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Zero-knowledge client-side encrypted network filesystem.

This program offers an encrypted container, which can be accessed remotely.


  • The data is stored in a single file (container) database
  • Client side zero-knowledge encryption (CBC AES block encryption, PBKDF2 password hashing)
  • Secure SSL connection
  • Windows and Linux support
  • File access based on FUSE (Linux) or Dokan (Windows) (file system in user space)
  • Several backends for block filesystem
    • remote storage (needs a program which runs on the server)
    • local file
    • RAM
  • In-memory encrypted data caching
  • Asynchronous reading and writing for maximum performance
  • Full filesystem layout is loaded in the beginning to limit read and write access afterwards
  • Random access of files
  • Automatic growing container (but no shrinking yet)
  • No local storage of files


  • Filesystem layout not final
  • Several Posix features like dates are missing
  • Only one user at a time
  • Limited check disk utility. Limited repair options.
  • No XTS block encryption yet
  • No change of password allowed after creation yet
  • Background job for automatic defragmentation missing

Build CoverFS


  • fuse (dokan on Windows)
  • boost
  • openssl
  • libgcrypt
  • pthread
  • make build system
  • cygwin build environment under Windows

Create a build directory and run cmake path/to/repository to build the binaries or build directly in the repository by running cmake .. Afterwards run make to compile.

Run CoverFS

On the server run ./coverfsserver [port] where [port] is the port the server should listen to. On the client run ./coverfs --host [host] [mountpoint] where [mountpoint] folder which will contain the content of the filesystem and [host] is the name of the host where coverfsserver is executed. Type --help for more options. The standard port is 62000.

The first time you run coverfs you are asked for a password for the new filesystem. The filesystem is stored in the file cfscontainer on the server.

Optional but highly recommened:

To retrieve a unique set of keys for the SSL encryption run "" in the "ssl" directory. Then copy the content of the folder into the SSL folder of the server and the client. Otherwise the connection is vulnerable against man-in-the middle attacks.

Filesystem Design

The block size is 4096 bytes and the filesystem is encrypted by this block size. The first block is not encrypted but contains data like password hashes and keys for decrypting the volume.

Overall container layout:

| Encryption block | Superblock | Basic layout table block | Further layout tables and blocks containing directory structure and data |
| This layout is the same for each filesystem              | This is specific to the content                                          |

The tables contain a list of descriptors which define the content of certain fragments in the container.

| inode id |  size  | ofs in container | 
| 4 byte   | 4 byte | 8 byte           |

So each descriptor can define the content up to a size of 4 GB.

The "basic layout table" contains only the descriptors of one fixed id (=-2) which defines the position of the "further layout tables"

  • inode id = 0 is the id of the root directory structure
  • inode id = -1 defines a descriptor which is not used and can be overwritten
  • inode id = -2 contains the layout tables of the whole filesystem
  • inode id = -3 defines the super block
  • inode id = -4 defines an invalid or unknown id like the parent dir of the root directory


Why the name CoverFS?

FS = Filesystem

Cover = to hide, to mask, to obfuscate, to cloud, covert, covered by clouds

Is it secure?

Encryption is difficult to implement correctly and I am no expert in that field. I think I made no obvious mistakes but the code needs to be checked by more experienced people. And even then, without a broad range of users and professional attackers who fail, I can never claim to be safe.

What about filesystem corruption?

The filesystem structure is simple and optimized in order to minimize read and write access. It is build on the principle, that the filesystem is always consistent no matter of the writing order. But there is no guarantee, that no data will be lost.

Also a complete file system structure checking and correction tool is not implemented yet. My small test suite works, but I haven't used it much under real conditions.

What does zero-knowledge mean?

A zero knowledge storage hides also meta-data such as file sizes, file names and directory structures from the server operator. Most of the storage providers preserve this information on the server and therefore can't be true "zero-knowledge" services. Of course this is only possible with client-side encryption.

However, CoverFS might reveal coarse information by analyzing certain access patterns such as overall size of the encrypted filesystem and coarse number of entries in a directory.

Are similar tools available?

Take a look here:


Zero-knowledge client-side encrypted network filesystem







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