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README.rst

Ceph formula

Introduction

Ceph provides extraordinary data storage scalability. Thousands of client hosts or KVMs accessing petabytes to exabytes of data. Each one of your applications can use the object, block or file system interfaces to the same RADOS cluster simultaneously, which means your Ceph storage system serves as a flexible foundation for all of your data storage needs.

Use salt-formula-linux for initial disk partitioning.

Daemons

Ceph uses several daemons to handle data and cluster state. Each daemon type requires different computing capacity and hardware optimization.

These daemons are currently supported by formula:

  • MON (ceph.mon)
  • OSD (ceph.osd)
  • RGW (ceph.radosgw)

Architecture decisions

Please refer to upstream achritecture documents before designing your cluster. Solid understanding of Ceph principles is essential for making architecture decisions described bellow. http://docs.ceph.com/docs/master/architecture/

  • Ceph version

There is 3 or 4 stable releases every year and many of nighty/dev release. You should decide which version will be used since the only stable releases are recommended for production. Some of the releases are marked LTS (Long Term Stable) and these releases receive bugfixed for longer period - usually until next LTS version is released.

  • Number of MON daemons

Use 1 MON daemon for testing, 3 MONs for smaller production clusters and 5 MONs for very large production cluster. There is no need to have more than 5 MONs in normal environment because there isn't any significant benefit in running more than 5 MONs. Ceph require MONS to form quorum so you need to heve more than 50% of the MONs up and running to have fully operational cluster. Every I/O operation will stop once less than 50% MONs is availabe because they can't form quorum.

  • Number of PGs

Placement groups are providing mappping between stored data and OSDs. It is necessary to calculate number of PGs because there should be stored decent amount of PGs on each OSD. Please keep in mind decreasing number of PGs isn't possible and increading can affect cluster performance.

http://docs.ceph.com/docs/master/rados/operations/placement-groups/ http://ceph.com/pgcalc/

  • Daemon colocation

It is recommended to dedicate nodes for MONs and RWG since colocation can have and influence on cluster operations. Howerver, small clusters can be running MONs on OSD node but it is critical to have enough of resources for MON daemons because they are the most important part of the cluster.

Installing RGW on node with other daemons isn't recommended because RGW daemon usually require a lot of bandwith and it harm cluster health.

  • Store type (Bluestore/Filestore)

Recent version of Ceph support Bluestore as storage backend and backend should be used if available.

http://docs.ceph.com/docs/master/rados/configuration/bluestore-config-ref/

  • Block.db location for Bluestore
There are two ways to setup block.db:
  • Colocated block.db partition is created on the same disk as partition for the data. This setup is easier for installation and it doesn't require any other disk to be used. However, colocated setup is significantly slower than dedicated)
  • Dedicate block.db is placed on different disk than data (or into partition). This setup can deliver much higher performance than colocated but it require to have more disks in servers. Block.db drives should be carefully selected because high I/O and durability is required.
  • Block.wal location for Bluestore
There are two ways to setup block.wal - stores just the internal journal (write-ahead log):
  • Colocated block.wal uses free space of the block.db device.
  • Dedicate block.wal is placed on different disk than data (better put into partition as the size can be small) and possibly block.db device. This setup can deliver much higher performance than colocated but it require to have more disks in servers. Block.wal drives should be carefully selected because high I/O and durability is required.
  • Journal location for Filestore
There are two ways to setup journal:
  • Colocated journal is created on the same disk as partition for the data. This setup is easier for installation and it doesn't require any other disk to be used. However, colocated setup is significantly slower than dedicated)
  • Dedicate journal is placed on different disk than data (or into partition). This setup can deliver much higher performance than colocated but it require to have more disks in servers. Journal drives should be carefully selected because high I/O and durability is required.
  • Cluster and public network

Ceph cluster is accessed using network and thus you need to have decend capacity to handle all the client. There are two networks required for cluster: public network and cluster network. Public network is used for client connections and MONs and OSDs are listening on this network. Second network ic called cluster networks and this network is used for communication between OSDs.

Both networks should have dedicated interfaces, bonding interfaces and dedicating vlans on bonded interfaces isn't allowed. Good practise is dedicate more throughput for the cluster network because cluster traffic is more important than client traffic.

  • Pool parameters (size, min_size, type)

You should setup each pool according to it's expected usage, at least min_size and size and pool type should be considered.

  • Cluster monitoring
  • Hardware

Please refer to upstream hardware recommendation guide for general information about hardware.

Ceph servers are required to fulfil special requirements becauce load generated by Ceph can be diametrically opposed to common load.

http://docs.ceph.com/docs/master/start/hardware-recommendations/

Basic management commands

Cluster

  • ceph health - check if cluster is healthy (ceph health detail can provide more information)
root@c-01:~# ceph health
HEALTH_OK
  • ceph status - shows basic information about cluster
root@c-01:~# ceph status
    cluster e2dc51ae-c5e4-48f0-afc1-9e9e97dfd650
     health HEALTH_OK
     monmap e1: 3 mons at {1=192.168.31.201:6789/0,2=192.168.31.202:6789/0,3=192.168.31.203:6789/0}
            election epoch 38, quorum 0,1,2 1,2,3
     osdmap e226: 6 osds: 6 up, 6 in
      pgmap v27916: 400 pgs, 2 pools, 21233 MB data, 5315 objects
            121 GB used, 10924 GB / 11058 GB avail
                 400 active+clean
  client io 481 kB/s rd, 132 kB/s wr, 185 op/

MON

http://ceph.com/docs/master/rados/troubleshooting/troubleshooting-mon/

OSD

http://ceph.com/docs/master/rados/troubleshooting/troubleshooting-osd/

  • ceph osd tree - show all OSDs and it's state
root@c-01:~# ceph osd tree
ID WEIGHT   TYPE NAME     UP/DOWN REWEIGHT PRIMARY-AFFINITY
-4        0 host c-04
-1 10.79993 root default
-2  3.59998     host c-01
 0  1.79999         osd.0      up  1.00000          1.00000
 1  1.79999         osd.1      up  1.00000          1.00000
-3  3.59998     host c-02
 2  1.79999         osd.2      up  1.00000          1.00000
 3  1.79999         osd.3      up  1.00000          1.00000
-5  3.59998     host c-03
 4  1.79999         osd.4      up  1.00000          1.00000
 5  1.79999         osd.5      up  1.00000          1.00000
  • ceph osd pools ls - list of pool
root@c-01:~# ceph osd lspools
0 rbd,1 test

PG

http://ceph.com/docs/master/rados/troubleshooting/troubleshooting-pg

  • ceph pg ls - list placement groups
root@c-01:~# ceph pg ls | head -n 4
pg_stat       objects mip     degr    misp    unf     bytes   log     disklog state   state_stamp     v       reported        up      up_primary      acting  acting_primary  last_scrub      scrub_stamp     last_deep_scrub deep_scrub_stamp
0.0   11      0       0       0       0       46137344        3044    3044    active+clean    2015-07-02 10:12:40.603692      226'10652       226:1798        [4,2,0] 4       [4,2,0] 4       0'0     2015-07-01 18:38:33.126953      0'0     2015-07-01 18:17:01.904194
0.1   7       0       0       0       0       25165936        3026    3026    active+clean    2015-07-02 10:12:40.585833      226'5808        226:1070        [2,4,1] 2       [2,4,1] 2       0'0     2015-07-01 18:38:32.352721      0'0     2015-07-01 18:17:01.904198
0.2   18      0       0       0       0       75497472        3039    3039    active+clean    2015-07-02 10:12:39.569630      226'17447       226:3213        [3,1,5] 3       [3,1,5] 3       0'0     2015-07-01 18:38:34.308228      0'0     2015-07-01 18:17:01.904199
  • ceph pg map 1.1 - show mapping between PG and OSD
root@c-01:~# ceph pg map 1.1
osdmap e226 pg 1.1 (1.1) -> up [5,1,2] acting [5,1,2]

Sample pillars

Common metadata for all nodes/roles

ceph:
  common:
    version: luminous
    cluster_name: ceph
    config:
      global:
        param1: value1
        param2: value1
        param3: value1
      pool_section:
        param1: value2
        param2: value2
        param3: value2
    fsid: a619c5fc-c4ed-4f22-9ed2-66cf2feca23d
    members:
    - name: cmn01
      host: 10.0.0.1
    - name: cmn02
      host: 10.0.0.2
    - name: cmn03
      host: 10.0.0.3
    keyring:
      admin:
        caps:
          mds: "allow *"
          mgr: "allow *"
          mon: "allow *"
          osd: "allow *"
      bootstrap-osd:
        caps:
          mon: "allow profile bootstrap-osd"

Optional definition for cluster and public networks. Cluster network is used for replication. Public network for front-end communication.

ceph:
  common:
    version: luminous
    fsid: a619c5fc-c4ed-4f22-9ed2-66cf2feca23d
    ....
    public_network: 10.0.0.0/24, 10.1.0.0/24
    cluster_network: 10.10.0.0/24, 10.11.0.0/24

Ceph mon (control) roles

Monitors: A Ceph Monitor maintains maps of the cluster state, including the monitor map, the OSD map, the Placement Group (PG) map, and the CRUSH map. Ceph maintains a history (called an “epoch”) of each state change in the Ceph Monitors, Ceph OSD Daemons, and PGs.

ceph:
  common:
    config:
      mon:
        key: value
  mon:
    enabled: true
    keyring:
      mon:
        caps:
          mon: "allow *"
      admin:
        caps:
          mds: "allow *"
          mgr: "allow *"
          mon: "allow *"
          osd: "allow *"

Ceph mgr roles

The Ceph Manager daemon (ceph-mgr) runs alongside monitor daemons, to provide additional monitoring and interfaces to external monitoring and management systems. Since the 12.x (luminous) Ceph release, the ceph-mgr daemon is required for normal operations. The ceph-mgr daemon is an optional component in the 11.x (kraken) Ceph release.

By default, the manager daemon requires no additional configuration, beyond ensuring it is running. If there is no mgr daemon running, you will see a health warning to that effect, and some of the other information in the output of ceph status will be missing or stale until a mgr is started.

ceph:
  mgr:
    enabled: true
    dashboard:
      enabled: true
      host: 10.103.255.252
      port: 7000

Ceph OSD (storage) roles

ceph:
  common:
    version: luminous
    fsid: a619c5fc-c4ed-4f22-9ed2-66cf2feca23d
    public_network: 10.0.0.0/24, 10.1.0.0/24
    cluster_network: 10.10.0.0/24, 10.11.0.0/24
    keyring:
      bootstrap-osd:
        caps:
          mon: "allow profile bootstrap-osd"
      ....
  osd:
    enabled: true
    crush_parent: rack01
    journal_size: 20480                     (20G)
    bluestore_block_db_size: 10073741824    (10G)
    bluestore_block_wal_size: 10073741824   (10G)
    bluestore_block_size: 807374182400     (800G)
    backend:
      filestore:
        disks:
        - dev: /dev/sdm
          enabled: false
          journal: /dev/ssd
          journal_partition: 5
          data_partition: 6
          lockbox_partition: 7
          data_partition_size: 12000        (MB)
          class: bestssd
          weight: 1.666
          dmcrypt: true
          journal_dmcrypt: false
        - dev: /dev/sdf
          journal: /dev/ssd
          journal_dmcrypt: true
          class: bestssd
          weight: 1.666
        - dev: /dev/sdl
          journal: /dev/ssd
          class: bestssd
          weight: 1.666
      bluestore:
        disks:
        - dev: /dev/sdb
        - dev: /dev/sdf
          block_db: /dev/ssd
          block_wal: /dev/ssd
          block_db_dmcrypt: true
          block_wal_dmcrypt: true
        - dev: /dev/sdc
          block_db: /dev/ssd
          block_wal: /dev/ssd
          data_partition: 1
          block_partition: 2
          lockbox_partition: 5
          block_db_partition: 3
          block_wal_partition: 4
          class: ssd
          weight: 1.666
          dmcrypt: true
          block_db_dmcrypt: false
          block_wal_dmcrypt: false
        - dev: /dev/sdd
          enabled: false

Ceph client roles - ...Deprecated - use ceph:common instead

Simple ceph client service

ceph:
  client:
    config:
      global:
        mon initial members: ceph1,ceph2,ceph3
        mon host: 10.103.255.252:6789,10.103.255.253:6789,10.103.255.254:6789
    keyring:
      monitoring:
        key: 00000000000000000000000000000000000000==

At OpenStack control settings are usually located at cinder-volume or glance- registry services.

ceph:
  client:
    config:
      global:
        fsid: 00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000
        mon initial members: ceph1,ceph2,ceph3
        mon host: 10.103.255.252:6789,10.103.255.253:6789,10.103.255.254:6789
        osd_fs_mkfs_arguments_xfs:
        osd_fs_mount_options_xfs: rw,noatime
        network public: 10.0.0.0/24
        network cluster: 10.0.0.0/24
        osd_fs_type: xfs
      osd:
        osd journal size: 7500
        filestore xattr use omap: true
      mon:
        mon debug dump transactions: false
    keyring:
      cinder:
        key: 00000000000000000000000000000000000000==
      glance:
        key: 00000000000000000000000000000000000000==

Ceph gateway

Rados gateway with keystone v2 auth backend

ceph:
  radosgw:
    enabled: true
    hostname: gw.ceph.lab
    bind:
      address: 10.10.10.1
      port: 8080
    identity:
      engine: keystone
      api_version: 2
      host: 10.10.10.100
      port: 5000
      user: admin
      password: password
      tenant: admin

Rados gateway with keystone v3 auth backend

ceph:
  common:
    config:
      rgw:
        key: value
  radosgw:
    enabled: true
    hostname: gw.ceph.lab
    bind:
      address: 10.10.10.1
      port: 8080
    identity:
      engine: keystone
      api_version: 3
      host: 10.10.10.100
      port: 5000
      user: admin
      password: password
      project: admin
      domain: default
    swift:
      versioning:
        enabled: true

Ceph setup role

Replicated ceph storage pool

ceph:
  setup:
    pool:
      replicated_pool:
        pg_num: 256
        pgp_num: 256
        type: replicated
        crush_rule: sata
        application: rbd

Note

For Kraken and earlier releases please specify crush_rule as a ruleset number. For Kraken and earlier releases application param is not needed.

Erasure ceph storage pool

ceph:
  setup:
    pool:
      erasure_pool:
        pg_num: 256
        pgp_num: 256
        type: erasure
        crush_rule: ssd
        application: rbd

Inline compression for Bluestore backend

ceph:
  setup:
    pool:
      volumes:
        pg_num: 256
        pgp_num: 256
        type: replicated
        crush_rule: hdd
        application: rbd
        compression_algorithm: snappy
        compression_mode: aggressive
        compression_required_ratio: .875
        ...

Ceph manage keyring keys

Keyrings are dynamically generated unless specified by the following pillar.

ceph:
  common:
    manage_keyring: true
    keyring:
      glance:
        name: images
        key: AACf3ulZFFPNDxAAd2DWds3aEkHh4IklZVgIaQ==
        caps:
          mon: "allow r"
          osd: "allow class-read object_prefix rdb_children, allow rwx pool=images"

Generate CRUSH map - Recommended way

It is required to define the type for crush buckets and these types must start with root (top) and end with host. OSD daemons will be assigned to hosts according to it's hostname. Weight of the buckets will be calculated according to weight of it's children.

If the pools that are in use have size of 3 it is best to have 3 children of a specific type in the root CRUSH tree to replicate objects across (Specified in rule steps by 'type region').

ceph:
  setup:
    crush:
      enabled: True
      tunables:
        choose_total_tries: 50
        choose_local_tries: 0
        choose_local_fallback_tries: 0
        chooseleaf_descend_once: 1
        chooseleaf_vary_r: 1
        chooseleaf_stable: 1
        straw_calc_version: 1
        allowed_bucket_algs: 54
      type:
        - root
        - region
        - rack
        - host
        - osd
      root:
        - name: root-ssd
        - name: root-sata
      region:
        - name: eu-1
          parent: root-sata
        - name: eu-2
          parent: root-sata
        - name: eu-3
          parent: root-ssd
        - name: us-1
          parent: root-sata
      rack:
        - name: rack01
          parent: eu-1
        - name: rack02
          parent: eu-2
        - name: rack03
          parent: us-1
      rule:
        sata:
          ruleset: 0
          type: replicated
          min_size: 1
          max_size: 10
          steps:
            - take take root-ssd
            - chooseleaf firstn 0 type region
            - emit
        ssd:
          ruleset: 1
          type: replicated
          min_size: 1
          max_size: 10
          steps:
            - take take root-sata
            - chooseleaf firstn 0 type region
            - emit

Generate CRUSH map - Alternative way

It's necessary to create per OSD pillar.

ceph:
  osd:
    crush:
      - type: root
        name: root1
      - type: region
        name: eu-1
      - type: rack
        name: rack01
      - type: host
        name: osd001

Add OSDs with specific weight

Add OSD device(s) with initial weight set specifically to certain value.

ceph:
  osd:
    crush_initial_weight: 0

Apply CRUSH map

Before you apply CRUSH map please make sure that settings in generated file in /etc/ceph/crushmap are correct.

ceph:
  setup:
    crush:
      enforce: true
    pool:
      images:
        crush_rule: sata
        application: rbd
      volumes:
        crush_rule: sata
        application: rbd
      vms:
        crush_rule: ssd
        application: rbd

Note

For Kraken and earlier releases please specify crush_rule as a ruleset number. For Kraken and earlier releases application param is not needed.

Persist CRUSH map

After the CRUSH map is applied to Ceph it's recommended to persist the same settings even after OSD reboots.

ceph:
  osd:
    crush_update: false

Ceph monitoring

By default monitoring is setup to collect information from MON and OSD nodes. To change the default values add the following pillar to MON nodes.

ceph:
  monitoring:
    space_used_warning_threshold: 0.75
    space_used_critical_threshold: 0.85
    apply_latency_threshold: 0.007
    commit_latency_threshold: 0.7
    pool:
      vms:
        pool_space_used_utilization_warning_threshold: 0.75
        pool_space_used_critical_threshold: 0.85
        pool_write_ops_threshold: 200
        pool_write_bytes_threshold: 70000000
        pool_read_bytes_threshold: 70000000
        pool_read_ops_threshold: 1000
      images:
        pool_space_used_utilization_warning_threshold: 0.50
        pool_space_used_critical_threshold: 0.95
        pool_write_ops_threshold: 100
        pool_write_bytes_threshold: 50000000
        pool_read_bytes_threshold: 50000000
        pool_read_ops_threshold: 500

Ceph monitor backups

Backup client with ssh/rsync remote host

ceph:
  backup:
    client:
      enabled: true
      full_backups_to_keep: 3
      hours_before_full: 24
      target:
        host: cfg01
        backup_dir: server-backup-dir

Backup client with local backup only

ceph:
  backup:
    client:
      enabled: true
      full_backups_to_keep: 3
      hours_before_full: 24

Backup client at exact times:

ceph:
  backup:
    client:
      enabled: true
      full_backups_to_keep: 3
      incr_before_full: 3
      backup_times:
        day_of_week: 0
        hour: 4
        minute: 52
      compression: true
      compression_threads: 2
      database:
        user: user
        password: password
      target:
        host: host01

Note

Parameters in backup_times section can be used to set up exact

time the cron job should be executed. In this example, the backup job would be executed every Sunday at 4:52 AM. If any of the individual backup_times parameters is not defined, the defalut * value will be used. For example, if minute parameter is *, it will run the backup every minute, which is ususally not desired. Available parameters are day_of_week, day_of_month, month, hour and minute. Please see the crontab reference for further info on how to set these parameters.

Note

Please be aware that only backup_times section OR

hours_before_full(incr) can be defined. If both are defined, the backup_times section will be peferred.

Note

New parameter incr_before_full needs to be defined. This

number sets number of incremental backups to be run, before a full backup is performed.

Backup server rsync

ceph:
  backup:
    server:
      enabled: true
      hours_before_full: 24
      full_backups_to_keep: 5
      key:
        ceph_pub_key:
          enabled: true
          key: ssh_rsa

Backup server without strict client restriction

ceph:
  backup:
    restrict_clients: false

Backup server at exact times:

ceph:
  backup:
    server:
      enabled: true
      full_backups_to_keep: 3
      incr_before_full: 3
      backup_dir: /srv/backup
      backup_times:
        day_of_week: 0
        hour: 4
        minute: 52
      key:
        ceph_pub_key:
          enabled: true
          key: key

Note

Parameters in backup_times section can be used to set up exact

time the cron job should be executed. In this example, the backup job would be executed every Sunday at 4:52 AM. If any of the individual backup_times parameters is not defined, the defalut * value will be used. For example, if minute parameter is *, it will run the backup every minute, which is ususally not desired. Available parameters are day_of_week, day_of_month, month, hour and minute. Please see the crontab reference for further info on how to set these parameters.

Note

Please be aware that only backup_times section OR

hours_before_full(incr) can be defined. If both are defined, The backup_times section will be peferred.

Note

New parameter incr_before_full needs to be defined. This

number sets number of incremental backups to be run, before a full backup is performed.

Migration from Decapod to salt-formula-ceph

The following configuration will run a python script which will generate ceph config and osd disk mappings to be put in cluster model.

ceph:
  decapod:
    ip: 192.168.1.10
    user: user
    password: psswd
    deploy_config_name: ceph

More information

Documentation and bugs

To learn how to install and update salt-formulas, consult the documentation available online at:

http://salt-formulas.readthedocs.io/

In the unfortunate event that bugs are discovered, they should be reported to the appropriate issue tracker. Use Github issue tracker for specific salt formula:

https://github.com/salt-formulas/salt-formula-ceph/issues

For feature requests, bug reports or blueprints affecting entire ecosystem, use Launchpad salt-formulas project:

https://launchpad.net/salt-formulas

You can also join salt-formulas-users team and subscribe to mailing list:

https://launchpad.net/~salt-formulas-users

Developers wishing to work on the salt-formulas projects should always base their work on master branch and submit pull request against specific formula.

https://github.com/salt-formulas/salt-formula-ceph

Any questions or feedback is always welcome so feel free to join our IRC channel:

#salt-formulas @ irc.freenode.net