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sbz's FreeBSD commands cheat-sheet

Mount commands

  • Mount MS-DOS file system (USB-stick, external FAT32 drive)
sudo mount_msdosfs [-o large] /dev/ad0s1 /mnt
  • Mount ISO 9660 using memory disk
sudo mount -t cd9660 /dev/`mdconfig -f <image.iso>` /mnt
  • Mount Linux procfs
sudo mkdir -p /proc
sudo mount -t procfs proc /proc
  • Mount Linux linprocfs
sudo mkdir -p /compat/linux/proc
sudo mount -t linprocfs linproc /compat/linux/proc
  • Mount file descriptor fs
sudo mount -t fdescfs fdesc /dev/fd

Update commands

  • Perform FreeBSD binary upgrade
sudo freebsd-update fetch
sudo freebsd-update upgrade -r <release>
sudo freebsd-update install

Pkg commands

  • Update packages databases from repository
sudo pkg update
sudo pkg [-d] update
  • Upgrade packages to new version
sudo pkg upgrade [-f]
  • Update vuln.xml database
sudo pkg audit -F
  • Is installed?
pkg info|grep <pkg>
  • Display package information
pkg info <pkg>
pkg show <pkg>
  • Lock package to current version and Display locked packages
pkg lock <pkg>
pkg lock -l
  • Clean local cache
sudo pkg clean -y
  • Display packages stats
pkg stats
  • Find the package installing the file:
pkg which /usr/local/bin/vim
  • Find the file if package is not installed:
sudo pkg install pkg-provides
sudo pkg provides -uf
pkg provides /path/to/file

Network commands

sudo netstat -p tcp -an
sudo sockstat -P tcp -a

Also refer to dtrace tcp script into /usr/share/dtrace

cd /usr/share/dtrace
sudo tcpconn
sudo tcpdebug
sudo tcpstate
sudo tcptrack

Kernel modules commands

  • List loaded kernel modules
sudo kldstat [-v]
  • Load Kernel module (HW thermal sensors)
sudo kldload <module>
sudo kldload coretemp
  • Generate hints for the boot loader
sudo kldxref [v] /boot/kernel /boot/modules
sudo kldxref -R /boot
  • Dump running kernel config
sysctl -n kern.conftxt
config -x /boot/kernel/kernel

Ports commands

  • Update and extract snapshot
sudo mkdir -p /usr/ports
sudo portsnap fetch extract
  • Looking for a port in the tree
cd /usr/ports/*/*/<portname>
make -C /usr/ports search name=<portname>
make -C /usr/ports search name=<portname> display=name,path

sudo pkg install psearch
psearch <portname>
  • Display port compiler flags
make -C /usr/ports/editors/vim -V CFLAGS
  • Display port variables
make -C /usr/ports/editors/vim -V MAINTAINER -V PORTVERSION
make -C /usr/ports/editors/vim -V WRKSRC -V WRKDIR
  • Fetch distfile(s)
cd /usr/ports/editors/vim && make fetch extract
cd work
  • Regenerate distfile(s) info hash
make -C /usr/ports/editors/vim makesum
  • Alter KNOB/Options config
make -C /usr/ports/editors/vim showconfig
make -C /usr/ports/editors/vim config
make -C /usr/ports/editors/vim rmconfig

make check-license check-categories check-deprecated check-vulnerable security-check check-sanity check-plist check-orphans check-config
  • List ports Makefile targets
grep -E '^[^${\.#]+:$' /usr/ports/Mk/ |cut -d ':' -f1 | sort -u
make -C /usr/ports -V .ALLTARGETS
  • List dependencies to rebuild
make all-depends-list
make build-depends-list
make run-depends-list
  • Rebuild ports w/o building their dependencies
make missing-packages # list missing packages
make install-missing-packages
make install clean

Src commands

  • Extract /usr/src Makefile targets with descriptions (list all available targets)
grep '^# [a-z].*- [A-Z].*' /usr/src/Makefile | sed 's,^# ,,' | sort
make -C /usr/src -V .ALLTARGETS
  • Enter into userland binary utility (e.g ls) sources code folder
cd `whereis -sq ls`

Poudriere commands

  • Create jail
sudo poudriere jail -c -j <jail> -v 12.2-RELEASE -a <arch> -M ftp -p <ptree>
sudo poudriere jail -c -j 12amd64 -v 12.2-RELEASE -a amd64 -M ftp -p portsdir
  • Delete jail
sudo poudriere jail -d -j <jail> -C all
sudo poudriere jail -d -j 12amd64 -C all
  • List jail(s)
sudo poudriere jail -l
sudo poudriere jail -l [-n] [-q]
  • Upgrade jail
sudo poudriere jail -u -j <jail>
sudo poudriere jail -u -j <jail> -t 12.1
  • Create ports
sudo poudriere ports -c -m null -M ${PWD}/git/ports -p portsdir -v
sudo poudriere ports -l
  • List ports tree
sudo poudriere ports -l
sudo poudriere ports -l [-n] [-q]
  • Test port build
sudo poudriere testport -o <origin>/<port> -p portsdir -n # dry run
sudo poudriere testport -o editors/vim -p portsdir -v # verbose

Developer commands

  • Get sources

(via subversion: deprecated)

svn checkout [-q] ~/svn/src
svn checkout [-q] svn:// ~/svn/src
svn checkout [-q] svn+ssh:// ~/svn/src

(via git)

git clone --depth 1 /usr/src
git clone --depth 1 /usr/src

For specific branch, e.g. 12.x release:

git checkout -b releng-12.2 freebsd/releng/12.2
git switch -c releng-12.2 freebsd/releng/12.2
  • Get ports

(via subversion: deprecated)

svn checkout [-q] ~/svn/ports
svn checkout [-q] svn:// ~/svn/ports
svn checkout [-q] svn+ssh:// ~/svn/ports

(via git)

git clone --depth 1 /usr/ports
git clone --depth 1 /usr/ports

Wireless commands

  • Restart wireless network
sudo service wpa_supplicant restart wlan0
  • List Wireless devices
sysctl net.wlan.devices
  • List Wireless SSID Access point (w/ wlan0 device)
sudo ifconfig [-v] wlan0 list scan
  • Debug wireless stack (e.g. case for iwn(4) driver)
sudo sysctl debug.iwi=1
sudo sysctl hw.wi.debug=1
sudo sysctl net.wlan.debug=1

Bluetooth commands

  • Scan Bluetooth peripherals
sudo bluetooth-config scan
  • Enable Bluetooth association
sudo service hcsecd start
  • List Bluetooth connections
sudo btsockstat -n

Build commands

  • World and Kernel build
cd /usr/src
sudo nice -n -20 make -j`sysctl -n hw.ncpu` -DNO_CLEAN -DKERNFAST buildworld buildkernel | tee -a build.log
  • Install Kernel (debug)
cd /usr/src
sudo make installworld installkernel
sudo make installkernel.debug
  • Update etc configs
sudo etcupdate
sudo mergemaster -ui

Hardware commands

  • PCI devices
sudo pciconf -vl

sudo pkg install pciutils
sudo lspci [-v]
  • USB devices
sudo usbconfig list
sudo usbconfig dump_all_desc

sudo pkg install usbutils
sudo lsusb [-v]
  • CPU Info
sudo dmesg
sudo dmesg | sed -n '/^CPU:/,/^real/p'
sudo sysctl hw.model hw.ncpu
sudo sysctl kern.smp.cpus

Memory commands

  • Virtual memory statistics
vmstat -c 1
sysctl hw.realmem hw.physmem
top -bt 0
  • Memory total, wired, active, cache
sysctl vm.stats|grep count
  • Process memory mappings
procstat vm <pid> or procstat -v <pid>
cat /proc/<pid>/map
cat /compat/linux/proc/<pid>/maps

Sounds commands

  • Sounds devices
sudo cat /dev/sndstat
sudo sysctl dev.pcm
  • Disable beep
sudo sysctl hw.syscons.bell=0
sudo sysctl kern.vt.enable_bell=0
  • Volume mixer
mixer vol 100

IO commands

  • Device read/write IO stats
iostat [-x]
iostat -x -w 1 # watch mode

ZFS Commands

  • ZFS Take snapshot (of zroot)
sudo zfs snapshot -r zroot@<name-of-snapshot>
  • ZFS List snapshot
zfs list -t snapshot
ls -1 /.zfs/snapshot/
  • ZFS Pools import
sudo zpool import -R /mnt zroot
sudo zpool import -R /mnt -e readonly=on zroot # readonly
  • ZFS Datasets list and mount
zfs list
sudo mount -t vfs zroot/usr/home /tmp/home
  • ZFS Protect snapshot from deletion
sudo zfs hold keep -r zroot@<name-of-snapshot>
zfs holds zroot@<name-of-snapshost>
  • ZFS Restore snapshot
sudo zfs rollback zroot@<name-of-snapshot>
  • ZFS Destroy snapshot
sudo zfs destroy -r zroot@<name-of-snapshot>


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