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forall x: Dortmund


forall x: Dortmund is an adaptation and German translation of forall x: Calgary. As such, it is a full-featured textbook on formal logic. It covers key notions of logic such as consequence and validity, the syntax of truth-functional (propositional) logic and truth-table semantics, the syntax of first-order (predicate) logic with identity and first-order interpretations, formalizing German in TFL and FOL, and Fitch-style natural deduction proof systems for both TFL and FOL. It also deals with some advanced topics such as the syntax and (Kripke-)semantics of modal logic. The book is provided in PDF and in LaTeX source code. A booklet with solutions for all exercises in the book is available.

Download links below.

Credits and License

forall x: Dortmund is an adaptation and German translation, compiled by Simon Wimmer (proofread by Daniel Foelsch), of forall x: Calgary used under a CC BY 4.0 license. forall x: Calgary is based on forall x: Cambridge, by Tim Button used under a CC BY 4.0 license, which is based in turn on forall x, by P.D. Magnus used under a CC BY 4.0 license, and was remixed, revised, & expanded by Aaron Thomas-Bolduc & Richard Zach. It includes additional material from forall x by P.D. Magnus and Metatheory by Tim Button, both used under a CC BY 4.0 license, from forall x: Lorain County Remix, by Cathal Woods and J. Robert Loftis, used with permission, and A Modal Logic Primer by Robert Trueman, used with permission. forall x: Dortmund omits the material on Metatheory.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The LaTeX source code for this work is available on GitHub at


You can download a PDF of the book and accompanying solutions booklet here:

Make PDFs Yourself

Clone the GitHub repository locally or download the ZIP file and run LaTeX on

  • forallxdo.tex (in color, for screen reading)

You'll have to run makeglossaries to produce the glossary as well.


TU Dortmund version of forallx, an introduction to formal logic. Based on UCalgary version of forallx.







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