Java programmer's i18n framework, compile time verifiable, free of ResourceBundle.
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Java programmer's i18n framework, compile time verifiable, free of ResourceBundle.


Internationalization (i18n) of Java programs typically involves separation data from code, with message texts being moved to special text resource collections formatted as Properties files and called resource bundles. Messages in different languages get into different properties files, and individual messages are identified by their property keys regardless of language.

This approach, with messages stored in "almost plain text" format, and messages in different languages stored in different files, has certain advantages. In particular, it makes it easy to distribute translation work between translators, and there is no need for every particular translator to deal with excessive text data.

Meanwhile, having message texts coupled with code via plain text keys also makes the whole construction fragile and prone to accumulation of occasional errors. It is easy to get any particular message "orphaned" due to key being renamed occasionally, and it is equally easy to obtain code that attempts to use non-existing messages, with that only being discovered at run time.

Continuous integration and support of internationalized software might benefit from technology that would allow code and message texts being coupled stronger, with links being verified at compile time. Programmers might also benefit from autocompletion aids being available when dealing with text messages.


This project offers data structures and control facilities that allow bringing all message texts back into Java code and handled as ordinary Java variables to allow compile time verification. All text strings related to the same message in different languages are organized into one collection-based data structure with a single identifier. And the programmer never needs to care about language for any current user. The programmer just needs to make necessary arrangements for the policy that would govern user-to-language mappings, and the framework will do the rest.

All this is achieved with the price of text messages being put back into Java code and looking maybe less like "plain text". And they are all collected together side-by-side in all languages. There may be different opinions on whether this is an advantage or not. But for cases when the programmer and the translator happen to be the same person, the advantage is evident :)


The framework currently requires Java 1.7+, as it makes use of Locale#toLanguageTag(). This may be changed if really necessary.


Both pom.xml for Maven and build.xml for Ant are available. Ant buildfile automatically labels every build with current date. Maven builds are labeled with project version from the .pom file, but a warning is issued if this version does not match current date. Artifact/build versions are currently formatted like "YYYYMMDD" rather than "v1.0", as no distinct versioning policy has evolved so far.

Usage – HOW-TO

  • download or build the latest 'usn-i18n-nobundle-YYYYMMDD.jar' file and add it to your application class path;
  • make a decision on the I18nHandler subclass you need: whether it should depend on some context for obtaining user's locale preferences or should it get these preferences from the application directly; hence select an existing I18nHandler subclass or make a subclass of your own;
  • create an instance of the chosen I18nHandler subclass in your application; no need to care about its further fate; feel free to mark it with @SuppressWarnings ("unused");
  • create as many of I18nItem subclasses' instances as you need for all the messages that require internationalization;
  • use your messages via corresponding s(TArg1 arg1) and similar methods;
  • refer to the modest example on the package summary javadocs page and to API docs in general when necessary;
  • enjoy :)

Hello application

The 'Hello user' style application below demonstrates several basic concepts:

  • shorthand notation for localized messages, taking advantage of static import of the LocalizedMessage#lm() method;
  • instantiation of an I18nHandler for the application;
  • using an internationalized logger;
  • formatting messages with arguments;
  • using implicit toString() calls instead of explicit s() when possible.
package test;

import usn.i18n.nobundle.I15dLogger;
import usn.i18n.nobundle.I15dLoggerFactory;
import usn.i18n.nobundle.I18nHandler;
import usn.i18n.nobundle.I18nHandlerForSingleUser;
import usn.i18n.nobundle.I18nItem0;
import usn.i18n.nobundle.I18nItem1;
import usn.i18n.nobundle.I18nItemAny;

import static usn.i18n.nobundle.LocalizedMessage.lm;

public class HelloUser
    // only I18nItem0 and I18nItemAny message items are currently supported
    // by I15dLogger without confusion...
    public static I18nItem0 LOG_MSG_APP_START = new I18nItem0
        (lm ("en", "Application started."),
         lm ("fr", "Le démarrage de l'application."),
         lm ("ru", "Приложение запущено."));
    public static I18nItemAny LOG_MSG_USER_LOGON = new I18nItemAny
        (lm ("en", "User {0} logged on."),
         lm ("fr", "{0} utilisateur connecté."),
         lm ("ru", "Пользователь {0} вошёл в систему."));
    public static I18nItem1<String> USER_MSG_GREETING = new I18nItem1<String>
      (lm ("en", "Hi {0}!"),
       lm ("fr", "Bonjour {0}!"),
       lm ("ru", "Привет, {0}!"));
    public static I18nItem0 USER_MSG_BYE = new I18nItem0
    (lm ("en", "Nothing left to do, bye!"),
     lm ("fr", "Rien à faire, au revoir!"),
     lm ("ru", "Мы всё сделали, до свидания!"));

    public static void main (String [] args)
        // the 'i18nHandler' variable itself is not needed,
        // we just need to istantiate some 'I18nHandler' subclass,
        // and we do it here by using an instance of 'I18nHandlerForSingleUser'
        // that will use system default locale if no other arrangements are made
        @SuppressWarnings ("unused")
        I18nHandler i18nHandler = new I18nHandlerForSingleUser ();

        // arrange for an i18n-aware logger for our application
        I15dLogger logger = I15dLoggerFactory.getLogger (HelloUser.class);

        // log a simple message without arguments (LOG_MSG_APP_START);

        // learn something about the user to say hello
        String userName = System.getProperty ("");

        // log a message with an argument (LOG_MSG_USER_LOGON, userName);

        // issue a message with an argument to a user
        System.out.println (USER_MSG_GREETING.s (userName));

        // for messages without arguments we can use implicit .toString()
        // instead of explicit .s()
        System.out.println (USER_MSG_BYE);
      } // main
  } // class HelloUser


The project is issued and distributed under the following licenses:


The following distribution types are available:

  • plain JAR:
    • usn-i18n-nobundle-YYYYMMDD.jar
  • Maven style javadoc and sources JARs:
    • usn-i18n-nobundle-YYYYMMDD-javadoc.jar
    • usn-i18n-nobundle-YYYYMMDD-sources.jar
  • full distribution that contains everything:
    • usn-i18n-nobundle-YYYYMMDD-full.jar

The latest release can be found here.


  • allow convenient handling of plurals;
  • make the Maven artifact for the project available from some public repository.

See also