Skip to content
Branch: master
Go to file

Latest commit


Failed to load latest commit information.
Latest commit message
Commit time

Relay Web UI: Mesos Web UI:

Relay.Mesos: Run Relay and Mesos

In short, Relay.Mesos runs Relay as a Mesos framework. By combining both of these tools, we can solve control loop problems that arise in distributed systems. An example problem Relay.Mesos might solve is to spin up queue consumers to maintain or minimize a queue size. You could also use Relay.Mesos to set a target CPU usage over time for all instances of a particular task running on your mesos cluster.

What is Relay?

Relay is "a thermostat for distributed systems." It is a tool that attempts to make a metric timeseries as similar to a target as possible, and it works like thermostat does for temperature.

Details on Relay's Github page.

What is Mesos?

Apache Mesos is "a distributed systems kernel." It pools resources from networked machines and then provides a platform that executes code over those resources. It's basically a bin-packing scheduler and resource manager that identifies which resources are available and then provides ways to use those resources.

Details on Mesos's landing page.

White paper about Mesos (this is good reading)

What is Relay.Mesos?

Relay.Mesos will iteratively ask Mesos to run tasks on the cluster. These tasks will either eventually increase or eventually decrease some measured metric. Relay.Mesos will quickly learn how the metric changes over time and tune its requests to Mesos so it can minimize the difference between the metric and a desired target value for that metric.


  1. Install Docker

  2. Identify docker in /etc/hosts

     # I added this to my /etc/hosts file:
     # localdocker
     # If you use boot2docker, this should work:
     # $ echo "$(boot2docker ip) localdocker" | sudo tee -a /etc/hosts
  3. Run the demo script.

    • When you run this for the first time, docker may need to download a lot of the required images to get mesos running on your computer

        # ./bin/     # run the demo


Relay.Mesos is made up of two primary components: a Mesos framework and a Relay event loop. Relay continuously requests that the mesos framework run a number of tasks. The framework receives resource offers from mesos and, if the most recent Relay request can be fulfilled, it will attempt to fulfill it by spinning up "warmer" or "cooler" tasks. If Relay requests can't be fulfilled because Mesos cluster is at capacity, then Relay will continue to ask to spin up tasks, but nothing will happen.

If no mesos resource offers are available for a long time, Relay.Mesos will become starved for resources. This can result in Relay.Mesos building up a history of error between the target and the metric. If Relay.Mesos has been starved for Mesos resources for a while, when resources become available again, Relay might initially ask for too many resources because it's learned that asking for a lot of tasks to spin up results in very little or no difference in the metric. In any case, it will quickly re-learn the right thing to do.

In Relay.Mesos, as with Relay generally, there are 4 main components: metric, target, warmer and cooler.

The metric and target are both python generator functions (ie timeseries), that, when called, each yield a number. The metric is a signal that we're monitoring and manipulating. The target represents a desired value that Relay attempts to make the metric mirror as closely as possible.

The warmer and cooler are expected to (eventually) modify the metric. Executing a warmer will increase the metric. Executing a cooler will decrease the metric. In Relay.Mesos, the warmer and cooler are bash commands. These may be executed in your docker containers, if you wish.


(See QuickStart for a demo using Docker containers)

Autoscaling processes that run, complete, and then exit:

Relay.Mesos can ensure that the number of jobs running at any given time is enough to consume a queue.

Metric = queue size
Target = 0
Warmer = "./"
(Cooler would not be defined)

Relay.Mesos can schedule the number of consumers or servers running at a particular time of day

Metric = number of consumers
Target = max_consumers * is_night  # this could work too: sin(time_of_day) * max_consumers
Warmer = "./"
(Cooler would not be defined)

Relay.Mesos can attempt to maintain a desired amount of cpu usage

Metric = cpu_used - expected_cpu_used
Target = 0
Cooler = "run a bash command that uses the cpu"
(Warmer not defined)

Autoscaling long-running processes that never die.

Relay.Mesos can auto-scale the number of web-servers running:

Metric = desired number of web servers (as function of current load)
Target = number of webserver instances currently running
Warmer = Marathon API call to increase # webserver instances by 1
Cooler = Marathon API call to decrease # webserver instances by 1

Relay.Mesos can guarantee a minimum number of running redis instances

Metric = max(min_instances, desired num of redis instances)
Target = current number of redis instances
Warmer = API call to increase # redis instances by 1
Cooler = API call to decrease # redis instances by 1
Math side-note if you need help calculating a Metric function

A Metric function that might ensure that the number of instances is between some bounds could use the following equation:

(Qsize - Qminsize) / (Qmaxsize - Qminsize) * (Imax - Imin) + Imin


Qsize = current queue size
Qmax = maximum expected queue size
Qmin = minimum expected queue size (ie 0)
Imax = Max desired num of instances
Imin = Min desired num of instances

To get you thinking in the right direction, consider this scenario: Perhaps you have a real-valued metric that is much larger than the number of tasks/instances you may be auto scaling. Perhaps you also don't know the max and min values of the metric, but you have a mean and standard deviation. You can experiment with a metric function that bounces between -1 and 1, with occasional numbers beyond the range. For instance, you could try the below function, and also perhaps have the mean and standard deviation iteratively update over time:

Metric = `(Qsize - Qmean) // Qstdev`  # the // means integer division
                                      # rather than floating point division
                                      # 1 / 2 == .5  VS 1 // 2 = 0`
Target = 0
Warmer = "cmd to add more servers"
Cooler = "cmd to remove some servers"

More complex metrics might use other scaling functions, a logistic function, probabilistic expressions or regression functions.

When auto-scaling long-running processes, you may need to set the --relay_delay (ie. min num seconds between warmer / cooler calls) to a number larger than the default value of 1 second. Also, if you find that the long-running process is already mesos-aware (ie running via Marathon), it might make it more sense for you to use Relay rather than Relay.Mesos.

Configuration Options:

All configuration options specific to Relay.Mesos are visible when you run one of the following commands:

$ docker-compose run relay relay.mesos -h

# or, if you have relay.mesos installed locally

$ relay.mesos -h

Configuration options can also be passed in via environment variables

Relay.Mesos options are prefixed with RELAY_MESOS. For instance:


Relay-only options (ie those that start with "RELAY_"):



A mesos plugin for Relay that lets you auto-scale the number of currently running instances of a bash command



You can’t perform that action at this time.