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/* __ *\
** ________ ___ / / ___ Scala API **
** / __/ __// _ | / / / _ | (c) 2003-2011, LAMP/EPFL **
** __\ \/ /__/ __ |/ /__/ __ | http://scala-lang.org/ **
** /____/\___/_/ |_/____/_/ | | **
** |/ **
\* */


package scala.collection

import generic._
import mutable.{ Builder, MapBuilder }
import annotation.{migration, bridge}
import parallel.ParMap

/** A template trait for maps, which associate keys with values.
*
* $mapNote
* $mapTags
* @since 2.8
*
* @define mapNote
* '''Implementation note:'''
* This trait provides most of the operations of a `Map` independently of its representation.
* It is typically inherited by concrete implementations of maps.
*
* To implement a concrete map, you need to provide implementations of the
* following methods:
* {{{
* def get(key: A): Option[B]
* def iterator: Iterator[(A, B)]
* def + [B1 >: B](kv: (A, B1)): This
* def -(key: A): This
* }}}
* If you wish that methods like `take`, `drop`, `filter` also return the same kind of map
* you should also override:
* {{{
* def empty: This
* }}}
* It is also good idea to override methods `foreach` and
* `size` for efficiency.
*
* @define mapTags
* @tparam A the type of the keys.
* @tparam B the type of associated values.
* @tparam This the type of the map itself.
*
* @author Martin Odersky
* @version 2.8
*
* @define coll map
* @define Coll Map
* @define willNotTerminateInf
* @define mayNotTerminateInf
*/
trait MapLike[A, +B, +This <: MapLike[A, B, This] with Map[A, B]]
  extends PartialFunction[A, B]
     with IterableLike[(A, B), This]
     with GenMapLike[A, B, This]
     with Subtractable[A, This]
     with Parallelizable[(A, B), ParMap[A, B]]
{
self =>

  /** The empty map of the same type as this map
* @return an empty map of type `This`.
*/
  def empty: This

  /** A common implementation of `newBuilder` for all maps in terms of `empty`.
* Overridden for mutable maps in `mutable.MapLike`.
*/
  override protected[this] def newBuilder: Builder[(A, B), This] = new MapBuilder[A, B, This](empty)

  /** Optionally returns the value associated with a key.
*
* @param key the key value
* @return an option value containing the value associated with `key` in this map,
* or `None` if none exists.
*/
  def get(key: A): Option[B]

  /** Creates a new iterator over all key/value pairs of this map
*
* @return the new iterator
*/
  def iterator: Iterator[(A, B)]

  /** Adds a key/value pair to this map, returning a new map.
* @param kv the key/value pair
* @tparam B1 the type of the value in the key/value pair.
* @return a new map with the new binding added to this map
* @usecase def + (kv: (A, B)): Map[A, B]
*/
  def + [B1 >: B] (kv: (A, B1)): Map[A, B1]

  /** Removes a key from this map, returning a new map.
* @param key the key to be removed
* @return a new map without a binding for `key`
* @usecase def - (key: A): Map[A, B]
*/
  def - (key: A): This

  /** Tests whether the map is empty.
*
* @return `true` if the map does not contain any key/value binding, `false` otherwise.
*/
  override def isEmpty: Boolean = size == 0

  /** Returns the value associated with a key, or a default value if the key is not contained in the map.
* @param key the key.
* @param default a computation that yields a default value in case no binding for `key` is
* found in the map.
* @tparam B1 the result type of the default computation.
* @return the value associated with `key` if it exists,
* otherwise the result of the `default` computation.
* @usecase def getOrElse(key: A, default: => B): B
*/
  def getOrElse[B1 >: B](key: A, default: => B1): B1 = get(key) match {
    case Some(v) => v
    case None => default
  }

  /** Retrieves the value which is associated with the given key. This
* method invokes the `default` method of the map if there is no mapping
* from the given key to a value. Unless overridden, the `default` method throws a
* `NoSuchElementException`.
*
* @param key the key
* @return the value associated with the given key, or the result of the
* map's `default` method, if none exists.
*/
  def apply(key: A): B = get(key) match {
    case None => default(key)
    case Some(value) => value
  }

  /** Tests whether this map contains a binding for a key.
*
* @param key the key
* @return `true` if there is a binding for `key` in this map, `false` otherwise.
*/
  def contains(key: A): Boolean = get(key) match {
    case None => false
    case Some(_) => true
  }

  /** Tests whether this map contains a binding for a key. This method,
* which implements an abstract method of trait `PartialFunction`,
* is equivalent to `contains`.
*
* @param key the key
* @return `true` if there is a binding for `key` in this map, `false` otherwise.
*/
  def isDefinedAt(key: A) = contains(key)

  /** Collects all keys of this map in a set.
* @return a set containing all keys of this map.
*/
  def keySet: Set[A] = new DefaultKeySet

  /** The implementation class of the set returned by `keySet`.
*/
  protected class DefaultKeySet extends Set[A] {
    def contains(key : A) = self.contains(key)
    def iterator = keysIterator
    def + (elem: A): Set[A] = (Set[A]() ++ this + elem).asInstanceOf[Set[A]] // !!! concrete overrides abstract problem
    def - (elem: A): Set[A] = (Set[A]() ++ this - elem).asInstanceOf[Set[A]] // !!! concrete overrides abstract problem
    override def size = self.size
    override def foreach[C](f: A => C) = for ((k, v) <- self) f(k)
  }

  /** Creates an iterator for all keys.
*
* @return an iterator over all keys.
*/
  def keysIterator: Iterator[A] = new Iterator[A] {
    val iter = self.iterator
    def hasNext = iter.hasNext
    def next() = iter.next._1
  }

  /** Collects all keys of this map in an iterable collection.
*
* @return the keys of this map as an iterable.
*/
  @migration("`keys` returns `Iterable[A]` rather than `Iterator[A]`.", "2.8.0")
  def keys: Iterable[A] = keySet

  /** Collects all values of this map in an iterable collection.
*
* @return the values of this map as an iterable.
*/
  @migration("`values` returns `Iterable[B]` rather than `Iterator[B]`.", "2.8.0")
  def values: Iterable[B] = new DefaultValuesIterable

  /** The implementation class of the iterable returned by `values`.
*/
  protected class DefaultValuesIterable extends Iterable[B] {
    def iterator = valuesIterator
    override def size = self.size
    override def foreach[C](f: B => C) = for ((k, v) <- self) f(v)
  }

  /** Creates an iterator for all values in this map.
*
* @return an iterator over all values that are associated with some key in this map.
*/
  def valuesIterator: Iterator[B] = new Iterator[B] {
    val iter = self.iterator
    def hasNext = iter.hasNext
    def next() = iter.next._2
  }

  /** Defines the default value computation for the map,
* returned when a key is not found
* The method implemented here throws an exception,
* but it might be overridden in subclasses.
*
* @param key the given key value for which a binding is missing.
* @throws `NoSuchElementException`
*/
  def default(key: A): B =
    throw new NoSuchElementException("key not found: " + key)

  /** Filters this map by retaining only keys satisfying a predicate.
* @param p the predicate used to test keys
* @return an immutable map consisting only of those key value pairs of this map where the key satisfies
* the predicate `p`. The resulting map wraps the original map without copying any elements.
*/
  def filterKeys(p: A => Boolean): Map[A, B] = new DefaultMap[A, B] {
    override def foreach[C](f: ((A, B)) => C): Unit = for (kv <- self) if (p(kv._1)) f(kv)
    def iterator = self.iterator.filter(kv => p(kv._1))
    override def contains(key: A) = self.contains(key) && p(key)
    def get(key: A) = if (!p(key)) None else self.get(key)
  }

  /** Transforms this map by applying a function to every retrieved value.
* @param f the function used to transform values of this map.
* @return a map view which maps every key of this map
* to `f(this(key))`. The resulting map wraps the original map without copying any elements.
*/
  def mapValues[C](f: B => C): Map[A, C] = new DefaultMap[A, C] {
    override def foreach[D](g: ((A, C)) => D): Unit = for ((k, v) <- self) g((k, f(v)))
    def iterator = for ((k, v) <- self.iterator) yield (k, f(v))
    override def size = self.size
    override def contains(key: A) = self.contains(key)
    def get(key: A) = self.get(key).map(f)
  }

  @deprecated("use `mapValues' instead", "2.8.0")
  def mapElements[C](f: B => C) = mapValues(f)

  // The following 5 operations (updated, two times +, two times ++) should really be
  // generic, returning This[B]. We need better covariance support to express that though.
  // So right now we do the brute force approach of code duplication.

  /** Creates a new map obtained by updating this map with a given key/value pair.
* @param key the key
* @param value the value
* @tparam B1 the type of the added value
* @return A new map with the new key/value mapping added to this map.
* @usecase def updated(key: A, value: B): Map[A, B]
*/
  def updated [B1 >: B](key: A, value: B1): Map[A, B1] = this + ((key, value))

  /** Adds key/value pairs to this map, returning a new map.
*
* This method takes two or more key/value pairs. Another overloaded
* variant of this method handles the case where a single key/value pair is
* added.
* @param kv1 the first key/value pair
* @param kv2 the second key/value pair
* @param kvs the remaining key/value pairs
* @tparam B1 the type of the added values
* @return a new map with the given bindings added to this map
* @usecase def + (kvs: (A, B)*): Map[A, B]
* @param the key/value pairs
*/
  def + [B1 >: B] (kv1: (A, B1), kv2: (A, B1), kvs: (A, B1) *): Map[A, B1] =
    this + kv1 + kv2 ++ kvs

  /** Adds all key/value pairs in a traversable collection to this map, returning a new map.
*
* @param kvs the collection containing the added key/value pairs
* @tparam B1 the type of the added values
* @return a new map with the given bindings added to this map
* @usecase def ++ (xs: Traversable[(A, B)]): Map[A, B]
*/
  def ++[B1 >: B](xs: GenTraversableOnce[(A, B1)]): Map[A, B1] =
    ((repr: Map[A, B1]) /: xs.seq) (_ + _)

  @bridge
  def ++[B1 >: B](xs: TraversableOnce[(A, B1)]): Map[A, B1] = ++(xs: GenTraversableOnce[(A, B1)])

  /** Returns a new map with all key/value pairs for which the predicate
* `p` returns `true`.
*
* '''Note:''' This method works by successively removing elements fro which the
* predicate is false from this set.
* If removal is slow, or you expect that most elements of the set
* will be removed, you might consider using `filter`
* with a negated predicate instead.
* @param p A predicate over key-value pairs
* @return A new map containing elements not satisfying the predicate.
*/
  override def filterNot(p: ((A, B)) => Boolean): This = {
    var res: This = repr
    for (kv <- this)
      if (p(kv)) res = (res - kv._1).asInstanceOf[This] // !!! concrete overrides abstract problem
    res
  }

  /** Overridden for efficiency. */
  override def toSeq: Seq[(A, B)] = toBuffer[(A, B)]
  override def toBuffer[C >: (A, B)]: mutable.Buffer[C] = {
    val result = new mutable.ArrayBuffer[C](size)
    copyToBuffer(result)
    result
  }

  protected[this] override def parCombiner = ParMap.newCombiner[A, B]

  /** Appends all bindings of this map to a string builder using start, end, and separator strings.
* The written text begins with the string `start` and ends with the string
* `end`. Inside, the string representations of all bindings of this map
* in the form of `key -> value` are separated by the string `sep`.
*
* @param b the builder to which strings are appended.
* @param start the starting string.
* @param sep the separator string.
* @param end the ending string.
* @return the string builder `b` to which elements were appended.
*/
  override def addString(b: StringBuilder, start: String, sep: String, end: String): StringBuilder =
    this.iterator.map { case (k, v) => k+" -> "+v }.addString(b, start, sep, end)

  /** Defines the prefix of this object's `toString` representation.
* @return a string representation which starts the result of `toString` applied to this $coll.
* Unless overridden in subclasses, the string prefix of every map is `"Map"`.
*/
  override def stringPrefix: String = "Map"

  override /*PartialFunction*/
  def toString = super[IterableLike].toString

}
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