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AES encryption/decryption demo program using OpenSSL EVP apis
gcc -Wall openssl_aes.c -lcrypto
this is public domain code.
Saju Pillai (
#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <openssl/evp.h>
* Create an 256 bit key and IV using the supplied key_data. salt can be added for taste.
* Fills in the encryption and decryption ctx objects and returns 0 on success
int aes_init(unsigned char *key_data, int key_data_len, unsigned char *salt, EVP_CIPHER_CTX *e_ctx,
int i, nrounds = 5;
unsigned char key[32], iv[32];
* Gen key & IV for AES 256 CBC mode. A SHA1 digest is used to hash the supplied key material.
* nrounds is the number of times the we hash the material. More rounds are more secure but
* slower.
i = EVP_BytesToKey(EVP_aes_256_cbc(), EVP_sha1(), salt, key_data, key_data_len, nrounds, key, iv);
if (i != 32) {
printf("Key size is %d bits - should be 256 bits\n", i);
return -1;
EVP_EncryptInit_ex(e_ctx, EVP_aes_256_cbc(), NULL, key, iv);
EVP_DecryptInit_ex(d_ctx, EVP_aes_256_cbc(), NULL, key, iv);
return 0;
* Encrypt *len bytes of data
* All data going in & out is considered binary (unsigned char[])
unsigned char *aes_encrypt(EVP_CIPHER_CTX *e, unsigned char *plaintext, int *len)
/* max ciphertext len for a n bytes of plaintext is n + AES_BLOCK_SIZE -1 bytes */
int c_len = *len + AES_BLOCK_SIZE, f_len = 0;
unsigned char *ciphertext = malloc(c_len);
/* allows reusing of 'e' for multiple encryption cycles */
EVP_EncryptInit_ex(e, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL);
/* update ciphertext, c_len is filled with the length of ciphertext generated,
*len is the size of plaintext in bytes */
EVP_EncryptUpdate(e, ciphertext, &c_len, plaintext, *len);
/* update ciphertext with the final remaining bytes */
EVP_EncryptFinal_ex(e, ciphertext+c_len, &f_len);
*len = c_len + f_len;
return ciphertext;
* Decrypt *len bytes of ciphertext
unsigned char *aes_decrypt(EVP_CIPHER_CTX *e, unsigned char *ciphertext, int *len)
/* plaintext will always be equal to or lesser than length of ciphertext*/
int p_len = *len, f_len = 0;
unsigned char *plaintext = malloc(p_len);
EVP_DecryptInit_ex(e, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL);
EVP_DecryptUpdate(e, plaintext, &p_len, ciphertext, *len);
EVP_DecryptFinal_ex(e, plaintext+p_len, &f_len);
*len = p_len + f_len;
return plaintext;
int main(int argc, char **argv)
/* "opaque" encryption, decryption ctx structures that libcrypto uses to record
status of enc/dec operations */
/* 8 bytes to salt the key_data during key generation. This is an example of
compiled in salt. We just read the bit pattern created by these two 4 byte
integers on the stack as 64 bits of contigous salt material -
ofcourse this only works if sizeof(int) >= 4 */
unsigned int salt[] = {12345, 54321};
unsigned char *key_data;
int key_data_len, i;
char *input[] = {"a", "abcd", "this is a test", "this is a bigger test",
"\nWho are you ?\nI am the 'Doctor'.\n'Doctor' who ?\nPrecisely!",
/* the key_data is read from the argument list */
key_data = (unsigned char *)argv[1];
key_data_len = strlen(argv[1]);
/* gen key and iv. init the cipher ctx object */
if (aes_init(key_data, key_data_len, (unsigned char *)&salt, &en, &de)) {
printf("Couldn't initialize AES cipher\n");
return -1;
/* encrypt and decrypt each input string and compare with the original */
for (i = 0; input[i]; i++) {
char *plaintext;
unsigned char *ciphertext;
int olen, len;
/* The enc/dec functions deal with binary data and not C strings. strlen() will
return length of the string without counting the '\0' string marker. We always
pass in the marker byte to the encrypt/decrypt functions so that after decryption
we end up with a legal C string */
olen = len = strlen(input[i])+1;
ciphertext = aes_encrypt(&en, (unsigned char *)input[i], &len);
plaintext = (char *)aes_decrypt(&de, ciphertext, &len);
if (strncmp(plaintext, input[i], olen))
printf("FAIL: enc/dec failed for \"%s\"\n", input[i]);
printf("OK: enc/dec ok for \"%s\"\n", plaintext);
return 0;
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