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Basic Development Fundamentals

  • Variables
    • Like basic algebra
     x = 4
     x = x + 2
     print x
  • Arrays
    • A list of items
    • Numbered index
    array_cars('ford', 'honda');
    print array_cars[1];
  • Named indexes
    array('first' => 'ford', 'second' => 'honda');
    print array['first'];
  • Classes/Objects
    • The ultimate variable type
    • The basic structure is called a class, and implementation of that class is an object
    • Can contain its own variables called "properties"
    • Can contain functions called "methods"
    object_car1->make = 'ford'
    object_car1->color = 'grey'
    object_car1->mileage = '35000'
    object_car1->state = 'dirty'
  • Lets say we have a method called "wash" that changes the car's state to 'clean'
    print object_car1
  • Conditional
    • Logical operations
    x > y
    x >= y
    x < y
    x <= y
    x != y
    x > y && a < b
    x < y || a > b
    if (x > 2) {
        print("Yay, x is greater than 2");
       } else {
        print ('Boo, x is 2 or less');
  • Loops
    • Repeat things for a number of times, or until some condition is met
    while ( x < 10) {
        print ('X = ' . x);
        x = x + 1; // or x++;
    do {
        print ('X = ' . x);
        x = x + 1; // or x++;
    } while (x < 10)
    for (x = 0; x < 10; x++){
        print ('X = ' . x);
  • Functions
    • A sort of black box that ask to do something and it generally responds with an answer
    function add ( $x, $y ) {
        return $x + $y;
    $x = add( 3, 4);
  • Scope
    • You can have a variable within a function that shares a name with a variable outside of that function and there are zero issues with that.
    • Global scope
    • Function scope

PHP Specifics

  • Variables must start with a $
  • Variable names are case sensitive: $x and $X are two different variables
  • First character of a variable name (after the $) can't be a number.
  • End of line signified by a ;


Simple PHP ToDo App

  • Think through problem
    • Minimum viable product features
      • Create
      • Update
      • Delete
    • Nice to have features
      • Edit a ToDo's text
      • Due dates
      • Reminders
      • Recurrence
      • Ajax
  • Pseudo code
    • Think like a user
      • How will you interact with the list?
      • What edge cases do you need to handle?
    • Write out workflow as comments
  • Front End
    • Form elements
  • Back End Code
    • Simple single page PHP form handling
    • Processing page handling
      • Separate presentation layer from processing
    • AJAX handling
  • Back End Database
    • MySQL
      • Fields
        • id
        • todo
        • done
      `id` bigint(20) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
      `todo` text NOT NULL,
      `done` tinyint(1) NOT NULL,
      PRIMARY KEY (`id`)

SQL Basics

If you want a good place to learn the basics of SQL try this SQLZoo playground. It lets you run various queries against their sample tables.

Database and PDO

PDO (PHP Data Objects) is currently the best way to interact with a database within PHP. It provides some simple classes that make connecting to and getting data into and out of a database easier, and also simplifies interacting with different types of databases (MySQL, MS SQL, Oracle, PostgreSQL).

  • db-config.php
    //keep this database info in a single file so that you only have to change it once to update your whole project
    $db_info['server'] = 'localhost';
    $db_info['name'] = '';
    $db_info['user'] = '';
    $db_info['pass'] = '';
  • Setting up a connection to a database and setting the error mode to aid in debugging
//pull in our db_config file
require_once('db_config.php'); //or whatever the path to your file is, this assumes it's a file in our current directory
//create a connection to our database using a "connection string" which tells PDO the type of database and other info it needs to communicate with it
$db = new PDO('mysql:host=' . $db_info['server'] . ';dbname=' . $db_info['name'] . '', $db_info['user'], $db_info['pass']);
//sets the attribute "Error Mode" to "Exceptions" so that our code is easier to debug
  • Selecting some data from a table
    • Select if only expecting a single result
//prepare our SQL statement with parameters for the variables we need to pass in
$stmt = $db->prepare( "SELECT field1, field2 FROM MYTABLE WHERE field3 = :field3 AND field4 = :field4" );
//tells our $stmt object that this parameter "field3" = the value of this PHP variable "$field3" and it should treat it like a string
$stmt->bindParam(':field3', $field3, PDO::PARAM_STR);
//same as above but this parameter should be treated as an integer
$stmt->bindParam(':field4', $field4, PDO::PARAM_INT);
//run our fully prepared query
//assign the results of our query to a variable that we can work with in our code
//PDO::FETCH_OBJ returns a single result as an object as opposed to PDO::FETCH_ASSOC which would return the result as an array
$result = $stmt->fetch(PDO::FETCH_OBJ);  

print( 'Field 1: ' . $result->field1 . '<br />');
print( 'Field 2: ' . $result->field2 . '<br />');
print('<br />');

print( 'Field 1: ' . $result['field1'] . '<br />');
print( 'Field 2: ' . $result['field2'] . '<br />');
print('<br />');
  • Select if expecting more than one result
$stmt = $db->prepare( "SELECT field1, field2 FROM MYTABLE WHERE field3 = :field3" );
$stmt->bindParam(':field3', $field3, PDO::PARAM_STR);
//return a collection of result objects or result arrays if using PDO::FETCH_ASSOC
$results = $stmt->fetchAll(PDO::FETCH_OBJ);  

//step over our results with a foreach loop
foreach ( $results as $result ) {
  print( 'Field 1: ' . $result->field1 . '<br />');
  print( 'Field 2: ' . $result->field2 . '<br />');
  print('<br />');
  • Insert data into a table
$stmt = $db->prepare( "INSERT INTO MYTABLE(field1, field2) VALUES(:field1, :field2)" );
$stmt->bindParam(':field1', $field1, PDO::PARAM_STR);
$stmt->bindParam(':field2', $field2, PDO::PARAM_INT);
  • Edit data in a table
$stmt = $db->prepare( "UPDATE MYTABLE SET field1 = :new_field1 WHERE field2 = :field2" );
$stmt->bindParam(':new_field1', $field1, PDO::PARAM_STR);
$stmt->bindParam(':field2', $field2, PDO::PARAM_INT);
  • Delete data into from table
$stmt = $db->prepare( "DELETE FROM MYTABLE WHERE field1 = :field1" );
$stmt->bindParam(':field1', $field1, PDO::PARAM_INT);

Table for our Login App

 `user_id` bigint(20) unsigned NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
 `user_name` varchar(255) NOT NULL,
 `password` varchar(255) NOT NULL,
 `access_level` int(11) NOT NULL,
 PRIMARY KEY (`user_id`)


Simple PHP ToDo App and notes put together to help teach development to Waukee school's APEX program



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