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# strings are defined with double quotes
# like variables, strings can contain any unicode character
s1 = "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog α,β,γ"
println(s1)
#> The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog α,β,γ
# [println](https://docs.julialang.org/en/v1/base/io-network/#Base.println) adds a new line to the end of output
# [print](https://docs.julialang.org/en/v1/base/io-network/#Base.print) can be used if you dont want that:
print("this")
#> this
print(" and")
#> and
print(" that.\n")
#> that.
# chars are defined with single quotes
c1 = 'a'
println(c1)
#> a
# the ascii value of a char can be found with Int():
println(c1, " ascii value = ", Int(c1))
#> a ascii value = 97
println("Int('α') == ", Int('α'))
#> Int('α') == 945
# so be aware that
println(Int('1') == 1)
#> false
# strings can be converted to upper case or lower case:
s1_caps = uppercase(s1)
s1_lower = lowercase(s1)
println(s1_caps, "\n", s1_lower)
#> THE QUICK BROWN FOX JUMPS OVER THE LAZY DOG Α,Β,Γ
#> the quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog α,β,γ
# sub strings can be indexed like arrays:
# ([show](https://docs.julialang.org/en/v1/base/io-network/#Base.show-Tuple{Any}) prints the raw value)
show(s1[11]); println()
#> 'b'
# or sub strings can be created:
show(s1[1:10]); println()
#> "The quick "
# end is used for the end of the array or string
show(s1[end-10:end]); println()
#> "dog α,β,γ"
# julia allows string [Interpolation](https://docs.julialang.org/en/v1/manual/strings/#string-interpolation-1):
a = "welcome"
b = "julia"
println("$a to $b.")
#> welcome to julia.
# this can extend to evaluate statements:
println("1 + 2 = $(1 + 2)")
#> 1 + 2 = 3
# strings can also be concatenated using the * operator
# using * instead of + isn't intuitive when you start with Julia,
# however [people think it makes more sense](https://groups.google.com/forum/#!msg/julia-users/nQg_d_n0t1Q/9PSt5aya5TsJ)
s2 = "this" * " and" * " that"
println(s2)
#> this and that
# as well as the string function
s3 = string("this", " and", " that")
println(s3)
#> this and that