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The source code of the Automation I4.0 Ontology using Semantic Web Technologies for the new era of automation systems in the Industry 4.0.
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Automation-I4.0-Min-Ontology - Application.owl
Automation-I4.0-Min-Ontology - CodeGeneration.owl

Automation I4.0 Ontology

Architecture of the Ontology:

Composition of the semantic models - Model Framework:

Update 13/03/2019

The Automation-I4.0-Ontology has been updated. Some fixes and new features have been added.

  • The Automation-I4.0-Ontology (merged with the STO) is complete, but not tested yet.
  • The Automation-I4.0-Ontology (without the STO) is complete, running, and tested in Protégé and the application.
  • The example application is already available in the folder AutomationI40Ontology-Example.
  • Some fixes and changes in the Discrete Dynamics Ontology (ddo.owl), Core Ontology (Automation-I4.0-Core-Ontology), and Minified Standards Ontology (min-std-o.owl) were done.
  • New files added: Automation-I4.0-Min-Ontology - Application.owl to run with the Application example (owl file with no instances). Automation-I4.0-Min-Ontology - CodeGeneration.owl to export the Java code in Protégé (this file has different domains in some properties to accept multiple classes in Java domain properties).
  • RDF-OWL-(TTL - Original STO) Serializations for consolidated ontologies.

Initial commit 04/01/2019

The Automation-I4.0-Ontology is intended to cover a new perspective of the automation systems by means of the use of the Semantic Web Technologies(SWT).

The main ontology Automation-I4.0-Ontology.owl or .rdf is composed by several modules which contain specific semantic models.

  • The Automation-I4.0-Core-Ontology automation-I4.0-core-ontology-v1.3.owl which contains the core, the body of the complete ontology.
  • The Discrete-Dynamics-Ontology (DDO) ddo-v2.owl which contains the semantic representation of discrete dynamics models (Automatas, Petri Nets).
  • The Minified-Standards-Ontology min-std-o.owl which is a little ontology to integrate the partial main ontology (Automation-I4.0-Min-Ontology.owl) with the Standards Ontology (sto-owl.owl).
  • The Standards Ontology sto-owl.owl by Grangel et al ( serialized in owl format.

The integrated Automation-I4.0-Ontology with the STO is not yet stable to use with any reasoner. I recommend to use the Automation-I4.0-Min-Ontology by now; it is the same ontology without the Standards Ontology.

RDF serializations are available for Automation-I4.0-Ontology and Automation-I4.0-Min-Ontology.


Core Ontology

The core ontology is composed by several classes and axioms.
It contains many well-defined SWRL rules.


It is the more difficult and low-level ontology. Contains several aspects of discrete dynamics desing for Automatas and Petri Nets.
Unlike to common Automata-PN models, it provides high-level and advanced concepts which enable "cognitive" aspects for automation systems in the Industry 4.0.
As it has many features, some more useful than others, it may lack of other ones (It is a complex task to define such concepts). Feel free to contribute with them.
The DDO is composed by several classes and axioms.
It contains many well-defined SWRL rules.

Minified Standards Ontology

It is a simple ontology that makes easier the integration of the STO and the Automation-I4.0-Min-Ontology.
It has few classes.
It has some well-defined SWRL rules.


The Standards Ontology is a work done by Irlán Grangel, Steffen Lohman, and Paul Baptista at Fraunhofer IAIS. Please see , for more details.
I make a special acknowledge for such work and their support with the STO code.


This project is being carried out currently under my master's thesis "A proposal of a formal model to integrate distributed service-based automation systems, semantic models, and automation standards.".
I keep on doing enhancements and adding new features while doing my research project.

  • No publications have been published yet.


The Automation I4.0 Ontology was designed to work in real systems, thus, the folder AutomationI40Ontology-Example contains a Java project which runs the ontology over a metal separation process system (emulated) and an OPC UA server using the Eclipse Milo stack.
The application contains a subfolder OPC UA Clients which has two python files which run the OPC UA clientes using the Free OPC UA stack in 1 or 2 Raspberry(ies) PI.
Additional features like the process, SQWRL queries, and inference exportation are provided.
See folder for more detail.

Contribution and support

If you are interested in contribute to this project, feel free to do it.
Regarding to the support, I am working on it continuosly, so, if any problem appears, do not hesitate to create an issue.


Automation-I4.0-Ontology is licensed by an Apache License 2.0 (see for more details).
Copyright 2019 Santiago Gil

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