Archive and make discoverable data and links with schema.org metadata.
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README.md

dcat

Archive and make discoverable data and links with schema.org metadata.

NPM

Usage (CLI)

tl;dr

dcat --help

Registering an User (adduser)

Run

dcat adduser

and follow the prompting wizard.

Publishing (publish)

Simple document

dcat allows the publication of JSON-LD documents using dcat.io context. This context extends schema.org with terms relevant to do I/O and preserve data integrity (like filePath and Checksum).

At the minimum, a document has to contain

  • a context (@context) set to https://dcat.io,
  • an id (@id) to uniquely identify things published on dcat.io with URLs. All relative URLs will be resolved with a base (defined in the context (@base)) of https://dcat.io

e.g.

{
  "@context": "https://dcat.io",
  "@id": "mydoc"
}

To publish this document (mydoc), create a file named JSONLD and in the directory containing JSONLD run:

dcat publish

After publication the document will be available at https://dcat.io/mydoc.

Documents can contain any properties from schema.org or from any other ontologies as long as the associated @context are provided.

Versioning

If a version property is specified in the document, the document will be versioned, that is, each update will require a new version value in order to be published (this prevents existing versions from being overwritten).

When appropriate version number SHOULD follow semantic versioning

e.g.

{
  "@context": "https://dcat.io",
  "@id": "mydoc",
  "version": "0.0.1"
}

After publication this document will be available at https://dcat.io/mydoc?version=0.0.1 whereas the latest version will always be available at https://dcat.io/mydoc.

In case the document is versioned following Semantic Versioning, a range (e.g. <0.0.1) can be specified as version (e.g. https://dcat.io/mydoc?version=<0.0.1)

Nodes

Document can be arbitrarily complex (having multiple nodes) and sometimes, it makes sense to assign a URL to a node so that it can be referenced. This is achieved by setting @id properties to the desired nodes

e.g.

{
  "@context": "https://dcat.io",
  "@id": "mydoc",
  "version": "0.0.1",
  "hasPart": {
    "@id": "mydoc/data",
    "@type": "Dataset",
    "description": "a dataset part of the document"
  }
}

The whole document can be retrieved at https://dcat.io/mydoc whereas the part (node) can be retrieved at https://dcat.io/mydoc/data

Note: nodes can be any valid URLs but they have to be namespaced within the top level @id (for a document of ""@id": "mydoc"", "@id": "mydoc/arbitrarily/long/pathname" will be valid whereas "@id": "part" won't).

Adding metadata to existing URLs

dcat can be used to add machine readable metadata to any resources already published on the web. For instance running:

dcat init https://github.com/standard-analytics/dcat.git

we get a basic machine readable document:

{
  "@context": "https://dcat.io",
  "@id": "mydoc",
  "@type": "Code",
  "codeRepository": "https://github.com/standard-analytics/dcat",
  "encoding":  {
    "@type": "MediaObject",
     "contentUrl": "https://api.github.com/repos/standard-analytics/dcat/tarball/master",
     "encodingFormat": "application/x-gzip",
     "contentSize": 690980
   }
}

This document should be extended with more properties (from schema.org such as author, contributor, about, programmingLanguage, runtime..., or from any other web ontologies, taking care to add contexts in this case) to improve the discoverability and reusability of the resource.

Note, in addition to absolute URLs, dcat supports CURIE for the prefixes defined in the dcat.io @context. Using a CURIE, the previous is simplified to:

dcat init github:standard-analytics/dcat.git

Files (raw data)

For all the subclasses of schema.org/CreativeWork (e.g Dataset, Code, SoftwareApplication, Article, Book, ImageObject, VideoObject, AudioObject, ...) dcat allows the publication of raw data from files (including datasets, binaries, images, media, and more...) along with documents.

For instance if you have an a PDF of a MedicalScholarlyArticle and an associated Dataset in CSV you can run:

dcat init --main article.pdf::MedicalScholarlyArticle --part data.csv

Note: ::MedicalScholarlyArticle associates a type (@type) with the resource (article.pdf).

This will generate a machine readable document (JSONLD) that you can edit to provide additional metadata.

{
  "@context": "https://dcat.io",
  "@id": "mydoc",
  "@type": "MedicalScholarlyArticle",
  "encoding": {
    "@type": "MediaObject",
    "filePath": "article.pdf"
  },
  "hasPart": {
    "@type": "Dataset",
    "distribution": {
      "@type": "DataDownload",
      "filePath": "data.csv"
    }
  }
}

After publication (dcat publish) the document will acquire additional URL properties that can be dereferenced to retrieved the original raw data:

{
  "@context": "https://dcat.io",
  "@id": "mydoc",
  "@type": "MedicalScholarlyArticle",
  "encoding": {
    "@type": "MediaObject",
    "filePath": "article.pdf",
    "contentUrl": "http://example.com/article.pdf" //generated URL
  },
  "hasPart": {
    "@type": "Dataset",
    "distribution": {
      "@type": "DataDownload",
      "filePath": "data.csv",
      "contentUrl": "http://example.com/data.csv" //generated URL
    }
  }
}

Note: dcat init supports globbing so you can run commands like:

dcat init --main article.pdf --part *.csv

or repeat --part (or the shorter -p) if you need more complex matching e.g.

dcat init --m article.pdf -p *.csv -p *.jpg

Directories

Directories are published as tarballs. For instance, running

dcat init -m src::Code --id cproject

where src is a directory of source files

src
├── lib.h
└── main.c

will generate:

{
  "@context": "https://dcat.io",
  "@id": "cproject",
  "@type": "Code",
  "programmingLanguage": { "name": "c" },
  "encoding": {
    "@type": "MediaObject",
    "encodingFormat": "application/x-gtar",
    "hasPart": [
      { "@type": "MediaObject", "filePath": "src/lib.h" },
      { "@type": "MediaObject", "filePath": "src/main.c" }
    ]
  }
}

After publication, the MediaObject will have a contentUrl property indicating where the tarball can be retrieved.

Unpublishing (unpublish)

To delete a specific version of a document of "@id": "mydoc" run:

dcat unpublish ldr:mydoc?version=0.1.1

ldr is the prefix used for https://dcat.io (defined in the dcat.io @context).

To delete all versions of a document of "@id": "mydoc" run:

dcat unpublish ldr:mydoc

Retrieving documents and raw data (search, show, clone)

Search

Document containing keywords, name or description properties can be searched by keyword with dcat search followed by a list of keywords.

For more powerful search, all data published on dcat.io are valid linked data fragments and can be queried using SPARQL.

Show (expanded, compacted, flattened, normalized )

dcat show followed by a CURIE displays the latest JSON-LD document corresponding to the CURIE on stdout.

Different options (-e, --expand, -f, --flatten, -c, --compact, -n, --normalize) provide alternative representations of the document. For instance,

dcat show ldr:mydoc?version=<2.1.0 --normalize

will serialize the latest version smaller than 2.1.0 of the document of "@id": "mydoc" to N-Quads (RDF).

Clone

dcat clone followed by a CURIE downloads the raw data associated with a document and stores them along with the document on disk at the paths specified by the filePath properties.

Listing / Adding / Removing maintainers (maintainer)

Only maintainers of a document can publish or remove versions of a document. Maintainers of a document can be listed with:

dcat maintainer ls <CURIE>

Maintainers can give users maintainer rights by running:

dcat maintainer add <user CURIE> <doc CURIE>

Note: all user of dcat.io have a CURIE of ldr:users/{username}

Maintainers can remove maintainer rights by running:

dcat maintainer rm <user CURIE> <doc CURIE>

API

dcat can also be used programmatically.

var Dcat = require('dcat');
var dcat = new Dcat();

var doc = {
  '@context': 'https://dcat.io,
  '@id': 'test',
  name: 'hello world'
};

dcat.publish(doc, function(err, cdoc){
  console.log(err, cdoc); //cdoc is compacted
});

See test/test.js for more examples.

History

package.json -> datapackage.json -> package.jsonld -> JSON-LD + schema.org + hydra + linked data fragment.

Registry

By default, dcat uses dcat.io, a linked data registry hosted on cloudant.

Tests

You need a local instance of the linked data registry running on your machine on port 3000. Then, run:

npm test

License

Apache-2.0.