pypath: A Python module for molecular interaction networks
pypath is a Python package built around igraph to work with molecular network representations e.g. protein, miRNA and drug compound interaction networks.
New webservice from 14 June 2018: the queries slightly changed, have been largely extended. See the examples below.
One instance of the pypath webservice runs at the domain http://omnipathdb.org/, serving not only the OmniPath data but other datasets: TF-target interactions from TF Regulons, a large collection additional enzyme-substrate interactions, and literature curated miRNA-mRNA interacions combined from 4 databases. The webservice implements a very simple REST style API, you can make requests by HTTP protocol (browser, wget, curl or whatever).
The webservice currently recognizes 3 types of queries:
info. The query types
about have not been implemented yet in the new webservice.
Mouse and rat
Except the miRNA interactions all interactions are available for human, mouse
and rat. The rodent data has been translated from human using the NCBI
Homologene database. Many human proteins have no known homolog in rodents
hence rodent datasets are smaller than their human counterparts. Note, if you
work with mouse omics data you might do better to translate your dataset to
human (for example using the
pypath.homology module) and use human
A request without any parameter, gives some basic numbers about the actual loaded dataset:
info returns a HTML page with comprehensive information about the
interactions query accepts some parameters and returns interactions in
tabular format. This example returns all interactions of EGFR (P00533), with
sources and references listed.
By default only the OmniPath dataset used, to query the TF Regulons or add the extra enzyme-substrate interactions you need to set additional parameters. For example to query the transcriptional regulators of EGFR:
The TF Regulons database assigns confidence levels to the interactions. You might want to select only the highest confidence, A category:
Show the transcriptional targets of Smad2 homology translated to rat including the confidence levels from TF Regulons:
Query interactions from PhosphoNetworks which is part of the kinaseextra dataset:
Get the interactions from Signor, SPIKE and SignaLink3:
All interactions of MAP1LC3B:
partners queries the interaction where either the source or the
arget is among the partners. If you set the
source_target parameter to
AND both the source and the target must be in the queried set:
As you see above you can use UniProt IDs and Gene Symbols in the queries and also mix them. Get the miRNA regulating NOTCH1:
Note: with the exception of mandatory fields and genesymbols, the columns appear exactly in the order you provided in your query.
Another query type available is
ptms which provides enzyme-substrate
interactions. It is very similar to the
Is there any ubiquitination reaction?
And acetylation in mouse?
Rat interactions, both directly from rat and homology translated from human, from the PhosphoSite database:
Can I use OmniPath in R?
You can download the data from the webservice and load into R. Look here for an example:
In almost any up-to-date Linux distribution the dependencies of pypath are built-in, or provided by the distributors. You only need to install a couple of things in your package manager (cairo, py(2)cairo, igraph, python(2)-igraph, graphviz, pygraphviz), and after install pypath by pip (see below). If any module still missing, you can install them the usual way by pip or your package manager.
igraph C library, cairo and pycairo
python(2)-igraph is a Python interface to use the igraph C library. The C library must be installed. The same goes for cairo, py(2)cairo and graphviz.
Directly from git
pip install git+https://github.com/saezlab/pypath.git
Download the package from /dist, and install with pip:
pip install pypath-x.y.z.tar.gz
Build source distribution
Clone the git repo, and run setup.py:
python setup.py sdist
Mac OS X
On OS X installation is not straightforward primarily because cairo needs to be compiled from source. We provide 2 scripts here: the mac-install-brew.sh installs everything with HomeBrew, and mac-install-conda.sh installs from Anaconda distribution. With these scripts installation of igraph, cairo and graphviz goes smoothly most of the time, and options are available for omitting the 2 latter. To know more see the description in the script header. There is a third script mac-install-source.sh which compiles everything from source and presumes only Python 2.7 and Xcode installed. We do not recommend this as it is time consuming and troubleshooting requires expertise.
no module named ...when you try to load a module in Python. Did theinstallation of the module run without error? Try to run again the specific part from the mac install shell script to see if any error comes up. Is the path where the module has been installed in your
echo $PYTHONPATHto see the current paths. Add your local install directories if those are not there, e.g.
export PYTHONPATH="/Users/me/local/python2.7/site-packages:$PYTHONPATH". If it works afterwards, don't forget to append these export path statements to your
~/.bash_profile, so these will be set every time you launch a new shell.
pkgconfignot found. Check if the
$PKG_CONFIG_PATHvariable is set correctly, and pointing on a directory where pkgconfig really can be found.
- Error while trying to install py(2)cairo by pip. py(2)cairo could not be
installed by pip, but only by waf. Please set the
$PKG_CONFIG_PATHbefore. See mac-install-source.sh on how to install with waf.
- Error at pygraphviz build:
graphviz/cgraph.h file not found. This is because the directory of graphviz detected wrong by pkgconfig. See mac-install-source.sh how to set include dirs and library dirs by
- Can not install bioservices, because installation of jurko-suds fails. Ok, this fails because pip is not able to install the recent version of setuptools, because a very old version present in the system path. The development version of jurko-suds does not require setuptools, so you can install it directly from git as it is done in mac-install-source.sh.
- In Anaconda, pypath can be imported, but the modules and classes are missing. Apparently Anaconda has some built-in stuff called pypath. This has nothing to do with this module. Please be aware that Anaconda installs a completely separated Python distribution, and does not detect modules in the main Python installation. You need to install all modules within Anaconda's directory. mac-install-conda.sh does exactly this. If you still experience issues, please contact us.
Not many people have used pypath on Microsoft computers so far. Please share your experiences and contact us if you encounter any issue. We appreciate your feedback, and it would be nice to have better support for other computer systems.
The same workflow like you see in
mac-install-conda.sh should work for
Anaconda on Windows. The only problem you certainly will encounter is that not
all the channels have packages for all platforms. If certain channel provides
no package for Windows, or for your Python version, you just need to find an
other one. For this, do a search:
anaconda search -t conda <package name>
For example, if you search for pycairo, you will find out that vgauther
provides it for osx-64, but only for Python 3.4, while richlewis provides
also for Python 3.5. And for win-64 platform, there is the channel of
KristanAmstrong. Go along all the commands in
modify the channel if necessary, until all packages install successfully.
With other Python distributions
Here the basic principles are the same as everywhere: first try to install all external dependencies, after pip install should work. On Windows certain packages can not be installed by compiled from source by pip, instead the easiest to install them precompiled. These are in our case fisher, lxml, numpy (mkl version), pycairo, igraph, pygraphviz, scipy and statsmodels. The precompiled packages are available here: http://www.lfd.uci.edu/~gohlke/pythonlibs/. We tested the setup with Python 3.4.3 and Python 2.7.11. The former should just work fine, while with the latter we have issues to be resolved.
- "No module fabric available." -- or pysftp missing: this is not important, only certain data download methods rely on these modules, but likely you won't call those at all.
- Progress indicator floods terminal: sorry about that, will be fixed soon.
- Encoding related exceptions in Python2: these might occur at some points in the module, please send the traceback if you encounter one, and we will fix as soon as possible.
Special thanks to Jorge Ferreira for testing pypath on Windows!
Main improvements in the past releases:
- First release of pypath, for initial testing.
- Lots of small improvements in almost every module
- Networks can be read from local files, remote files, lists or provided by any function
- Almost all redistributed data have been removed, every source downloaded from the original provider.
- First version with partial Python 3 support.
- pyreact module with BioPaxReader and PyReact classes added
- Process description databases, BioPax and PathwayCommons SIF conversion rules are supported
- Format definitions for 6 process description databases included.
- Many classes have been added to the plot module
- All figures and tables in the manuscript can be generated automatically
- This is supported by a new module, analysis, which implements a generic
workflow in its Workflow class.
- homology module: finds the homologs of proteins using the NCBI
Homologene database and the homologs of PTM sites using UniProt sequences
and PhosphoSitePlus homology table
* ptm module: fully integrated way of processing enzyme-substrate
interactions from many databases and their translation by homology to other
* export module: creates
pandas.DataFrame or exports the network into
* New webservice
* TF Regulons database included and provides much more comprehensive
transcriptional regulation resources, including literature curated, in silico
predicted, ChIP-Seq and expression pattern based approaches
* Many network resources added, including miRNA-mRNA and TF-miRNA interactions
- New, more flexible network reader class
- Full support for multi-species molecular interaction networks
(e.g. pathogene-host) * Better support for not protein only molecular interaction networks (metabolites, drug compounds, RNA) * ChEMBL webservice interface, interface for PubChem and eventually forDrugBank * Silent mode: a way to suppress messages and progress bars
The primary aim of pypath is to build up networks from multiple sources on one igraph object. pypath handles ambiguous ID conversion, reads custom edge and node attributes from text files and MySQL.
Submodules perform various features, e.g. graph visualization, working with rug compound data, searching drug targets and compounds in ChEMBL.
The ID conversion module
mapping can be used independently. It has the
feature to translate secondary UniProt IDs to primaries, and Trembl IDs to
SwissProt, using primary Gene Symbols to find the connections. This module
automatically loads and stores the necessary conversion tables. Many tables
are predefined, such as all the IDs in UniProt mapping service, while
users are able to load any table from file or MySQL, using the classes
provided in the module
pypath includes data and predefined format descriptions for more than 25
high quality, literature curated databases. The inut formats are defined in
data_formats module. For some resources data downloaded on the fly,
where it is not possible, data is redistributed with the module. Descriptions
and comprehensive information about the resources is available in the
One of the modules called
intera provides many classes for representing
structures and mechanisms behind protein interactions. These are
Interface. All these classes have
methods to test equality between instances, and also
methods to look up easily if a residue is within a short motif or protein
domain, or is the target residue of a PTM.
seq contains a simple class for quick lookup any residue or
segment in UniProt protein sequences while being aware of isoforms.
For 3 protein expression databases there are functions and modules for
downloading and combining the expression data with the network. These are the
Human Protein Atlas, the ProteomicsDB and GIANT. The
proteomicsdb modules can be used also as stand alone Python clients for
GSEA and Gene Ontology are two approaches for annotating genes and
gene products, and enrichment analysis technics aims to use these annotations
to highlight the biological functions a given set of genes is related to. Here
enrich module gives abstract classes to calculate enrichment
statistics, while the
go and the
gsea modules give access to GO and
GSEA data, and make it easy to count enrichment statistics for sets of genes.
UniChem submodule provides an interface to effectively query the UniChem service, use connectivity search with custom settings, and translate SMILEs to ChEMBL IDs with ChEMBL web service.
ChEMBL submodule queries directly your own ChEMBL MySQL instance, has the features to search targets and compounds from custom assay types and relationship types, to get activity values, binding domains, and action types. You need to download the ChEMBL MySQL dump, and load into your own server.
MySQL submodule helps to manage MySQL connections and track queries. It is
able to run queries parallely to optimize CPU and memory usage on the server,
handling queues, and serve the result by server side or client side storage.
chembl and potentially the
mapping modules rely on this
The most important function in module
dataio is a very flexible download
manager built around
curl. The function
numerous arguments, tries to deal in a smart way with local cache,
authentication, redirects, uncompression, character encodings, FTP and HTTP
transactions, and many other stuff. Cache can grow to several GBs, and takes
./cache by default. Please be aware of this, and use for example
symlinks in case of using multiple working directories.
A simple webservice comes with this module: the
server module based on
twisted.web.server opens a custom port and serves plain text tables over
HTTP with REST style querying.