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/* __ *\
** ________ ___ / / ___ Scala API **
** / __/ __// _ | / / / _ | (c) 2003-2013, LAMP/EPFL **
** __\ \/ /__/ __ |/ /__/ __ | http://scala-lang.org/ **
** /____/\___/_/ |_/____/_/ | | **
** |/ **
\* */
package scala
package collection
package immutable
import generic._
import mutable.{Builder, StringBuilder, LazyBuilder, ListBuffer}
import scala.annotation.tailrec
import Stream.cons
import scala.language.implicitConversions
/** The class `Stream` implements lazy lists where elements
* are only evaluated when they are needed. Here is an example:
*
* {{{
* import scala.math.BigInt
* object Main extends App {
*
* val fibs: Stream[BigInt] = BigInt(0) #:: BigInt(1) #:: fibs.zip(fibs.tail).map { n => n._1 + n._2 }
*
* fibs take 5 foreach println
* }
*
* // prints
* //
* // 0
* // 1
* // 1
* // 2
* // 3
* }}}
*
* The `Stream` class also employs memoization such that previously computed
* values are converted from `Stream` elements to concrete values of type `A`.
* To illustrate, we will alter body of the `fibs` value above and take some
* more values:
*
* {{{
* import scala.math.BigInt
* object Main extends App {
*
* val fibs: Stream[BigInt] = BigInt(0) #:: BigInt(1) #:: fibs.zip(
* fibs.tail).map(n => {
* println("Adding %d and %d".format(n._1, n._2))
* n._1 + n._2
* })
*
* fibs take 5 foreach println
* fibs take 6 foreach println
* }
*
* // prints
* //
* // 0
* // 1
* // Adding 0 and 1
* // 1
* // Adding 1 and 1
* // 2
* // Adding 1 and 2
* // 3
*
* // And then prints
* //
* // 0
* // 1
* // 1
* // 2
* // 3
* // Adding 2 and 3
* // 5
* }}}
*
* There are a number of subtle points to the above example.
*
* - The definition of `fibs` is a `val` not a method. The memoization of the
* `Stream` requires us to have somewhere to store the information and a `val`
* allows us to do that.
*
* - While the `Stream` is actually being modified during access, this does not
* change the notion of its immutability. Once the values are memoized they do
* not change and values that have yet to be memoized still "exist", they
* simply haven't been realized yet.
*
* - One must be cautious of memoization; you can very quickly eat up large
* amounts of memory if you're not careful. The reason for this is that the
* memoization of the `Stream` creates a structure much like
* [[scala.collection.immutable.List]]. So long as something is holding on to
* the head, the head holds on to the tail, and so it continues recursively.
* If, on the other hand, there is nothing holding on to the head (e.g. we used
* `def` to define the `Stream`) then once it is no longer being used directly,
* it disappears.
*
* - Note that some operations, including [[drop]], [[dropWhile]],
* [[flatMap]] or [[collect]] may process a large number of intermediate
* elements before returning. These necessarily hold onto the head, since
* they are methods on `Stream`, and a stream holds its own head. For
* computations of this sort where memoization is not desired, use
* `Iterator` when possible.
*
* {{{
* // For example, let's build the natural numbers and do some silly iteration
* // over them.
*
* // We'll start with a silly iteration
* def loop(s: String, i: Int, iter: Iterator[Int]): Unit = {
* // Stop after 200,000
* if (i < 200001) {
* if (i % 50000 == 0) println(s + i)
* loop(s, iter.next, iter)
* }
* }
*
* // Our first Stream definition will be a val definition
* val stream1: Stream[Int] = {
* def loop(v: Int): Stream[Int] = v #:: loop(v + 1)
* loop(0)
* }
*
* // Because stream1 is a val, everything that the iterator produces is held
* // by virtue of the fact that the head of the Stream is held in stream1
* val it1 = stream1.iterator
* loop("Iterator1: ", it1.next, it1)
*
* // We can redefine this Stream such that all we have is the Iterator left
* // and allow the Stream to be garbage collected as required. Using a def
* // to provide the Stream ensures that no val is holding onto the head as
* // is the case with stream1
* def stream2: Stream[Int] = {
* def loop(v: Int): Stream[Int] = v #:: loop(v + 1)
* loop(0)
* }
* val it2 = stream2.iterator
* loop("Iterator2: ", it2.next, it2)
*
* // And, of course, we don't actually need a Stream at all for such a simple
* // problem. There's no reason to use a Stream if you don't actually need
* // one.
* val it3 = new Iterator[Int] {
* var i = -1
* def hasNext = true
* def next(): Int = { i += 1; i }
* }
* loop("Iterator3: ", it3.next, it3)
* }}}
*
* - The fact that `tail` works at all is of interest. In the definition of
* `fibs` we have an initial `(0, 1, Stream(...))` so `tail` is deterministic.
* If we deinfed `fibs` such that only `0` were concretely known then the act
* of determining `tail` would require the evaluation of `tail` which would
* cause an infinite recursion and stack overflow. If we define a definition
* where the tail is not initially computable then we're going to have an
* infinite recursion:
* {{{
* // The first time we try to access the tail we're going to need more
* // information which will require us to recurse, which will require us to
* // recurse, which...
* val sov: Stream[Vector[Int]] = Vector(0) #:: sov.zip(sov.tail).map { n => n._1 ++ n._2 }
* }}}
*
* The definition of `fibs` above creates a larger number of objects than
* necessary depending on how you might want to implement it. The following
* implementation provides a more "cost effective" implementation due to the
* fact that it has a more direct route to the numbers themselves:
*
* {{{
* lazy val fib: Stream[Int] = {
* def loop(h: Int, n: Int): Stream[Int] = h #:: loop(n, h + n)
* loop(1, 1)
* }
* }}}
*
* @tparam A the type of the elements contained in this stream.
*
* @author Martin Odersky, Matthias Zenger
* @version 1.1 08/08/03
* @since 2.8
* @see [[http://docs.scala-lang.org/overviews/collections/concrete-immutable-collection-classes.html#streams "Scala's Collection Library overview"]]
* section on `Streams` for more information.
* @define naturalsEx def naturalsFrom(i: Int): Stream[Int] = i #:: naturalsFrom(i + 1)
* @define Coll `Stream`
* @define coll stream
* @define orderDependent
* @define orderDependentFold
* @define willTerminateInf Note: lazily evaluated; will terminate for infinite-sized collections.
*/
@deprecatedInheritance("This class will be sealed.", "2.11.0")
abstract class Stream[+A] extends AbstractSeq[A]
with LinearSeq[A]
with GenericTraversableTemplate[A, Stream]
with LinearSeqOptimized[A, Stream[A]]
with Serializable {
self =>
override def companion: GenericCompanion[Stream] = Stream
import scala.collection.{Traversable, Iterable, Seq, IndexedSeq}
/** Indicates whether or not the `Stream` is empty.
*
* @return `true` if the `Stream` is empty and `false` otherwise.
*/
def isEmpty: Boolean
/** Gives constant time access to the first element of this `Stream`. Using
* the `fibs` example from earlier:
*
* {{{
* println(fibs head)
* // prints
* // 0
* }}}
*
* @return The first element of the `Stream`.
* @throws Predef.NoSuchElementException if the stream is empty.
*/
def head: A
/** A stream consisting of the remaining elements of this stream after the
* first one.
*
* Note that this method does not force evaluation of the `Stream` but merely
* returns the lazy result.
*
* @return The tail of the `Stream`.
* @throws Predef.UnsupportedOperationException if the stream is empty.
*/
def tail: Stream[A]
/** Is the tail of this stream defined? */
protected def tailDefined: Boolean
// Implementation of abstract method in Traversable
// New methods in Stream
/** The stream resulting from the concatenation of this stream with the argument stream.
* @param rest The stream that gets appended to this stream
* @return The stream containing elements of this stream and the traversable object.
*/
def append[B >: A](rest: => TraversableOnce[B]): Stream[B] =
if (isEmpty) rest.toStream else cons(head, tail append rest)
/** Forces evaluation of the whole stream and returns it.
*
* @note Often we use `Stream`s to represent an infinite set or series. If
* that's the case for your particular `Stream` then this function will never
* return and will probably crash the VM with an `OutOfMemory` exception.
*
* @return The fully realized `Stream`.
*/
def force: Stream[A] = {
var these = this
while (!these.isEmpty) these = these.tail
this
}
/** Prints elements of this stream one by one, separated by commas. */
def print() { print(", ") }
/** Prints elements of this stream one by one, separated by `sep`.
* @param sep The separator string printed between consecutive elements.
*/
def print(sep: String) {
def loop(these: Stream[A], start: String) {
Console.print(start)
if (these.isEmpty) Console.print("empty")
else {
Console.print(these.head)
loop(these.tail, sep)
}
}
loop(this, "")
}
/** Returns the length of this `Stream`.
*
* @note In order to compute the length of the `Stream`, it must first be
* fully realized, which could cause the complete evaluation of an infinite
* series, assuming that's what your `Stream` represents.
*
* @return The length of this `Stream`.
*/
override def length: Int = {
var len = 0
var left = this
while (!left.isEmpty) {
len += 1
left = left.tail
}
len
}
// It's an imperfect world, but at least we can bottle up the
// imperfection in a capsule.
@inline private def asThat[That](x: AnyRef): That = x.asInstanceOf[That]
@inline private def asStream[B](x: AnyRef): Stream[B] = x.asInstanceOf[Stream[B]]
@inline private def isStreamBuilder[B, That](bf: CanBuildFrom[Stream[A], B, That]) =
bf(repr).isInstanceOf[Stream.StreamBuilder[_]]
// Overridden methods from Traversable
override def toStream: Stream[A] = this
override def hasDefiniteSize = {
def loop(s: Stream[A]): Boolean = s.isEmpty || s.tailDefined && loop(s.tail)
loop(this)
}
/** Create a new stream which contains all elements of this stream followed by
* all elements of Traversable `that`.
*
* @note It's subtle why this works. We know that if the target type of the
* [[scala.collection.mutable.Builder]] `That` is either a `Stream`, or one of
* its supertypes, or undefined, then `StreamBuilder` will be chosen for the
* implicit. We recognize that fact and optimize to get more laziness.
*
* @note This method doesn't cause the `Stream` to be fully realized but it
* should be noted that using the `++` operator from another collection type
* could cause infinite realization of a `Stream`. For example, referring to
* the definition of `fibs` in the preamble, the following would never return:
* `List(BigInt(12)) ++ fibs`.
*
* @tparam B The element type of the returned collection.'''That'''
* @param that The [[scala.collection.GenTraversableOnce]] the be contatenated
* to this `Stream`.
* @return A new collection containing the result of concatenating `this` with
* `that`.
*/
override def ++[B >: A, That](that: GenTraversableOnce[B])(implicit bf: CanBuildFrom[Stream[A], B, That]): That =
// we assume there is no other builder factory on streams and therefore know that That = Stream[A]
if (isStreamBuilder(bf)) asThat(
if (isEmpty) that.toStream
else cons(head, asStream[A](tail ++ that))
)
else super.++(that)(bf)
override def +:[B >: A, That](elem: B)(implicit bf: CanBuildFrom[Stream[A], B, That]): That =
if (isStreamBuilder(bf)) asThat(cons(elem, this))
else super.+:(elem)(bf)
/**
* Create a new stream which contains all intermediate results of applying the
* operator to subsequent elements left to right. `scanLeft` is analogous to
* `foldLeft`.
*
* @note This works because the target type of the
* [[scala.collection.mutable.Builder]] `That` is a `Stream`.
*
* @param z The initial value for the scan.
* @param op A function that will apply operations to successive values in the
* `Stream` against previous accumulated results.
* @return A new collection containing the modifications from the application
* of `op`.
*/
override final def scanLeft[B, That](z: B)(op: (B, A) => B)(implicit bf: CanBuildFrom[Stream[A], B, That]): That =
if (isStreamBuilder(bf)) asThat(
if (isEmpty) Stream(z)
else cons(z, asStream[B](tail.scanLeft(op(z, head))(op)))
)
else super.scanLeft(z)(op)(bf)
/** Returns the stream resulting from applying the given function `f` to each
* element of this stream. This returns a lazy `Stream` such that it does not
* need to be fully realized.
*
* @example {{{
* $naturalsEx
* naturalsFrom(1).map(_ + 10) take 5 mkString(", ")
* // produces: "11, 12, 13, 14, 15"
* }}}
*
* @tparam B The element type of the returned collection '''That'''.
* @param f function to apply to each element.
* @return `f(a,,0,,), ..., f(a,,n,,)` if this sequence is `a,,0,,, ..., a,,n,,`.
*/
override final def map[B, That](f: A => B)(implicit bf: CanBuildFrom[Stream[A], B, That]): That = {
if (isStreamBuilder(bf)) asThat(
if (isEmpty) Stream.Empty
else cons(f(head), asStream[B](tail map f))
)
else super.map(f)(bf)
}
override final def collect[B, That](pf: PartialFunction[A, B])(implicit bf: CanBuildFrom[Stream[A], B, That]): That = {
if (!isStreamBuilder(bf)) super.collect(pf)(bf)
else {
// this implementation avoids:
// 1) stackoverflows (could be achieved with tailrec, too)
// 2) out of memory errors for big streams (`this` reference can be eliminated from the stack)
var rest: Stream[A] = this
// Avoids calling both `pf.isDefined` and `pf.apply`.
var newHead: B = null.asInstanceOf[B]
val runWith = pf.runWith((b: B) => newHead = b)
while (rest.nonEmpty && !runWith(rest.head)) rest = rest.tail
// without the call to the companion object, a thunk is created for the tail of the new stream,
// and the closure of the thunk will reference `this`
if (rest.isEmpty) Stream.Empty.asInstanceOf[That]
else Stream.collectedTail(newHead, rest, pf, bf).asInstanceOf[That]
}
}
/** Applies the given function `f` to each element of this stream, then
* concatenates the results. As with `map` this function does not need to
* realize the entire `Stream` but continues to keep it as a lazy `Stream`.
*
* @example {{{
* // Let's create a Stream of Vectors, each of which contains the
* // collection of Fibonacci numbers up to the current value. We
* // can then 'flatMap' that Stream.
*
* val fibVec: Stream[Vector[Int]] = Vector(0) #:: Vector(0, 1) #:: fibVec.zip(fibVec.tail).map(n => {
* n._2 ++ Vector(n._1.last + n._2.last)
* })
*
* fibVec take 5 foreach println
* // prints
* // Vector(0)
* // Vector(0, 1)
* // Vector(0, 1, 1)
* // Vector(0, 1, 1, 2)
* // Vector(0, 1, 1, 2, 3)
*
* // If we now want to `flatMap` across that stream by adding 10
* // we can see what the series turns into:
*
* fibVec.flatMap(_.map(_ + 10)) take 15 mkString(", ")
* // produces: 10, 10, 11, 10, 11, 11, 10, 11, 11, 12, 10, 11, 11, 12, 13
* }}}
*
* ''Note:'' Currently `flatMap` will evaluate as much of the Stream as needed
* until it finds a non-empty element for the head, which is non-lazy.
*
* @tparam B The element type of the returned collection '''That'''.
* @param f the function to apply on each element.
* @return `f(a,,0,,) ::: ... ::: f(a,,n,,)` if
* this stream is `[a,,0,,, ..., a,,n,,]`.
*/
override final def flatMap[B, That](f: A => GenTraversableOnce[B])(implicit bf: CanBuildFrom[Stream[A], B, That]): That =
// we assume there is no other builder factory on streams and therefore know that That = Stream[B]
// optimisations are not for speed, but for functionality
// see tickets #153, #498, #2147, and corresponding tests in run/ (as well as run/stream_flatmap_odds.scala)
if (isStreamBuilder(bf)) asThat(
if (isEmpty) Stream.Empty
else {
// establish !prefix.isEmpty || nonEmptyPrefix.isEmpty
var nonEmptyPrefix = this
var prefix = f(nonEmptyPrefix.head).toStream
while (!nonEmptyPrefix.isEmpty && prefix.isEmpty) {
nonEmptyPrefix = nonEmptyPrefix.tail
if(!nonEmptyPrefix.isEmpty)
prefix = f(nonEmptyPrefix.head).toStream
}
if (nonEmptyPrefix.isEmpty) Stream.empty
else prefix append asStream[B](nonEmptyPrefix.tail flatMap f)
}
)
else super.flatMap(f)(bf)
/** Returns all the elements of this `Stream` that satisfy the predicate `p`
* in a new `Stream` - i.e. it is still a lazy data structure. The order of
* the elements is preserved
*
* @param p the predicate used to filter the stream.
* @return the elements of this stream satisfying `p`.
*
* @example {{{
* $naturalsEx
* naturalsFrom(1) 10 } filter { _ % 5 == 0 } take 10 mkString(", ")
* // produces
* }}}
*/
override def filter(p: A => Boolean): Stream[A] = {
// optimization: drop leading prefix of elems for which f returns false
// var rest = this dropWhile (!p(_)) - forget DRY principle - GC can't collect otherwise
var rest = this
while (!rest.isEmpty && !p(rest.head)) rest = rest.tail
// private utility func to avoid `this` on stack (would be needed for the lazy arg)
if (rest.nonEmpty) Stream.filteredTail(rest, p)
else Stream.Empty
}
override final def withFilter(p: A => Boolean): StreamWithFilter = new StreamWithFilter(p)
/** A lazier implementation of WithFilter than TraversableLike's.
*/
final class StreamWithFilter(p: A => Boolean) extends WithFilter(p) {
override def map[B, That](f: A => B)(implicit bf: CanBuildFrom[Stream[A], B, That]): That = {
def tailMap(coll: Stream[A]): Stream[B] = {
var head: A = null.asInstanceOf[A]
var tail: Stream[A] = coll
while (true) {
if (tail.isEmpty)
return Stream.Empty
head = tail.head
tail = tail.tail
if (p(head))
return cons(f(head), tailMap(tail))
}
throw new RuntimeException()
}
if (isStreamBuilder(bf)) asThat(tailMap(Stream.this))
else super.map(f)(bf)
}
override def flatMap[B, That](f: A => GenTraversableOnce[B])(implicit bf: CanBuildFrom[Stream[A], B, That]): That = {
def tailFlatMap(coll: Stream[A]): Stream[B] = {
var head: A = null.asInstanceOf[A]
var tail: Stream[A] = coll
while (true) {
if (tail.isEmpty)
return Stream.Empty
head = tail.head
tail = tail.tail
if (p(head))
return f(head).toStream append tailFlatMap(tail)
}
throw new RuntimeException()
}
if (isStreamBuilder(bf)) asThat(tailFlatMap(Stream.this))
else super.flatMap(f)(bf)
}
override def foreach[B](f: A => B) =
for (x <- self)
if (p(x)) f(x)
override def withFilter(q: A => Boolean): StreamWithFilter =
new StreamWithFilter(x => p(x) && q(x))
}
/** A lazier Iterator than LinearSeqLike's. */
override def iterator: Iterator[A] = new StreamIterator(self)
/** Apply the given function `f` to each element of this linear sequence
* (while respecting the order of the elements).
*
* @param f The treatment to apply to each element.
* @note Overridden here as final to trigger tail-call optimization, which
* replaces 'this' with 'tail' at each iteration. This is absolutely
* necessary for allowing the GC to collect the underlying stream as elements
* are consumed.
* @note This function will force the realization of the entire stream
* unless the `f` throws an exception.
*/
@tailrec
override final def foreach[B](f: A => B) {
if (!this.isEmpty) {
f(head)
tail.foreach(f)
}
}
/** Stream specialization of foldLeft which allows GC to collect along the
* way.
*
* @tparam B The type of value being accumulated.
* @param z The initial value seeded into the function `op`.
* @param op The operation to perform on successive elements of the `Stream`.
* @return The accumulated value from successive applications of `op`.
*/
@tailrec
override final def foldLeft[B](z: B)(op: (B, A) => B): B = {
if (this.isEmpty) z
else tail.foldLeft(op(z, head))(op)
}
/** Stream specialization of reduceLeft which allows GC to collect
* along the way.
*
* @tparam B The type of value being accumulated.
* @param f The operation to perform on successive elements of the `Stream`.
* @return The accumulated value from successive applications of `f`.
*/
override final def reduceLeft[B >: A](f: (B, A) => B): B = {
if (this.isEmpty) throw new UnsupportedOperationException("empty.reduceLeft")
else {
var reducedRes: B = this.head
var left = this.tail
while (!left.isEmpty) {
reducedRes = f(reducedRes, left.head)
left = left.tail
}
reducedRes
}
}
/** Returns all the elements of this stream that satisfy the predicate `p`
* returning of [[scala.Tuple2]] of `Stream`s obeying the partition predicate
* `p`. The order of the elements is preserved.
*
* @param p the predicate used to filter the stream.
* @return the elements of this stream satisfying `p`.
*
* @example {{{
* $naturalsEx
* val parts = naturalsFrom(1) partition { _ % 2 == 0 }
* parts._1 take 10 mkString ", "
* // produces: "2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20"
* parts._2 take 10 mkString ", "
* // produces: "1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19"
* }}}
*
*/
override def partition(p: A => Boolean): (Stream[A], Stream[A]) = (filter(p(_)), filterNot(p(_)))
/** Returns a stream formed from this stream and the specified stream `that`
* by associating each element of the former with the element at the same
* position in the latter.
*
* If one of the two streams is longer than the other, its remaining elements
* are ignored.
*
* The return type of this function may not be obvious. The lazy aspect of
* the returned value is different than that of `partition`. In `partition`
* we get back a [[scala.Tuple2]] of two lazy `Stream`s whereas here we get
* back a single lazy `Stream` of [[scala.Tuple2]]s where the
* [[scala.Tuple2]]'s type signature is `(A1, B)`.
*
* @tparam A1 The type of the first parameter of the zipped tuple
* @tparam B The type of the second parameter of the zipped tuple
* @tparam That The type of the returned `Stream`.
* @return `Stream({a,,0,,,b,,0,,}, ...,
* {a,,min(m,n),,,b,,min(m,n),,)}` when
* `Stream(a,,0,,, ..., a,,m,,)
* zip Stream(b,,0,,, ..., b,,n,,)` is invoked.
*
* @example {{{
* $naturalsEx
* naturalsFrom(1) zip naturalsFrom(2) take 5 foreach println
* // prints
* // (1,2)
* // (2,3)
* // (3,4)
* // (4,5)
* // (5,6)
* }}}
*/
override final def zip[A1 >: A, B, That](that: scala.collection.GenIterable[B])(implicit bf: CanBuildFrom[Stream[A], (A1, B), That]): That =
// we assume there is no other builder factory on streams and therefore know that That = Stream[(A1, B)]
if (isStreamBuilder(bf)) asThat(
if (this.isEmpty || that.isEmpty) Stream.Empty
else cons((this.head, that.head), asStream[(A1, B)](this.tail zip that.tail))
)
else super.zip(that)(bf)
/** Zips this iterable with its indices. `s.zipWithIndex` is equivalent to `s
* zip s.indices`.
*
* This method is much like `zip` in that it returns a single lazy `Stream` of
* [[scala.Tuple2]].
*
* @tparam A1 The type of the first element of the [[scala.Tuple2]] in the
* resulting stream.
* @tparam That The type of the resulting `Stream`.
* @return `Stream({a,,0,,,0}, ..., {a,,n,,,n)}`
*
* @example {{{
* $naturalsEx
* (naturalsFrom(1) zipWithIndex) take 5 foreach println
* // prints
* // (1,0)
* // (2,1)
* // (3,2)
* // (4,3)
* // (5,4)
* }}}
*/
override def zipWithIndex[A1 >: A, That](implicit bf: CanBuildFrom[Stream[A], (A1, Int), That]): That =
this.zip[A1, Int, That](Stream.from(0))
/** Write all defined elements of this iterable into given string builder.
* The written text begins with the string `start` and is finished by the string
* `end`. Inside, the string representations of defined elements (w.r.t.
* the method `toString()`) are separated by the string `sep`. The method will
* not force evaluation of undefined elements. A tail of such elements will be
* represented by a `"?"` instead.
*
* @param b The [[collection.mutable.StringBuilder]] factory to which we need
* to add the string elements.
* @param start The prefix of the resulting string (e.g. "Stream(")
* @param sep The separator between elements of the resulting string (e.g. ",")
* @param end The end of the resulting string (e.g. ")")
* @return The original [[collection.mutable.StringBuilder]] containing the
* resulting string.
*/
override def addString(b: StringBuilder, start: String, sep: String, end: String): StringBuilder = {
def loop(pre: String, these: Stream[A]) {
if (these.isEmpty) b append end
else {
b append pre append these.head
if (these.tailDefined) loop(sep, these.tail)
else b append sep append "?" append end
}
}
b append start
loop("", this)
b
}
override def mkString(sep: String): String = mkString("", sep, "")
override def mkString: String = mkString("")
override def mkString(start: String, sep: String, end: String): String = {
this.force
super.mkString(start, sep, end)
}
override def toString = super.mkString(stringPrefix + "(", ", ", ")")
override def splitAt(n: Int): (Stream[A], Stream[A]) = (take(n), drop(n))
/** Returns the `n` first elements of this `Stream` as another `Stream`, or
* else the whole `Stream`, if it has less than `n` elements.
*
* The result of `take` is, again, a `Stream` meaning that it also does not
* make any needless evaluations of the `Stream` itself, delaying that until
* the usage of the resulting `Stream`.
*
* @param n the number of elements to take.
* @return the `n` first elements of this stream.
*
* @example {{{
* $naturalsEx
* scala> naturalsFrom(5) take 5
* res1: scala.collection.immutable.Stream[Int] = Stream(5, ?)
*
* scala> naturalsFrom(5) take 5 mkString ", "
* // produces: "5, 6, 7, 8, 9"
* }}}
*/
override def take(n: Int): Stream[A] = (
// Note that the n == 1 condition appears redundant but is not.
// It prevents "tail" from being referenced (and its head being evaluated)
// when obtaining the last element of the result. Such are the challenges
// of working with a lazy-but-not-really sequence.
if (n <= 0 || isEmpty) Stream.empty
else if (n == 1) cons(head, Stream.empty)
else cons(head, tail take n-1)
)
@tailrec final override def drop(n: Int): Stream[A] =
if (n <= 0 || isEmpty) this
else tail drop n-1
/** A substream starting at index `from` and extending up to (but not including)
* index `until`. This returns a `Stream` that is lazily evaluated.
*
* @param from The index of the first element of the returned subsequence
* @param until The index of the element following the returned subsequence
* @return A new string containing the elements requested from `start` until
* `end`.
*
* @example {{{
* naturalsFrom(0) slice(50, 60) mkString ", "
* // produces: "50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59"
* }}}
*/
override def slice(from: Int, until: Int): Stream[A] = {
val lo = from max 0
if (until <= lo || isEmpty) Stream.empty
else this drop lo take (until - lo)
}
/** The stream without its last element.
*
* @return A new `Stream` containing everything but the last element. If your
* `Stream` represents an infinite series, this method will not return.
*
* @throws `Predef.UnsupportedOperationException` if the stream is empty.
*/
override def init: Stream[A] =
if (isEmpty) super.init
else if (tail.isEmpty) Stream.Empty
else cons(head, tail.init)
/** Returns the rightmost `n` elements from this iterable.
*
* @note Take serious caution here. If the `Stream` represents an infinite
* series then this function ''will not return''. The right most elements of
* an infinite series takes an infinite amount of time to produce.
*
* @param n the number of elements to take
* @return The last `n` elements from this `Stream`.
*/
override def takeRight(n: Int): Stream[A] = {
var these: Stream[A] = this
var lead = this drop n
while (!lead.isEmpty) {
these = these.tail
lead = lead.tail
}
these
}
/**
* @inheritdoc
* $willTerminateInf
*/
override def dropRight(n: Int): Stream[A] = {
// We make dropRight work for possibly infinite streams by carrying
// a buffer of the dropped size. As long as the buffer is full and the
// rest is non-empty, we can feed elements off the buffer head. When
// the rest becomes empty, the full buffer is the dropped elements.
def advance(stub0: List[A], stub1: List[A], rest: Stream[A]): Stream[A] = {
if (rest.isEmpty) Stream.empty
else if (stub0.isEmpty) advance(stub1.reverse, Nil, rest)
else cons(stub0.head, advance(stub0.tail, rest.head :: stub1, rest.tail))
}
if (n <= 0) this
else advance((this take n).toList, Nil, this drop n)
}
/** Returns the longest prefix of this `Stream` whose elements satisfy the
* predicate `p`.
*
* @param p the test predicate.
* @return A new `Stream` representing the values that satisfy the predicate
* `p`.
*
* @example {{{
+ naturalsFrom(0) takeWhile { _ < 5 } mkString ", "
* produces: "0, 1, 2, 3, 4"
* }}}
*/
override def takeWhile(p: A => Boolean): Stream[A] =
if (!isEmpty && p(head)) cons(head, tail takeWhile p)
else Stream.Empty
/** Returns the a `Stream` representing the longest suffix of this iterable
* whose first element does not satisfy the predicate `p`.
*
* @note This method realizes the entire `Stream` beyond the truth value of
* the predicate `p`.
*
* @param p the test predicate.
* @return A new `Stream` representing the results of applying `p` to the
* oringal `Stream`.
*
* @example {{{
* // Assume we have a Stream that takes the first 20 natural numbers
* def naturalsLt50(i: Int): Stream[Int] = i #:: { if (i < 20) naturalsLt50(i * + 1) else Stream.Empty }
* naturalsLt50(0) dropWhile { _ < 10 }
* // produces: "10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20"
* }}}
*/
override def dropWhile(p: A => Boolean): Stream[A] = {
var these: Stream[A] = this
while (!these.isEmpty && p(these.head)) these = these.tail
these
}
/** Builds a new stream from this stream in which any duplicates (as
* determined by `==`) have been removed. Among duplicate elements, only the
* first one is retained in the resulting `Stream`.
*
* @return A new `Stream` representing the result of applying distinctness to
* the original `Stream`.
* @example {{{
* // Creates a Stream where every element is duplicated
* def naturalsFrom(i: Int): Stream[Int] = i #:: { i #:: naturalsFrom(i + 1) }
* naturalsFrom(1) take 6 mkString ", "
* // produces: "1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3"
* (naturalsFrom(1) distinct) take 6 mkString ", "
* // produces: "1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6"
* }}}
*/
override def distinct: Stream[A] = {
// This should use max memory proportional to N, whereas
// recursively calling distinct on the tail is N^2.
def loop(seen: Set[A], rest: Stream[A]): Stream[A] = {
if (rest.isEmpty) rest
else if (seen(rest.head)) loop(seen, rest.tail)
else cons(rest.head, loop(seen + rest.head, rest.tail))
}
loop(Set(), this)
}
/** Returns a new sequence of given length containing the elements of this
* sequence followed by zero or more occurrences of given elements.
*
* @tparam B The type of the value to pad with.
* @tparam That The type contained within the resulting `Stream`.
* @param len The number of elements to pad into the `Stream`.
* @param elem The value of the type `B` to use for padding.
* @return A new `Stream` representing the collection with values padding off
* to the end. If your `Stream` represents an infinite series, this method will
* not return.
* @example {{{
* def naturalsFrom(i: Int): Stream[Int] = i #:: { if (i < 5) naturalsFrom(i + 1) else Stream.Empty }
* naturalsFrom(1) padTo(10, 0) foreach println
* // prints
* // 1
* // 2
* // 3
* // 4
* // 5
* // 0
* // 0
* // 0
* // 0
* // 0
* }}}
*/
override def padTo[B >: A, That](len: Int, elem: B)(implicit bf: CanBuildFrom[Stream[A], B, That]): That = {
def loop(len: Int, these: Stream[A]): Stream[B] =
if (these.isEmpty) Stream.fill(len)(elem)
else cons(these.head, loop(len - 1, these.tail))
if (isStreamBuilder(bf)) asThat(loop(len, this))
else super.padTo(len, elem)(bf)
}
/** A list consisting of all elements of this list in reverse order.
*
* @note This function must realize the entire `Stream` in order to perform
* this operation so if your `Stream` represents an infinite sequence then
* this function will never return.
*
* @return A new `Stream` containing the representing of the original `Stream`
* in reverse order.
*
* @example {{{
* def naturalsFrom(i: Int): Stream[Int] = i #:: { if (i < 5) naturalsFrom(i + 1) else Stream.Empty }
* (naturalsFrom(1) reverse) foreach println
* // prints
* // 5
* // 4
* // 3
* // 2
* // 1
* }}}
*/
override def reverse: Stream[A] = {
var result: Stream[A] = Stream.Empty
var these = this
while (!these.isEmpty) {
val r = Stream.consWrapper(result).#::(these.head)
r.tail // force it!
result = r
these = these.tail
}
result
}
/** Evaluates and concatenates all elements within the `Stream` into a new
* flattened `Stream`.
*
* @tparam B The type of the elements of the resulting `Stream`.
* @return A new `Stream` of type `B` of the flattened elements of `this`
* `Stream`.
* @example {{{
* val sov: Stream[Vector[Int]] = Vector(0) #:: Vector(0, 0) #:: sov.zip(sov.tail).map { n => n._1 ++ n._2 }
* sov.flatten take 10 mkString ", "
* // produces: "0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0"
* }}}
*/
override def flatten[B](implicit asTraversable: A => /*<:<!!!*/ GenTraversableOnce[B]): Stream[B] = {
var st: Stream[A] = this
while (st.nonEmpty) {
val h = asTraversable(st.head)
if (h.isEmpty) {
st = st.tail
} else {
return h.toStream #::: st.tail.flatten
}
}
Stream.empty
}
override def view = new StreamView[A, Stream[A]] {
protected lazy val underlying = self.repr
override def iterator = self.iterator
override def length = self.length
override def apply(idx: Int) = self.apply(idx)
}
/** Defines the prefix of this object's `toString` representation as `Stream`.
*/
override def stringPrefix = "Stream"
}
/** A specialized, extra-lazy implementation of a stream iterator, so it can
* iterate as lazily as it traverses the tail.
*/
final class StreamIterator[+A] private() extends AbstractIterator[A] with Iterator[A] {
def this(self: Stream[A]) {
this()
these = new LazyCell(self)
}
// A call-by-need cell.
class LazyCell(st: => Stream[A]) {
lazy val v = st
}
private var these: LazyCell = _
def hasNext: Boolean = these.v.nonEmpty
def next(): A =
if (isEmpty) Iterator.empty.next()
else {
val cur = these.v
val result = cur.head
these = new LazyCell(cur.tail)
result
}
override def toStream = {
val result = these.v
these = new LazyCell(Stream.empty)
result
}
override def toList = toStream.toList
}
/**
* The object `Stream` provides helper functions to manipulate streams.
*
* @author Martin Odersky, Matthias Zenger
* @version 1.1 08/08/03
* @since 2.8
*/
object Stream extends SeqFactory[Stream] {
/** The factory for streams.
* @note Methods such as map/flatMap will not invoke the `Builder` factory,
* but will return a new stream directly, to preserve laziness.
* The new stream is then cast to the factory's result type.
* This means that every CanBuildFrom that takes a
* Stream as its From type parameter must yield a stream as its result parameter.
* If that assumption is broken, cast errors might result.
*/
class StreamCanBuildFrom[A] extends GenericCanBuildFrom[A]
implicit def canBuildFrom[A]: CanBuildFrom[Coll, A, Stream[A]] = new StreamCanBuildFrom[A]
/** Creates a new builder for a stream */
def newBuilder[A]: Builder[A, Stream[A]] = new StreamBuilder[A]
import scala.collection.{Iterable, Seq, IndexedSeq}
/** A builder for streams
* @note This builder is lazy only in the sense that it does not go downs the spine
* of traversables that are added as a whole. If more laziness can be achieved,
* this builder should be bypassed.
*/
class StreamBuilder[A] extends scala.collection.mutable.LazyBuilder[A, Stream[A]] {
def result: Stream[A] = parts.toStream flatMap (_.toStream)
}
object Empty extends Stream[Nothing] {
override def isEmpty = true
override def head = throw new NoSuchElementException("head of empty stream")
override def tail = throw new UnsupportedOperationException("tail of empty stream")
def tailDefined = false
}
/** The empty stream */
override def empty[A]: Stream[A] = Empty
/** A stream consisting of given elements */
override def apply[A](xs: A*): Stream[A] = xs.toStream
/** A wrapper class that adds `#::` for cons and `#:::` for concat as operations
* to streams.
*/
class ConsWrapper[A](tl: => Stream[A]) {
def #::(hd: A): Stream[A] = cons(hd, tl)
def #:::(prefix: Stream[A]): Stream[A] = prefix append tl
}
/** A wrapper method that adds `#::` for cons and `#::: for concat as operations
* to streams.
*/
implicit def consWrapper[A](stream: => Stream[A]): ConsWrapper[A] =
new ConsWrapper[A](stream)
/** An extractor that allows to pattern match streams with `#::`.
*/
object #:: {
def unapply[A](xs: Stream[A]): Option[(A, Stream[A])] =
if (xs.isEmpty) None
else Some((xs.head, xs.tail))
}
/** An alternative way of building and matching Streams using Stream.cons(hd, tl).
*/
object cons {
/** A stream consisting of a given first element and remaining elements
* @param hd The first element of the result stream
* @param tl The remaining elements of the result stream
*/
def apply[A](hd: A, tl: => Stream[A]) = new Cons(hd, tl)
/** Maps a stream to its head and tail */
def unapply[A](xs: Stream[A]): Option[(A, Stream[A])] = #::.unapply(xs)
}
/** A lazy cons cell, from which streams are built. */
@SerialVersionUID(-602202424901551803L)
final class Cons[+A](hd: A, tl: => Stream[A]) extends Stream[A] {
override def isEmpty = false
override def head = hd
@volatile private[this] var tlVal: Stream[A] = _
@volatile private[this] var tlGen = tl _
def tailDefined: Boolean = tlGen eq null
override def tail: Stream[A] = {
if (!tailDefined)
synchronized {
if (!tailDefined) {
tlVal = tlGen()
tlGen = null
}
}
tlVal
}
}
/** An infinite stream that repeatedly applies a given function to a start value.
*
* @param start the start value of the stream
* @param f the function that's repeatedly applied
* @return the stream returning the infinite sequence of values `start, f(start), f(f(start)), ...`
*/
def iterate[A](start: A)(f: A => A): Stream[A] = cons(start, iterate(f(start))(f))
override def iterate[A](start: A, len: Int)(f: A => A): Stream[A] =
iterate(start)(f) take len
/**
* Create an infinite stream starting at `start` and incrementing by
* step `step`.
*
* @param start the start value of the stream
* @param step the increment value of the stream
* @return the stream starting at value `start`.
*/
def from(start: Int, step: Int): Stream[Int] =
cons(start, from(start+step, step))
/**
* Create an infinite stream starting at `start` and incrementing by `1`.
*
* @param start the start value of the stream
* @return the stream starting at value `start`.
*/
def from(start: Int): Stream[Int] = from(start, 1)
/**
* Create an infinite stream containing the given element expression (which
* is computed for each occurrence).
*
* @param elem the element composing the resulting stream
* @return the stream containing an infinite number of elem
*/
def continually[A](elem: => A): Stream[A] = cons(elem, continually(elem))
override def fill[A](n: Int)(elem: => A): Stream[A] =
if (n <= 0) Empty else cons(elem, fill(n-1)(elem))
override def tabulate[A](n: Int)(f: Int => A): Stream[A] = {
def loop(i: Int): Stream[A] =
if (i >= n) Empty else cons(f(i), loop(i+1))
loop(0)
}
override def range[T: Integral](start: T, end: T, step: T): Stream[T] = {
val num = implicitly[Integral[T]]
import num._
if (if (step < zero) start <= end else end <= start) Empty
else cons(start, range(start + step, end, step))
}
private[immutable] def filteredTail[A](stream: Stream[A], p: A => Boolean) = {
cons(stream.head, stream.tail filter p)
}
private[immutable] def collectedTail[A, B, That](head: B, stream: Stream[A], pf: PartialFunction[A, B], bf: CanBuildFrom[Stream[A], B, That]) = {
cons(head, stream.tail.collect(pf)(bf).asInstanceOf[Stream[B]])
}
}
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