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Docker-Lock-Banner

About

ci cd-master cd-tag Go Report Card PkgGoDev

docker-lock is a cli tool that automates managing image digests by tracking them in a separate Lockfile (think package-lock.json or Pipfile.lock). With docker-lock, you can refer to images in Dockerfiles, docker-compose V3 files, and Kubernetes manifests by mutable tags (as in python:3.6) yet receive the same benefits as if you had specified immutable digests (as in python:3.6@sha256:25a189a536ae4d7c77dd5d0929da73057b85555d6b6f8a66bfbcc1a7a7de094b).

Note: If you are unsure about the differences between tags and digests, refer to this quick summary.

docker-lock ships with 3 commands that take you from development to production:

  • docker lock generate finds images in your Dockerfiles, docker-compose files, and Kubernetes manifests and generates a Lockfile containing digests that correspond to their tags.
  • docker lock verify lets you know if there are more recent digests than those last recorded in the Lockfile.
  • docker lock rewrite rewrites Dockerfiles, docker-compose files, and Kubernetes manifests to include digests.

docker-lock is most commonly used as a cli-plugin for docker so lock can be used as subcommand of docker as in docker lock. However, docker-lock does not require docker at all. Instead, it can be called manually as a standalone executable as in docker-lock lock. This is especially convenient if the proper version of docker is unavailable or you would prefer to use another container technology such as podman.

Demo

Consider a project with a multi-stage build Dockerfile at its root:

FROM ubuntu AS base
# ...
FROM mperel/log:v1
# ...
FROM python:3.6
# ...

Running docker lock generate from the root queries each images' registry to produce a Lockfile, docker-lock.json.

Generate GIF

Note that the Lockfile records image digests so you do not have to manually specify them.

Running docker lock verify ensures that the image digests are the same as those on the registry for the same tags.

Verify Success GIF

Now, assume that a change to mperel/log:v1 has been pushed to the registry.

Running docker lock verify shows that the image digest in the Lockfile is out-of-date because it differs from the newer image's digest on the registry.

Verify Fail GIF

While developing, it can be useful to generate a Lockfile, commit it to source control, and verify it periodically (for instance on PR merges). In this way, developers can be notified when images change, and if a bug related to a change in an image crops up, it will be easy to identify.

Finally, lets assume the Dockerfile is ready to be built and shared.

Running docker lock rewrite will add digests from the Lockfile to all of the images.

Rewrite GIF

At this point, the Dockerfile will contain all of the digest information from the Lockfile, so it will always maintain the same, known behavior in the future.

Install

docker-lock can be run as a

Cli-plugin

Ensure docker cli version >= 19.03 is installed by running docker --version.

Linux / Mac

$ mkdir -p "${HOME}/.docker/cli-plugins"
$ curl -fsSL "https://github.com/safe-waters/docker-lock/releases/download/v${VERSION}/docker-lock_${VERSION}_${OS}_${ARCH}.tar.gz" | tar -xz -C "${HOME}/.docker/cli-plugins" "docker-lock"
$ chmod +x "${HOME}/.docker/cli-plugins/docker-lock"

Windows

  • Create the folder %USERPROFILE%\.docker\cli-plugins
  • Download the Windows release from the releases page.
  • Unzip the release.
  • Move docker-lock.exe into %USERPROFILE%\.docker\cli-plugins

Standalone tool

  • Follow the same instructions as in the cli-plugin section except place the docker-lock executable in your PATH.
  • To use docker-lock, replace any docker command such as docker lock with the name of the executable, docker-lock, as in docker-lock lock.
  • To verify that docker-lock was installed, run:
$ docker-lock lock --help

Docker image

docker-lock can be run in a docker container, as below. If you leave off the ${VERSION} tag, you will use the latest, nightly build from the master branch.

Note: If your host machine uses a credential helper such as osxkeychain, wincred, or pass, the credentials will not be available to the container even if you pass in your docker config.

Linux / Mac

  • Without your docker config:
$ docker run -v "${PWD}":/run safewaters/docker-lock:${VERSION} [commands]
  • With your docker config:
$ docker run -v "${HOME}/.docker/config.json":/.docker/config.json:ro -v "${PWD}":/run safewaters/docker-lock:${VERSION} [commands]

Windows

  • Without your docker config:
$ docker run -v "%cd%":/run safewaters/docker-lock:${VERSION} [commands]
  • With your docker config:
$ docker run -v "%USERPROFILE%\.docker\config.json":/.docker/config.json:ro -v "%cd%":/run safewaters/docker-lock:${VERSION} [commands]

Available tags

  • By default, images are built from scratch. These images only contain the docker-lock executable and are tagged as follows:
    • safewaters/docker-lock:${VERSION}
    • safewaters/docker-lock
  • If you need a shell alongside the executable (as is required by some CI/CD providers such as Gitlab), images built from alpine are provided. They are tagged as follows:
    • safewaters/docker-lock:${VERSION}-alpine
    • safewaters/docker-lock:alpine

Use

Registries

docker-lock supports public and private registries. If necessary, login to docker before using docker-lock.

How to specify configuration options

docker-lock supports options via cli flags or a configuration file, .docker-lock.yml. The root of this repo has an example, .docker-lock.yml.example.

To see available options, run commands with --help. For instance:

$ docker lock --help
$ docker lock generate --help
$ docker lock verify --help
$ docker lock rewrite --help
$ docker lock version --help

Note: You can mix and match cli flags to get the output that you want.

Generate

Commands for Dockerfiles, docker-compose files, and Kubernetes manifests

  • docker lock generate will collect all default files (Dockerfile, docker-compose.yaml, docker-compose.yml, pod.yml, pod.yaml, deployment.yml, deployment.yaml, job.yml, and job.yaml in the default base directory, the directory from which the command is run) and generate a Lockfile.

  • docker lock generate --lockfile-name=[file name] will generate a Lockfile with the file name as the output, instead of the default docker-lock.json.

  • docker lock generate --update-existing-digests will generate a Lockfile, querying for all digests, even those that are hardcoded in the files. Normally, if a digest is hardcoded, it would be used in the Lockfile.

  • docker lock generate --ignore-missing-digests will generate a Lockfile, recording images for which a digest could not be found as not having a digest. Normally, if a digest cannot be found, docker-lock would print an error.

  • docker lock generate --base-dir=[sub directory] will collect all default files in a sub directory and generate a Lockfile.

Commands for Dockerfiles

  • docker lock generate --dockerfiles=[file1,file2,file3] will collect all files from a comma separated list ("file1,file2,file3") as well as default docker-compose files and Kubernetes manifests and generate a Lockfile.

  • docker lock generate --exclude-all-dockerfiles will generate a Lockfile, excluding all Dockerfiles.

  • docker lock generate --dockerfile-recursive will collect all default Dockerfiles (Dockerfile) in subdirectories from the base directory as well as default docker-compose files and Kubernetes manifests in the base directory and generate a Lockfile.

  • docker lock generate --dockerfile-globs='[glob pattern]' will collect all Dockerfiles that match the glob pattern relative to the base directory as well as default docker-compose files and Kubernetes manifests in the base directory and generate a Lockfile. Use '**' to recursively search directories. Remember to quote using single quotes so that the glob is not expanded before docker-lock uses it.

Commands for docker-compose files

  • docker lock generate --composefiles=[file1,file2,file3] will collect all files from a comma separated list ("file1,file2,file3") as well as default Dockerfiles files and Kubernetes manifests and generate a Lockfile.

  • docker lock generate --exclude-all-composefiles will generate a Lockfile, excluding all docker-compose files.

  • docker lock generate --composefile-recursive will collect all default docker-compose files (docker-compose.yaml, docker-compose.yml) in subdirectories from the base directory as well as default Dockerfiles and Kubernetes manifests in the base directory and generate a Lockfile.

  • docker lock generate --composefile-globs='[glob pattern]' will collect all docker-compose files that match the glob pattern relative to the base directory as well as default Dockerfiles and Kubernetes manifests in the base directory and generate a Lockfile. Use '**' to recursively search directories. Remember to quote using single quotes so that the glob is not expanded before docker-lock uses it.

Commands for Kubernetes manifests

  • docker lock generate --kubernetesfiles=[file1,file2,file3] will collect all files from a comma separated list ("file1,file2,file3") as well as default Dockerfiles files and docker-compose files and generate a Lockfile.

  • docker lock generate --exclude-all-kubernetesfiles will generate a Lockfile, excluding all Kubernetes manifests.

  • docker lock generate --kubernetesfile-recursive will collect all default Kubernetes manifests (pod.yaml, pod.yml) in subdirectories from the base directory as well as default Dockerfiles and docker-compose files in the base directory and generate a Lockfile.

  • docker lock generate --kubernetesfile-globs='[glob pattern]' will collect all Kubernetes manifests that match the glob pattern relative to the base directory as well as default Dockerfiles and docker-compose files in the base directory and generate a Lockfile. Use '**' to recursively search directories. Remember to quote using single quotes so that the glob is not expanded before docker-lock uses it.

Verify

  • docker lock verify will take an existing Lockfile, with the default name, docker-lock.json, generate a new Lockfile and report differences between the new and existing Lockfiles.

  • docker lock verify --lockfile-name=[file name] will use another file, instead of the default docker-lock.json, as the Lockfile.

  • docker lock verify --exclude-tags will check for differences between a newly generated Lockfile and the existing Lockfile, ignoring if tags are different.

  • docker lock verify --ignore-missing-digests will verify, but when generating the new Lockfile to compare against, will assume that digests that cannot be found are empty. Normally, if a digest could not be found, an error would be reported.

  • docker lock verify --update-existing-digests will verify, but when generating the new Lockfile to compare against, will query for digests even if they are hardcoded. Normally, the new Lockfile would use the hardcoded digests, instead of querying for the most recent one.

Rewrite

  • docker lock rewrite will write the image names, tags, and digests from the Lockfile into the referenced Dockerfiles, docker-compose files, and Kubernetes manifests.

  • docker lock rewrite --lockfile-name=[file name] will use another file, instead of the default docker-lock.json, as the Lockfile.

  • docker lock rewrite --exclude-tags will write image names and digests, but not the tags, from the Lockfile into the referenced Dockerfiles, docker-compose files, and Kubernetes manifests.

  • docker lock rewrite --tempdir=[directory] will create a temporary directory in the [directory] and write all files into it. Afterwards, the files are renamed to the appropriate location and the temporary directory is deleted. Normally, this occurs in the current directory. In general, this 2 step process happens to ensure that either all rewrites succeed, or none of them do. There are also other rollback measures in docker-lock to ensure this transaction happens and you are not left with some files rewritten if a failure occurs.

Suggested workflow

  • Locally run docker lock generate to create a Lockfile, docker-lock.json, and commit it.
  • Continue developing normally, as if the Lockfile does not exist.
  • When merging a code change/releasing, run docker-lock in a CI/CD pipeline. Specifically:
    • In the pipeline, run docker lock verify to make sure that the Lockfile is up-to-date. If docker lock verify fails, the developer can locally rerun docker lock generate to update the Lockfile. This has the benefit that digest changes will be explicitly tracked in git.
    • Once the docker lock verify step in the pipeline passes, the pipeline should run docker lock rewrite so all files have correct digests hardcoded in them.
    • The pipeline should run tests that use the rewritten images.
    • If the tests pass, merge the code change/push the images to the registry, etc.

Contributing

Development environment

A development container based on ubuntu:bionic has been provided, so ensure docker is installed and the docker daemon is running.

  • Open the project in VSCode.
  • Install VSCode's Remote Development Extension - Containers.
  • In the command palette (ctrl+shift+p on Windows/Linux, command+shift+p on Mac), type "Reopen in Container".
  • In the command palette type: "Go: Install/Update Tools" and select all.
  • When all tools are finished installing, in the command palette type: "Developer: Reload Window".
  • The docker daemon is mapped from the host into the dev container, so you can use docker and docker-compose commands from within the container as if they were run on the host.

Build from source

To build and install docker-lock in docker's cli-plugins directory, from the root of the project, run:

$ make install

Code quality and correctness

To clean, format, lint, install, generate a new Lockfile, and run unit tests:

make

The CI pipeline will additionally run integration tests on pull requests.

You can run any step individually.

  • To uninstall: make clean
  • To install into docker's cli-plugins directory: make install
  • To generate a new Lockfile: make lock
  • To format Go code: make format
  • To lint all code: make lint
  • To run unit tests: make unittest

To view the coverage report after running unit tests, open coverage.html in your browser.

Note: While there exists a target in the Makefile for integration tests, these cannot run locally because they require credentials that are only available in the CI pipeline.

Tutorials

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Automatically manage image digests in Dockerfiles, docker-compose files, and Kubernetes manifests by tracking them in a separate Lockfile

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