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The Saboteur's Cookbook

A guide to running Sabotage for the experienced Linux user.

Butch, the build manager

butch is a collection of small shell scripts, living in KEEP/bin of this repo and is usually also installed into /bin of a sabotage system. it was originally written in C for speed, but was recently replaced with a pure POSIX shell implementation (the performance-sensitive parts are outsourced into awk scripts, so at least on an average-speed CPU there's no notable difference. It's probably slightly slower now on low-end ARM and MIPS CPUs).

It handles package downloads, checksums, builds and dependencies in a relatively sane manner. Parallel downloads are automatically enabled if a jobflow binary is present on the system (default on a sabotage install).

To see a list of supported commands, execute butch without arguments.

butch will by default start sixteen download jobs and one build job. You can influence the number of download jobs with the BUTCH_DL_THREADS environment variable. If you're behind a super-fast gigabit link, it may make sense to increase this number considerably, for example to 64. If your connection is very poor, you may want to set it to only 1-4. To make the setting persistent, put it into your config. The previous C version of butch used to support multiple build jobs as well, however that turned out to be very confusing since it was not possible to tell which package is currently building and we achieve parallel CPU usage anyway using the MAKE_THREADS variable (see section Variables for details).

By default, butch uses the system's wget. You may also use curl by exporting USE_CURL=1. For best results, download all packages before the install process.

butch defaults to installing built packages into /opt/$packagename. Files are then symlinked into a user-definable path, defaulting to /. Finally, the package name and pkgver of its recipe are then written to /var/lib/butch.db.

The /opt path can be overridden by adding the variable butch_staging_dir to the config file and setting it to the desired value. It must consist of a single component, for example /foo /app or /Packages. The staging dir will always be used inside the filesystem root specified in the used config.

butch may also be used for system configuration, eschewing the package building features by simply calling exit 0 at the conclusion of a package recipe. This will avoid the above package installation procedure.

To completely remove a package:

$ rm -rf /opt/$pkg
$ butch unlink $pkg
$ sed -i '/$pkg/d' /var/lib/butch.db # ... or edit by hand.

/src, the heart of the system

/src is the default path where butch searches for and builds packages.

/src
/src/pkg        # package recipes, used by butch
/src/KEEP       # patches and other files referenced from scripts
/src/build      # package build directory. Safe to empty from time to time
/src/filelists  # per-package file lists, referenced by `butch unlink`
/src/logs       # per-package download and build logs
/src/tarballs   # upstream package tarballs
/src/utils      # sabotage utilities and helper scripts

butch requires /src/pkg,/src/KEEP and /src/config. It will fail to start if they are missing. The rest of this directory is optional with caveats.

Erasing /src/filelists will break butch unlink <package> for existing packages.

find . -type f -or -type l > /src/filelists/$packagename.txt from the installation directory recovers the list.

Erasing /src/utils will lose scripts for cross-compilation, writing recipes, managing chroots and other functionality. Each script contains brief documentation explaining usage.

There is no issue erasing /src/tarballs, /src/logs or /src/build beyond the obvious.

It is suggested to clone the upstream repo as /src/sabotage:

$ git clone git://github.com/sabotage-linux/sabotage /src/sabotage
$ rm -rf /src/KEEP /src/pkg
$ ln -sf /src/sabotage/KEEP /src/KEEP
$ ln -sf /src/sabotage/pkg /src/pkg

You can issue a git pull in /src/sabotage to update to the latest version of recipes and utilities.

Writing recipes

[mirrors]
[vars]
[deps]
[build]

butch recipes are plain text files that contain one or more labeled headers and their associated data. The above four sections are central to an assortment of different possible recipes. This section details their use.

[mirrors]
<url #1>
...
<url #n>

[vars]
filesize=<bytes>
sha512=<sha 512 hash>
tardir=<directory name the tar extracts to, if it differs from the tar name>
tarball=<optionally specified, if needed>
pkgver=<package revision>

[mirrors] and [vars] are optional, but must be included together as a set. HTTP(S) is the only valid protocol for [mirrors]. tardir and tarball are optional directives and are usually omitted.

The [vars] section is copied verbatim to the top of these generated scripts and may contain shell code.

The utils/dlinfo script is useful in generating the above sections for you.

[deps]
<package #1>
...
<package #n>

[deps.host]
<package #1>
...
<package #n>

[deps.run]
<package #1>
...
<package #n>

Any combination of the above three headers may optionally be present.

[deps] is the standard list of dependencies required by the recipe. [deps.host] are dependencies required on the host for cross-compilation. [deps.run] are requirements to run the package on the target system.

[build]
<shell instructions to build application>

Shell instructions inside [build] will be performed by butch during compilation. Specifying butch_do_relocate=false inside [build] will prevent the post-build linking of files. If the[build] phase calls exit, butch will not perform any post-build activities at all.

These recipe elements combine with KEEP/butch_download_template.txt as a build/dl_package.sh script. They also join KEEP/butch_template_configure_cached.txt to form build/build_package.sh.

Metapackages containing only a [mirrors] & [vars], [deps] or [build] section are useful.

Variables and Templates

Sabotage provides environment variables used for scripts and recipes, sourced from /src/config. This section describes them in detail.

The stage1 values are provided here, along with a brief description of the variable.

    SABOTAGE_BUILDDIR="/tmp/sabotage"

Defines where the ./build-stage0 script builds a chroot.

A=x86_64

Selects an architecture to build for. 'i386', 'arm', 'mips' and 'powerpc' are other options.

CC=gcc
HOSTCC=gcc

The C compiler used. gcc is currently the only compiler tested and supported.

MAKE_THREADS=1

The number of threads to pass to make via the -j flag.

    BUTCH_BIN="/a/path/to/butch-core"

If not set, ./build-stage0 will download and build butch. On systems lacking a proper libc, you may need to statically build butch yourself then specify it with this variable.

R=/               # `R` is the system root that butch will link packages into
S=/src            # `S` is the source directory for `butch`
K=/src/KEEP       # `K` is a directory of needed files and patches
C=/src/tarballs   # `C` is the downloaded tarball cache
LOGPATH=/src/logs # `LOGPATH` is where everything is logged

Internal paths, useful when writing scripts and recipes. You should leave these all as-is, this is the intended way.

BUTCH_BUILD_TEMPLATE="$K"/butch_template_configure_cached.txt

The build template. It creates packages in $R/opt/$package_name and optionally supplies a config.cache file to speed up some from-source compilation recipes. Review the template to see its configurable options.

BUTCH_DOWNLOAD_TEMPLATE="$K"/butch_download_template.txt

The download template. It downloads, tests and unpacks tarballs.

    STAGE=1

Used during the bootstrap process by scripts to determine the current stage. Leave this alone.

Installing the system

See the wiki page "Bootstrap to HD Image" or utils/write-hd-image.

Updating the system

packages that have a different pkgver tag than the one that's installed are scheduled for update when you run butch update. butch update opens your editor (set via EDITOR environment variable, usually from /etc/profile or ~/.bashrc when using bash) with the list of packages scheduled for rebuild. you can use the editor to remove packages that you don't want to rebuild, or change the order of rebuild by moving the line containing the package name to another position (the package on top of the list is built first). Once you're satisfied with the list, save it in your editor and quit. Then the rebuild will start, unless the list is empty. If you're only interested in seeing which packages would need to be updated, run butch outdated. butch rebuild $(butch outdated) is equivalent to running butch update without the editor step (i.e. everything gets updated non-interactively).

The pkgver tag in the package's [vars] section is completely independent of the package's actual version (for example 4.7.4). A missing pkgver tag means the revision is 1. It is increased by one whenever a rebuild is necessary. This is the case when the version of the package was updated, or when one of its dependencies was updated in a way that requires a rebuild of all users, for example a soname bump due to API changes in libressl, libpng, etc, but not if there were only cosmetic changes (for example addition of a description tag).

Encrypted file systems

Install the cryptsetup package, then follow this guide to setup your partitions:

http://wiki.centos.org/HowTos/EncryptedFilesystem

Add appropriate entries in /etc/crypttab and /etc/fstab. On startup, Sabotage's rc.boot will mount them. By default, Sabotage does not use an initramfs, so if you require an encrypted root mount, you will have to customize your kernel build to piggyback a small initramfs to you kernel.

System Administration

Sabotage does things a bit differently than your usual Linux distribution!

The file system

Sabotage does not follow the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard.

For legacy support, /usr is a symlink to / and /sbin is a symlink to /bin. Install software with --prefix=/ when possible. The times of a separate root partition are long over.

/local is provided to users, use it wisely. Software not packaged by Sabotage should not touch stuff outside of /local, it could break on updates.

Use /srv/$SERVICE/$VHOST for all server data.

The init system

Sabotage uses runit as init system, though we use Busybox init to start runsvdir. See: http://busybox.net/~vda/init_vs_runsv.html

We do not use runlevels.

The base system has a few services:

  • dmesg - logs kernel messages
  • sshd - opensshd, down by default
  • tty2, tty3, tty4 - three gettys
  • crond - cron daemon

You will find these in /var/service, which are symlinks to /etc/service.

You can start services with sv u $SERVICE or take them down with sv d $SERVICE. By default, all services in /var/service start at boot time. If they have an empty down file in their directory, you'll have to start them manually. If you don't want to use a service at all, best remove the symlink to /etc/service.

Find out what's running with sv s /var/service/*.

Look into the service directories to find out how to add your own services. Note that you must tell them not to daemonize!

For the rest of runit, refer to the documentation at:

http://smarden.org/runit/index.html

Logging

There is no syslog support, services should use svlogd to log into /var/log.

To use svlogd ensure your service script dumps the service's output to stdout/stderr.

Examples: /etc/service/crond/run and /etc/service/dmesg/run

You can inspect the logs by looking at /var/log/$SERVICE/current.

For example, kernel messages are in /var/log/dmesg/current.

You can look at all logs with sort /var/log/*/current |less.

For more information, see runit docs.

Transfering packages

Packages can be transfered and installed on another system than the one they were built on. basically it's sufficient to copy the build host's directory /opt/packagename to the target's /opt, (use cp -a to preserve symlinks) and then call butch relink packagename on the target. An entry should be added to /var/lib/butch.db, so butch knows that it's already installed (the pkgver for the second column in the DB can be taken from the package's [vars] section - if it is missing put 1). The commands butch pack packagename and butch unpack filename automate this task on the build and target host, respectively.

Other advice

Start sshd

  • Execute sv u sshd.

Linux console keyboard layout

  • Execute loadkeys, then follow the instructions.

For X

  • Edit /etc/xinitrc, or copy it to ~/.xinitrc and edit that. There's a commented line suggesting how to change setxkbmap invocation.
  • Uncomment and change the two-letter country code to your country.
  • Edit /bin/X and enable QEMU or VirtualBox settings, if needed, otherwise your controls won't work!
  • Execute startx.

Using a WLAN

  • Install wpa-supplicant.
  • Edit /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf for WiFi config.
  • Edit /etc/wpa_connect_action.sh for IP address settings.
  • Execute sv u wpa_supplicant.
  • To keep the service up permanently, execute rm /etc/service/wpa_supplicant/down.

Getting a DHCP IP address

  • Execute dhclient eth0.

Setting a static IP address

  • Execute ifconfig eth0 192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0.
  • Execute route add default gw 192.168.0.1.

You can put the above into a script which /etc/rc.local can execute at boot time.

Wine

Wine builds on Sabotage i386. To use it on x86_64, one needs to use packages built on i386 Sabotage.

For example, the following 32-bit packages are required to run simple Delphi programs:

wine
musl
alsa-lib #for sound support
freetype
libpng
libsm
libx11
libxau
libxcb
libxext
libxi
libxrender
ncurses
zlib-dynamic

You can get them off /opt from a Sabotage i386 image or rootfs. From musl we need libc.so. We also need everything from the wine package and the lib/.so from all other packages. Make a directory to put the stuff, we use /32bit here.

$ mkdir -p /32bit/lib
$ mv musl-i386/lib/libc.so /32bit/lib
$ ln -sf /32bit/lib/libc.so /lib/ld-musl-i386.so.1
$ echo "/32bit/lib:/32bit/wine/lib" > /etc/ld-musl-i386.path
$ cd /32bit
$ tar xf wine.i386.tar.xz
$ for p in `cat 32bit-packages.txt`; do tar xf "$p".i386.tar.xz; mv "$p"/lib/* lib/; rm -rf lib/pkgconfig; done
$ rm lib/*.a

Now it should be possible to use /32bit/wine/bin/wine to execute Windows programs. Here`s a pre-made package that includes the work from the above steps:

http://mirror.wzff.de/sabotage/bin/wine-i386-bundle.tar.xz

sha512sum: 2475ac72f62a7d611ab1ca14a6a58428bd07339f81e384bf1bbbd0187b2467c371f79fee9d028149eebd3c6a80999e5676364d1bc8054022f89de8cc66169b84

You only need to create the ld-musl-i386.so symlink and the entry in /etc/ld-musl-i386.path

Timezones

The timezones package installs timezone description files into /share/zoneinfo. musl supports timezones via the POSIX TZ environment variable. You should set it in your ~/.profile or in /etc/profile. glibc also supports /etc/localtime, which is a copy or symlink of one of the zoneinfo files.

Example values for TZ:

# Reads `/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin` the first time an app calls localtime().
TZ=Europe/Berlin

# Reads `/etc/localtime` the first time an app calls localtime().
# you may want to symlink it to the file for your timezone.
TZ=/etc/localtime

# Will set the timezone to GMT+2. (POSIX reverses the meaning of +/-)
TZ=GMT-2

# Like Europe/Berlin, except it reads no file.
# The string is the last "line" from the zoneinfo file.
TZ="CET-1CEST,M3.5.0,M10.5.0/3"

hwclock and ntp

When rc.boot executes, the system clock is set to the hardware clock using hwclock -u -s, where -u stands for UTC. hwclock -u -r can read the actual hardware clock, adjusted to the users' TZ. If you want to see the actual UTC clock value, set TZ=UTC and then hwclock -u -r.

if your hardware clock is off, you can fix it by using ntpd -dnq -p pool.ntp.org to get the actual time, then write it to BIOS using hwclock -u -w.

encrypted partitions

encrypted partitions will be mapped to /dev/mapper after they're opened.

creating a new encrypted partition

encrypted partitions require a name, in this example we will use crypart. the partition we want to encrypt will be /dev/sdb6.

initialize the encrypted partition with a passphrase:

$ cryptsetup -y luksFormat /dev/sdb6

enter a passphrase when asked

create the unencrypted mapper device

$ cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sdb6 crypart

now you can format /dev/mapper/crypart like an ordinary partition.

$ mkfs.ext4 /dev/mapper/crypart

Finally, mount the partition

$ mount /dev/mapper/crypart /mnt

you should maybe make a copy of the header so you can restore your drive in case of a hardware defect:

$ cryptsetup luksHeaderBackup /dev/sdb6 --header-backup-file=/boot/luks_header.bin

automatic mounting of encrypted devices

create an entry for the partition in /etc/crypttab. the file has information in the comments to assist you. after adding it, the device will be mounted on the next boot (the passphrase will be asked from the user during boot).