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-TileCloud
-=========
-
-A powerful utility for generating, managing, transforming, and visualizing map tiles in multiple formats.
-
-
-
-Introduction
-============
-
-TileCloud is a powerful utility for generating, managing, transforming, visualising and map tiles in multiple formats. It can create, read update, delete tiles in multiple back ends, called TileStores. Existing TileStores include:
-
-* HTTP/REST in any layout
-
-* WMTS
-
-* Amazon [S3](http://aws.amazon.com/s3/) and [SQS](http://aws.amazon.com/sqs/)
-
-* [MBTiles](https://github.com/mapbox/mbtiles-spec)
-
-* [TileJSON](https://github.com/mapbox/TileJSON)
-
-* Local file system
-
-* Log files in any format
-
-TileCloud is not limited to image tiles, it can also handle other tile data such as [UTFGrid](https://github.com/mapbox/utfgrid-spec), or elevation data in JSON format.
-
-TileCloud uses Python's generators and iterators to efficiently stream tens of millions of tiles, and can handle multiple tiles in parallel using Python's [multiprocessing](http://docs.python.org/library/multiprocessing.html) library.
-
-Example tasks that TileCloud makes easy include:
-
-* Visualize tiles stored in any TileStore with [OpenLayers](http://www.openlayers.org/), [Google Maps](http://maps.google.com/), [jQuery Geo](http://www.jquerygeo.com/), [Leaflet](http://leaflet.cloudmade.com/), [Polymaps](http://polymaps.org/), [Modest Maps](http://www.modestmaps.com/), and [OpenWebGlobe](http://www.openwebglobe.org/).
-
-* Convert sixty million PNG tiles stored in S3 to JPEG format with different quality settings at different zoom levels.
-
-* Transform image formats and perform arbitrary image transformations on the fly, including PNG optimization.
-
-* Generate semi-transparent tiles with embedded tile coordinates for debugging.
-
-* Pack multiple tile layers into a single tile on the server.
-
-* Efficiently calculate bounding boxes and detect missing tiles in existing tile datasets.
-
-* Simulate fast and slow tile servers.
-
-* Efficiently delete millions of tiles in S3.
-
-* Read JSON tiles from a tarball, compress them, and upload them.
-
-
-
-Getting started
-===============
-
-TileCloud depends on [Bottle](http://bottlepy.org/), [pyproj](http://code.google.com/p/pyproj/) and [Pycairo](http://cairographics.org/pycairo/). It's easiest to install them with `pip` in a `virtualenv`:
-
- $ virtualenv .
- $ . bin/activate
- $ pip install bottle pyproj
-
-Unfortunately, Pycairo does not install with `pip`, so use your system's package manager to install the system package (on Ubuntu it's `python-cairo`).
-
-For a quick demo, run
-
- $ ./tc-viewer --root=3/4/2 'http://gsp2.apple.com/tile?api=1&style=slideshow&layers=default&lang=en_GB&z=%(z)d&x=%(x)d&y=%(y)d&v=9'
-
-and point your browser at <http://localhost:8080/>. Type `Ctrl-C` to terminate `tc-viewer`.
-
-Next, download an example MBTiles file from [MapBox](http://mapbox.com/), such as [Geography Class](http://tiles.mapbox.com/mapbox/map/geography-class). We can quickly find out more about this tile set with the `tc-info` command. For example, to count the number of tiles:
-
- $ ./tc-info -t count geography-class.mbtiles
- 87381
-
-To calculate the bounding pyramid:
-
- $ ./tc-info -t bounding-pyramid -r geography-class.mbtiles
- 0/0/0:+1/+1
- 1/0/0:+2/+2
- 2/0/0:+4/+4
- 3/0/0:+8/+8
- 4/0/0:+16/+16
- 5/0/0:+32/+32
- 6/0/0:+64/+64
- 7/0/0:+128/+128
- 8/0/0:+256/+256
-
-To check for missing tiles against a bounding pyramid:
-
- $ ./tc-info -b 0/0/0:8/*/* -t completion geography-class.mbtiles
- 0 1/1 (100%)
- 1 4/4 (100%)
- 2 16/16 (100%)
- 3 64/64 (100%)
- 4 256/256 (100%)
- 5 1024/1024 (100%)
- 6 4096/4096 (100%)
- 7 16384/16384 (100%)
- 8 65536/65536 (100%)
-
-This shows, for each zoom level, the number of tiles at that zoom level, the total number of tiles expected at that zoom level for the specified bounding pyramid (`0/0/0:8/*/*` means all tiles from level 0 to level 8), and a percentage completion. This can be useful for checking that a tile set is complete.
-
-Now, display this MBTiles tile set on top of the [OpenStreetMap](http://www.openstreetmap.org/) tiles and a debug tile layer:
-
- $ ./tc-viewer tiles.openstreetmap_org geography-class.mbtiles tiles.debug.black
-
-You'll need to point your browser at <http://localhost:8080/> and choose your favourite library.
-
-`tc-info` and `tc-viewer` are utility programs. Normally you use TileCloud by writing short Python programs that connect the TileCloud's modules to perform the action that you want.
-
-As a first example, run the following:
-
- $ PYTHONPATH=. examples/download.py
-
-This will download a few tiles from [OpenStreetMap](http://www.openstreetmap.org/) and save them in a local MBTiles file called `local.mbtiles`. Look at the source code to `examples/download.py` to see how it works. If there are problems with the download, just interrupt it with `Ctrl-C` and re-run it: the program will automatically resume where it left off.
-
-Once you have downloaded a few tiles, you can view them directly with `tc-viewer`:
-
- $ ./tc-viewer --root=4/8/5 local.mbtiles tiles.debug.black
-
-Point your browser at <http://localhost:8080> as usual. The `--root` option to `tc-viewer` instructs the viewer to start at a defined tile, rather than at 0/0/0, so you don't have to zoom in to find the tiles that you downloaded.
-
-
-
-Quick tile generation
-=====================
-
-The `tc-copy` command can be used to copy tiles between different TileStores. If a TileStore has the side effect of generating tiles, then it functions as a quick tile generation utility. First, some quick examples.
-
-To convert from one tile format to another, just copy from source to destination. For example, to convert an MBTiles file in to a ZIP file, just run:
-
- $ ./tc-copy geography-class.mbtiles geography-class.zip
-
-You can check this worked with `unzip`:
-
- $ unzip -t geography-class.zip
-
-Equally, `tc-copy` can be used to download multiple tiles:
-
- $ ./tc-copy --bounding-pyramid 4/0/0:0/16/16 tiles.openstreetmap_org osm-up-to-z4.mbtiles
-
-Here we downloaded zoom levels 0 to 4 of the OpenStreetMap tiles into a local MBTiles file. The `--bounding-pyramid` option is required because otherwise we would download *all* OpenStreetMap tiles -- which might take some time (and also contravene OpenStreetMap's tile usage policy). Note that, by default, `tc-copy` won't overwrite tiles if they already exist in the destination. This means that you can interrupt the above command and restart it, and it will resume where it was interrupted. If you want to overwrite tiles in the destination then pass the `--overwrite` option to `tc-copy`.
-
-In the same way, `tc-copy` can also be used to upload tiles. For example, to upload an MBTiles file to S3, just use:
-
- $ ./tc-copy osm-up-to-z4.mbtiles s3://bucket/prefix/%(z)d/%(x)d/%(y)d.jpg
-
-`bucket` is the name of your S3 bucket. You'll need to have set the `AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID` and `AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY` environment variables to have permission to upload to S3. The rest of the destination (`prefix/%(z)d/%(x)d/%(y)d.jpg`) is a template describing the layout of the tiles in S3. It's a normal Python format string: `%(x)d` means substitute the tile's `x` coordinate as a decimal integer.
-
-You can pass the same `s3://` URL to `tc-viewer`. This allows you to visualise your tiles stored in S3 with your favourite mapping library. For example:
-
- $ ./tc-viewer s3://bucket/prefix/%(z)d/%(x)d/%(y)d.jpg
-
-Here, `tc-viewer` is acting as a proxy, serving tiles stored in S3 over HTTP, bypassing any caches or access controls (assuming you have the correct credentials, of course). This allows you to visualize the exact tiles that you've stored.
-
-
-
-Rendering the World
-===================
-
-At [FOSS4G-NA](http://foss4g-na.org/), [MapBox](http://mapbox.com/) presented an excellent strategy for [rendering the world](http://mapbox.com/blog/rendering-the-world/). TileCloud supports the subdivision strategy. To run the demo, execute:
-
- $ python examples/renderingtheworld.py
-
-This will generate tiles from a WMTS tile server and save them in a local MBTiles tiles. When the above command is complete, you can see the bounding pyramid of the generated tiles:
-
- $ ./tc-info -t bounding-pyramid -r medford_buildings.mbtiles
- 0/0/0:+1/+1
- 1/0/0:+1/+1
- 2/0/1:+1/+1
- 3/1/2:+1/+1
- 4/2/5:+1/+1
- 5/5/11:+1/+1
- 6/10/23:+1/+1
- 7/20/47:+1/+1
- 8/40/94:+2/+2
- 9/80/189:+2/+1
- 10/162/378:+1/+2
- 11/324/757:+2/+2
- 12/649/1514:+3/+3
- 13/1299/3028:+4/+5
- 14/2598/6057:+7/+8
- 15/5196/12114:+13/+15
-
-You can look at these tiles (which show buildings in Medford, OR) with the command:
-
- ./tc-viewer --root=7/20/47 tiles.openstreetmap_org medford_buildings.mbtiles
-
-
-
-A cheap-and-cheerful tile server
-================================
-
-`tc-viewer` can be used as a lightweight tile server, which can be useful for development, debugging and off-line demos. The TileStores passed as arguments to `tc-viewer` are available at the URL:
-
- http://localhost:8080/tiles/{index}/tiles/{z}/{x}/{y}
-
-where `{index}` is the index of the TileStore on the command line (starting from 0 for the first tile store), and `{z}`, `{x}` and `{y}` are the components of the tile coordinate. The second `tiles` in the URL is present to work around assumptions made by OpenWebGlobe. This layout is directly usable by most mapping libraries, see the code in `views/*.tpl` for examples. The host and port can be set with the `--host` and `--port` command line options, respectively.
-
-Note that there is no file extension. `tc-viewer` will automatically set the correct content type and content encoding headers if it can determine them, and, failing this, most browsers will figure it out for themselves.
-
-For convenience, `tc-viewer` serves everything in the `static` directory under the URL `/static`. This can be used to serve your favourite mapping library and/or application code directly for testing purposes.
-
-By default, `tc-viewer` will use [Tornado](http://www.tornadoweb.org/) as a web server, if it is available, otherwise it will fall back to [WSGIRef](http://docs.python.org/library/wsgiref.html). Tornado has reasonably good performance, and is adequate for local development and off-line demos, especially when used with a MBTiles TileStore. WSGIRef has very poor performance (it handles only one request at a time) and as such can be used as a "slow" tile server, ideal for debugging tile loading code or testing how your web application performs over a slow network connection. `tc-viewer` is particularly slow when used to proxy tiles being served by a remote server. You can set the server explicitly with the `--server` option.
-
-`tc-viewer` sets the `Access-Control-Allow-Origin` header to `*` for all the tiles it serves, this allows the tiles to be used as textures for WebGL applications running on different hosts/ports. For more information, see [Cross-Domain Textures](https://developer.mozilla.org/en/WebGL/Cross-Domain_Textures).
-
-`tc-viewer` is designed as a development tool, and the power that it offers comes at the expense of fragility. It makes many assumptions - including the benevolence of the user - that make it entirely unsuitable as a generic tile server. It should only be used in development or demonstration environments.
-
-
-
-Comparing mapping libraries
-===========================
-
-`tc-viewer` supports most popular web mapping libraries out-of-the box. This can be very useful for quick, practical comparisons. If your favourite mapping library is missing, please submit an [issue](https://github.com/twpayne/tilecloud/issues), or, even better, a [pull request](https://github.com/twpayne/tilecloud/pulls).
-
-
-
-Contributing
-============
-
-Please report bugs and feature requests using the [GitHub issue tracker](https://github.com/twpayne/tilecloud/issues).
-
-TileCloud comes with unit tests in the `tilecloud/tests` directory. You can run these with the command:
-
- $ make test
-
-This is equivalent to:
-
- $ python setup.py nosetests
-
-For pull requests, it is very much appreciated if your code passes [pep8](http://pypi.python.org/pypi/pep8) and [pyflakes](http://pypi.python.org/pypi/pyflakes) without warnings, with the exception of pep8 warning "E501 line too long", which is allowed. You can run pep8 and pyflakes on the codebase with the command:
-
- $ make pep8 pyflakes
-
-
-
-License
-=======
-
-Copyright (c) 2012, Tom Payne <twpayne@gmail.com>
-All rights reserved.
-
-Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
-
-* Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
-
-* Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
-
-THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
-
-vim: set filetype=markdown spell spelllang=en textwidth=0:
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