolset=clang cxxflags="-stdlib=libc++" linkflags="-stdlib=libc++" -sICONV_PATH=/usr/local
doas ./b2 -d0 runtime-link=shared threadapi=pthread threading=multi link=static variant=release --layout=tagged --build-type=complete --user-config=user-config.jam -sNO_BZIP2=1 -sICONV_PATH=/usr/local --prefix=/usr/local install

Build cppzmq

Build the cppzmq bindings.

We assume you are compiling with a non-root user and you have doas enabled.

# Create cppzmq building directory
mkdir ~/cppzmq
cd ~/cppzmq

# Fetch cppzmq source
ftp -o cppzmq-4.2.3.tar.gz https://github.com/zeromq/cppzmq/archive/v4.2.3.tar.gz

# MUST output: (SHA256) cppzmq-4.2.3.tar.gz: OK
echo "3e6b57bf49115f4ae893b1ff7848ead7267013087dc7be1ab27636a97144d373 cppzmq-4.2.3.tar.gz" | sha256 -c
tar xfz cppzmq-4.2.3.tar.gz

# Start building cppzmq
cd cppzmq-4.2.3
mkdir build
cd build
cmake ..
doas make install

Build Ryo: env DEVELOPER_LOCAL_TOOLS=1 BOOST_ROOT=/usr/local make release-static

On Solaris:

The default Solaris linker can't be used, you have to install GNU ld, then run cmake manually with the path to your copy of GNU ld:

    mkdir -p build/release
    cd build/release
    cmake -DCMAKE_LINKER=/path/to/ld -D CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Release ../..
    cd ../..

Then you can run make as usual.

On Linux for Android (using docker):

    # Build image (select android64.Dockerfile for aarch64)
    cd utils/build_scripts/ && docker build -f android32.Dockerfile -t ryo-android .
    # Create container
    docker create -it --name ryo-android ryo-android bash
    # Get binaries
    docker cp ryo-android:/opt/android/ryo/build/release/bin .

Building portable statically linked binaries

By default, in either dynamically or statically linked builds, binaries target the specific host processor on which the build happens and are not portable to other processors. Portable binaries can be built using the following targets:

  • make release-static-linux-x86_64 builds binaries on Linux on x86_64 portable across POSIX systems on x86_64 processors
  • make release-static-linux-i686 builds binaries on Linux on x86_64 or i686 portable across POSIX systems on i686 processors
  • make release-static-linux-armv8 builds binaries on Linux portable across POSIX systems on armv8 processors
  • make release-static-linux-armv7 builds binaries on Linux portable across POSIX systems on armv7 processors
  • make release-static-linux-armv6 builds binaries on Linux portable across POSIX systems on armv6 processors
  • make release-static-win64 builds binaries on 64-bit Windows portable across 64-bit Windows systems
  • make release-static-win32 builds binaries on 64-bit or 32-bit Windows portable across 32-bit Windows systems

Installing Ryo from a package

DISCLAIMER: These packages are not part of this repository or maintained by this project's contributors, and as such, do not go through the same review process to ensure their trustworthiness and security.

Packages are available for

  • Docker

      # Build using all available cores
      `docker build -t ryo .`
    
      # or build using a specific number of cores (reduce RAM requirement)
      `docker build --build-arg NPROC=1 -t ryo .`
    
      # either run in foreground
      `docker run -it -v /ryo/chain:/root/.ryo -v /ryo/wallet:/wallet -p 18080:18080 ryo`
    
      # or in background
      `docker run -it -d -v /ryo/chain:/root/.ryo -v /ryo/wallet:/wallet -p 18080:18080 ryo`
    

Packaging for your favorite distribution would be a welcome contribution!

Running ryod

The build places the binary in bin/ sub-directory within the build directory from which cmake was invoked (repository root by default). To run in foreground:

./bin/ryod

To list all available options, run ./bin/ryod --help. Options can be specified either on the command line or in a configuration file passed by the --config-file argument. To specify an option in the configuration file, add a line with the syntax argumentname=value, where argumentname is the name of the argument without the leading dashes, for example log-level=1.

To run in background:

./bin/ryod --log-file ryod.log --detach

To run as a systemd service, copy ryod.service to /etc/systemd/system/ and ryod.conf to /etc/. The example service assumes that the user ryo exists and its home is the data directory specified in the example config.

If you're on Mac, you may need to add the --max-concurrency 1 option to ryo-wallet-cli, and possibly ryod, if you get crashes refreshing.

Using Tor

While Ryo isn't made to integrate with Tor, it can be used wrapped with torsocks, by setting the following configuration parameters and environment variables:

  • --p2p-bind-ip 127.0.0.1 on the command line or p2p-bind-ip=127.0.0.1 in ryod.conf to disable listening for connections on external interfaces.
  • --no-igd on the command line or no-igd=1 in ryod.conf to disable IGD (UPnP port forwarding negotiation), which is pointless with Tor.
  • DNS_PUBLIC=tcp or DNS_PUBLIC=tcp://x.x.x.x where x.x.x.x is the IP of the desired DNS server, for DNS requests to go over TCP, so that they are routed through Tor. When IP is not specified, ryod uses the default list of servers defined in src/common/dns_utils.cpp.
  • TORSOCKS_ALLOW_INBOUND=1 to tell torsocks to allow ryod to bind to interfaces to accept connections from the wallet. On some Linux systems, torsocks allows binding to localhost by default, so setting this variable is only necessary to allow binding to local LAN/VPN interfaces to allow wallets to connect from remote hosts. On other systems, it may be needed for local wallets as well.
  • Do NOT pass --detach when running through torsocks with systemd, (see utils/systemd/ryod.service for details).
  • If you use the wallet with a Tor daemon via the loopback IP (eg, 127.0.0.1:9050), then use --untrusted-daemon unless it is your own hidden service.

Example command line to start ryod through Tor:

DNS_PUBLIC=tcp torsocks ryod --p2p-bind-ip 127.0.0.1 --no-igd

Using Tor on Tails

TAILS ships with a very restrictive set of firewall rules. Therefore, you need to add a rule to allow this connection too, in addition to telling torsocks to allow inbound connections. Full example:

sudo iptables -I OUTPUT 2 -p tcp -d 127.0.0.1 -m tcp --dport 18081 -j ACCEPT
DNS_PUBLIC=tcp torsocks ./ryod --p2p-bind-ip 127.0.0.1 --no-igd --rpc-bind-ip 127.0.0.1 \
    --data-dir /home/amnesia/Persistent/your/directory/to/the/blockchain

Using readline

While ryod and ryo-wallet-cli do not use readline directly, most of the functionality can be obtained by running them via rlwrap. This allows command recall, edit capabilities, etc. It does not give autocompletion without an extra completion file, however. To use rlwrap, simply prepend rlwrap to the command line, eg:

rlwrap bin/ryo-wallet-cli --wallet-file /path/to/wallet

Note: rlwrap will save things like your seed and private keys, if you supply them on prompt. You may want to not use rlwrap when you use simplewallet to restore from seed, etc.

Debugging

This section contains general instructions for debugging failed installs or problems encountered with Ryo. First ensure you are running the latest version built from the github repo.

Obtaining stack traces and core dumps on Unix systems

We generally use the tool gdb (GNU debugger) to provide stack trace functionality, and ulimit to provide core dumps in builds which crash or segfault.

  • To use gdb in order to obtain a stack trace for a build that has stalled:

Run the build.

Once it stalls, enter the following command:

gdb /path/to/ryod `pidof ryod`

Type thread apply all bt within gdb in order to obtain the stack trace

  • If however the core dumps or segfaults:

Enter ulimit -c unlimited on the command line to enable unlimited filesizes for core dumps

Enter echo core | sudo tee /proc/sys/kernel/core_pattern to stop cores from being hijacked by other tools

Run the build.

When it terminates with an output along the lines of "Segmentation fault (core dumped)", there should be a core dump file in the same directory as ryod. It may be named just core, or core.xxxx with numbers appended.

You can now analyse this core dump with gdb as follows:

gdb /path/to/ryod /path/to/dumpfile

Print the stack trace with bt

  • To run ryo within gdb:

Type gdb /path/to/ryod

Pass command-line options with --args followed by the relevant arguments

Type run to run ryod

Analysing memory corruption

We use the tool valgrind for this.

Run with valgrind /path/to/ryod. It will be slow.

LMDB

There is an mdb_stat command in the LMDB source that can print statistics about the database but it's not routinely built. This can be built with the following command:

cd ~/ryo/external/db_drivers/liblmdb && make

The output of mdb_stat -ea <path to blockchain dir> will indicate inconsistencies in the blocks, block_heights and block_info table.

The output of mdb_dump -s blocks <path to blockchain dir> and mdb_dump -s block_info <path to blockchain dir> is useful for indicating whether blocks and block_info contain the same keys.

These records are dumped as hex data, where the first line is the key and the second line is the data.

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