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Scalatron Player Setup
Player Documentation

About Scalatron

Scalatron is an educational resource for groups of programmers that want to learn more about the Scala programming language or want to hone their Scala programming skills. It is based on Scalatron BotWar, a competitive multi-player programming game in which coders pit bot programs (written in Scala) against each other.

The documentation, tutorial and source code are intended as a community resource and are in the public domain. Feel free to use, copy, and improve them!


Scalatron is a game server application running on a central computer. This server hosts the bot tournament by continuously simulating short rounds of the Scalatron BotWar game. Players participate in the tournament by publishing their bots into the server.

To publish a bot, a player has to provide the server with a .jar archive file that contains the bot's control function, which was implemented in Scala and then compiled. There are three approaches to doing this, which in the Scalatron documentation are referred to as the "serious", "intermediate" and "casual" paths, respectively.

The "Casual" Path

The "casual" path is intended for less experienced programmers or for shorter bot coding sessions (2-3 hours).

On this path, players write, build, debug and publish their bots in a web browser. The browser-based development environment is provided by an embedded web server which is hosted inside the game server and requires no setup by the user.

A subsequent chapter of this document describe how to code and build your bot using the browser-based development environment that is provided by the Scalatron server.

The "Intermediate" Path

The "intermediate" path is intended for programmers who wish to use their trusted editor or IDE on their local computer but want to minimize the setup overhead required for compiling and publishing (namely, installing Scala and using a network share for publication).

On this path, players use their editor or IDE of choice to write their bots, but then debug and publish from the web browser. Changes are synchronised with the server by using Git, a distributed version control system.

The "Serious" Path

The "serious" path is intended for experienced programmers planning for a longer bot coding session (5-7 hours).

On this path, bots are built locally by each player, using an IDE or command line tools. The bots are then published into the tournament by copying them into the plug-in directory on the central computer from which the game server loads them at the start of each round.

If you intend to go down the "serious" path, you need to complete the following steps in order to publish a bot program into the Scalatron game server:

  1. write a Scala program consisting of one or more .scala source files
  2. compile the Scala source code into Java .class files
  3. bundle those class files into a Java .jar archive file
  4. publish your .jar archive file into the plug-in directory used by the game server

Although all of these steps can be performed with a simple text editor and by using the command line, many people prefer to use an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) that supports Scala, such as Eclipse or IntelliJ IDEA. Unfortunately, the setup process is pretty involved and may take up to 30 minutes. Ideally someone in your group should already familiar with the development environment you intend to use.

The Casual Path: Using the Scalatron Browser IDE

The Scalatron server provides a built-in, browser-based development environment, the Scalatron IDE. To use this environment, you need to have access to a running Scalatron server somewhere on the network, or on your own computer. If you are participating in a workshop with multiple users, ask the organizer for the address of that machine.

If you want to run your own server on your local machine, follow the simple steps outlined in the Scalatron Server Setup guide. Basically:

  1. download the Scalatron distribution, e.g. from
  2. unzip the compressed file to a local directory, e.g. /Scalatron
  3. launch the game server by double-clicking the application, e.g. at Scalatron/bin/Scalatron.jar
  4. open a browser and point it to the server, usually at http://servername:8080
  5. log in as Administrator and create a user account for yourself

Once you have access to a running Scalatron server and have an account on it, perform the following steps:

  1. open a browser and point it to the server (e.g. using http://servername:8080, where servername is the name of the computing running the Scalatron server; if you are running it locally, use localhost)
  2. This will display a log-in screen that should show your name as one of the available user accounts. Log in.
  3. This will take you into a browser-based code editor, with a bare-bones bot pre-loaded. Edit the bot, then click Run in Sandbox to build your bot and run it in a private sandbox game.
  4. Once you have something that works, click Publish into Tournament to build your bot and publish it into the tournament.
  5. Woohoo!

The Intermediate Path: Using Your Editor Of Choice, Plus Git Version Control


The intermediate path uses Git, a distributed version control system, to exchange locally edited files with the Scalatron server and to trigger automatic compilation and publication. The Scalatron server runs an embedded version of Git and maintains a collection of Git repositories, one per user, to hold the source code version histories. You can retrieve these sources files and upload new versions using a Git client installed on your local computer. Many popular development environments have built-in or installable support for Git, so these operations are likely to be available directly within your IDE.

In the "intermediate" path, editing and publication work roughly as follows:

  1. Set up the Git version control system on your computer to interact with the Scalatron Git server
  2. Clone the code in the central Git repository managed by Scalatron to your local computer
  3. Edit the source code of your bots on your local machine, using your editor of choice
  4. When you want to test your code, push your changes back to the Scalatron server
  5. Use the browser-based Scalatron IDE (see the "casual" path description) to debug and publish your bot

Each of these steps is described in more detail in the following sections.

Set Up The Scalatron Server

The Scalatron server provides Git versioning services and a web server exposing the browser-based development environment. Install the Scalatron server and verify that it is up-and-running by following the instructions laid out for the "casual" path in the preceding chapter.

Install Git On Your Computer

You will be exchanging source code files with the Scalatron server by using a version control system called Git. The Scalatron server runs an embedded version of Git. To interact with it, you will need a local Git client. If you do not already have Git installed, go to, download the Git version appropriate for your operating system and follow the installation instructions.

Find Out The Link To Your Central Git Repository

Access to the central Git repositories managed by the Scalatron server is provided through the HTTP-based API of Git, which is exposed by Scalatron's embedded web server in the same way as Scalatron's own RESTful web API. To access it, you need to know the hostname or IP address of the Scalatron server; the port number at which the web server listens for requests; the resource name on the server under which the API is accessible; and your user name (and optionally your password).

The structure of the URL is as follows:


You can find out the hostname and port number in a variety of ways:

  • When Scalatron starts up, it prints the hostname and port number it thinks it is reachable on to the console
  • Scalatron automatically launches a browser to its welcome page at start up; the address displayed for that browser page contains the hostname and port number
  • If you are running Scalatron locally, the hostname localhost should work; the default port number used by Scalatron is 8080

The user name will be the name of the user account that you or an organizer created for you (see the associated steps in the instructions for the "casual" path).

Example: if your hostname is localhost, your port number is 8080 and your user name is Daniel, the URL to access Git will be:


Clone your Bot

To begin working on your source code, "clone" the central Git repository that Scalatron maintains for you to a directory on your local computer. This will transfer a copy of the files currently present in the central repository to local working directory so that you can edit them. Initially, this will be a single source file called Bot.scala containing a minimal bot implementation that Scalatron automatically generated for you.

To clone your personal bot locally, invoke the "clone" command on your local Git client installation from the command line, using the URL you found out above:

git clone http://{user}@{hostname}:{port}/git/{user}

Or for people who don't want to keep typing their password:

git clone http://{user}:{password}@{hostname}:{port}/git/{user}

Example: if your hostname is localhost, your port number is 8080 and your user name and password are Daniel and abc123, the command you would type would be:

git clone http://Daniel:abc123@localhost:8080/git/Daniel

Set Up Your Development Environment

You can use any development environment or editor you want, since the only interaction with Scalatron is via the Git client. For an example, check out the setup of IntelliJ IDEA described in the "serious" path setup below (note that you can ignore the chapter "Configure the .jar Artifact", as this is not required). The project can be a raw Scala project, with no extra dependencies.

The root of the project should be the directory of your newly cloned repository.

Synchronising Your Changes

After you've edited the source code of your bot, you'll want to upload it to the Scalatron server to build, test and publish it. To do that, you will again use your local Git client.

From the command line, execute the following commands to push your changes back to Scalatron:

git add .
git commit -m "Some change I just made"
git push

The add command scans your local directory for changes and notes and modifications you made. The commit command wraps all of the detected changes into a "commit", which is a labeled package of changes. The push command sends these changes to the server to update the remote repository. Note that this final step triggers a Scala compiler run on the server, which may initially take a bit of time.

Performing these operations will often also be possible from within your IDE, depending on the installed plugins. Please refer to your IDE or editor documentation to find out how this works in your particular environment.

Working With Your Bot

Whenever you push your changes to the central Git repository managed by Scalatron, the Scalatron server will not only update the version history but will automatically build your bot for you, reporting back any compiler errors that may have occurred. When the Scala compiler starts up for the first time, it has to scan the entire Scala library, which may take a while. The push command waits for a response from the server, so it may appear to hang while the compiler works through your code. This should be slow only the first time, though.

Once you pushed your bot code and Git reports back that the build was successful, you will have an unpublished bot version in your workspace on the server. You can now either start a private game using the unpublished bot (to test it out) or publish it into the tournament loop. Both tasks can be performed via the browser-based Scalatron IDE.

Testing Your Bot In A Private Game

To test and debug your bot, you can launch it into a private game instance - a "sandbox" game - managed for you by the Scalatron server. To do that, refresh your browser to make it display the source version you just pushed. Then click Run in Sandbox to start a private game and display it in the browser-based debugger. You may need to do this multiple times as you make changes and wish to test the results.

Publishing Your Bot Into The Tournament Loop

Once you are happy with your bot, you can follows the same steps as for testing (refresh the browser if you just pushed a new version) and then click Publish Into Tournament.

Using the Scalatron Command Line Interface

Although describing the details is beyond the scope of this chapter, you can also use the Scalatron CLI (Command Line Interface) to work with the bot version you uploaded and built via Git. See the documentation for the Scalatron CLI for details.

Example: to publish an unpublished bot version (such as one that was automatically built via git push), run the following command from the command line:

java -jar ScalatronCLI.jar -user Daniel -password abc123 -cmd publish

Accessing Changes Made in the Browser

If you make changes in the browser and used Save to commit them into the version history, you can replicate those changes locally by using the Git command pull:

git pull

The Serious Path: Building Locally

Set up Java

  • Scala source code compiles into Java byte code, which can be executed with a Java Virtual Machine (JVM). In order to execute applications written in Scala, you therefore need such a JVM on your computer. The JVM is part of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE), which is generally pre-installed on most operating systems. If it is not, you can download it for free.
  • To compile Scala code and to properly work with the Java library (e.g., to see its source code), however, you also need the the Java Development Kit (JDK). If you have already been developing for Java, you should obviously already have this, too. If not, download a JDK from Oracle or from the web site of your OS provider.
  • Please refer to the documentation of the IDE you will be using on how to configure it to use the appropriate JDK. Maybe some day we'll be able to also add the steps to this guide...

Set up Scala

  • Compiled Scala code relies on functionality defined in the Scala standard library, which is therefore required to be present on your computer (as a Java archive .jar file). There are several ways to obtain and install this package, but the most convenient way is to get the entire 'stack' of Scala technologies available from Typesafe, a company that supports a range of key Scala projects. So:

  • Download the Typesafe Stack from

  • Install the Typesafe stack

    • on OSX, the default directory is /Applications/typesafe-stack
    • on Windows, the default directory is C:/Program Files/typesafe-stack

Set up a Development Environment

Subsequent chapters of this document describe how to build your bot on the "serious" path via the following alternatives:

  1. Using IntelliJ IDEA, a sophisticated development environment for Java that has pretty good Scala support (this is a commercial tool, but a free "Community Edition" is available)
  2. Using the command line
  3. Using SBT, the Simple Build Tool for Scala

Set up IntelliJ IDEA

IntelliJ IDEA is a commercial development environment for Java and many other languages. It now (March 2012) has quite adequate support for Scala development via a Scala plug-in. But it is just one of several options you can use. Another one is the Scala IDE based on Eclipse. Unfortunately, this tutorial is not (yet) able to cover both environments, so the following steps are, for the moment, specific to IntelliJ IDEA. They were tested with IDEA version 11.2 on MacOS X.

Installation & Configuration

Download and Install the IDE

  • Download IntelliJ IDEA from
  • You can use either of the following versions:
    • Ultimate Edition (Evaluation Version)
    • Community Edition

Install the Scala plug-in

  • In the main menu, select IntelliJ IDEA > Preferences
  • In the list on the left, scroll down to to the entry Plugins
  • At the bottom of the pane that appears, choose Browse Repositories
  • Via the search box at the top right, search for 'Scala'
  • In the list that appears on the left, scroll down to the entry called Scala
  • Control-click on that entry and select Download and Install...
  • After the plug-in was downloaded and installed, you will have to re-start IDEA

Configure the Scala Compiler

  • In order to compile Scala code in IDEA, we need to tell IDEA (or rather, the Scala plug-in within IDEA) where it can find the Scala compiler. The Scala compiler comes as part of the Typesafe stack which we already installed, and resides in a Java archive file called scala-compiler.jar.
  • We now need to create a kind of 'library bundle' containing both the Scala compiler and the Scala library, which we'll then tell the plug-in to use when it wants to compile our code.
  • In the main menu, select File > Project Structure...
  • In list at upper left, select Global Libraries
  • We want to add an entry called 'scala-compiler' to the list of 'library packages' in the center. To do that, we...
  • Click on the '+' icon above the list in the center
  • In the Select Library Files dialog that appears...
  • Browse for and select the following libraries on disk:
    • /Applications/typesafe-stack/lib/scala-compiler.jar
    • /Applications/typesafe-stack/lib/scala-library.jar
  • this will add an entry "scala-compiler" to the global library list
  • We can now configure the IDEA Scala plug-in to use this 'library package' in order to access the compiler and to compile our Scala code.

Configure the Fast Scala Compiler option

  • In the main menu, select IntelliJ IDEA > Preferences (Mac) or File > Settings (Windows)
  • This will pop up a dialog with the title Settings
  • In this dialog, in the tree at left navigate to Compiler > Scala Compiler
  • In the right hand panel, find the box titled Project FSC
  • In the drop-down list Compiler library, select the Scala compiler 'library package' we created earlier: scala-compiler.jar (or something similar, whatever you'd entered as the name).
  • This will allow IDEA to do fast incremental compilations using an internal compilation server.

Configure the Scala Library

  • Note: this step is NOT a duplicate of the preceding step! You really need to do this, too!

  • Before, we created a 'library package' for the IDEA Scala plug-in that contained the Scala compiler and the Scala standard library. For our own projects, we'll also need to include the Scala standard library as a dependency - but we don't need the compiler. We'll therefore create another 'library package', but this time one that contains ONLY the Scala standard library (scala-library.jar).

  • File > Project structure...

  • in list at upper left, select "Global Libraries"

  • add one library by selecting the following libraries:

    • /Applications/typesafe-stack/lib/scala-library.jar => this will add an entry "scala-library" to the global library list (your module will depend on this library)
  • we will later add this "scala-library.jar" to your Module's Dependencies

Set up a Project for Your Bot

The following steps are specific to IntelliJ IDEA and were tested with IDEA version 11.2.

Create a Scala Bot project

  • this is the project you will use to write and compile your bot source code
  • File > New Project...
  • enter project name ("ScalatronBot")
  • accept all defaults
  • do not yet configure Scala - we will do this manually

Add the Scala Facet to you Project

  • A 'Facet' is IDEA's way of knowing what technologies your project uses and to store configuration information for these technologies. We need to add the 'Scala' facet to your project. In the next step, we'll configure it.
  • File > Project Structure...
  • in list at upper left, select "Facets"
  • above the middle list, click the '+' icon to add a new facet
  • add the Scala facet to your project/module

Configure the Scala Facet

  • First we'll configure your project to use the Fast Scala Compiler. The Fast Scala Compiler is an incremental compile server managed by the Scala plug-in within IDEA. Using it dramatically accelerates your build times because symbols do not need to be re-loaded for every build.
  • From the preceding step, you should still have the Project Structure dialog visible. In the list at the left, you should have selected Facet and in the list in the middle you should have selected the Scala facet.
  • Now in the panel on the right titled Compiler instantiation, check the box use project FSC ('FSC' is the 'Fast Scala Compiler').
  • This tells IDEA that to compile your Scala source code, it should use the Fast Scala Compiler. We configured this compiler earlier on to use the appropriate Scala compiler library.
  • In the same dialog, check the box Explain type errors further down. This tells the compiler to generate more verbose error messages when it encounters type errors.

Configure Scala Library as Module Dependency

  • We now need to tell IDEA that your Scala 'ScalatronBot' project depends on the Scala 'library package' containing scala-library.jar which we created earlier.
  • From the preceding step, you should still have the Project Structure dialog visible.
  • in list at upper left, select "Modules"
  • click on your module ("ScalatronBot")
  • in panel on right, traverse to the tab "Dependencies"
  • click '+' at bottom of panel to add a dependency
  • from pop-up menu, select "Library..."
  • from the list, select "scala-library.jar"
  • close the dialog with "OK" to apply the settings

Configure the .jar Artifact

  • An 'artifact' is something of (hopefully) permanent value generated by the build process. In our case it will be a Java archive (.jar) file that contains the compiled bot. The server will attempt to locate and open this .jar file and to extract a factory class from it which it can then use to instantiate a control function for our bot.

  • In the main menu, select File > Project Structure...

  • This re-opens the Project Structure dialog

  • In list at upper left, select Artifacts

  • Above the list in the middle of the dialog, click the '+' icon to add a new artifact

  • From the pop-up menu, select Jar

  • In the options that appear, select from Modules with dependencies...

  • This will pop up a dialog with the title Create Jar from Modules

  • Leave the field Main class empty

  • In the section Jar files from libraries select the option copy to the output directory and link via manifest

  • The reason we do this is because we do not need or want the Scala standard library (the scala-library.jar file, which takes up about 9MB) to be bundled into your bot, since the game server has that code anyway. We only want the .class files generated from your own .scala source files in the plug-in (these will be closer to 25KB). This also saves a bit of copy time each time you build.

  • Confirm with OK

  • In the main dialog, in the list in the middle, an entry called 'ScalatronBot.jar' should have appeared and be selected. In the associated panel on the right, check the box Build on make. This will tell IDEA to automatically create the plug-in .jar file we just configured as an artifact each time you build your code.

  • Optionally, you can remove the scala-library entry from the list titled Output Layout

  • Now change the output directory to your plug-in directory on the network share where the game server will be looking for bot plug-ins, e.g. (if your name is Frank), to: * /Volume/bots/Frank/

Write and Build Your Bot

The following steps are specific to IntelliJ IDEA and were tested with IDEA version 11.2 on MacOS X.

Create a Bot Code File

  • You should now be in the main window of IDEA, with a panel containing a tree structure showing the contents of your project on the left.

  • Optionally, in the drop-down at the top of that panel at the left (called Project), change the view setting from Project to Packages. This simplifies the display a bit and only shows packages relevant to your project.

  • Right-click on the Module ("ScalatronBot") and select New > Scala Class

  • Enter the class name "ControlFunctionFactory" and click OK

  • In the file, enter the following code:

    class ControlFunctionFactory { def create = (input: String) => "Status(text=Hello World)" }

Build your Bot

  • In the main menu, select Build > Make Project. You'll soon use this a lot. Make a mental note of the keyboard shortcut...
  • This should compile the Scala code in your Bot.scala file into the .jar artifact file we configured earlier.
  • If you configured your artifact's destination path to be your personal directory below the shared plug-in directory on the game server, the .jar file will be copied into that directory and the next time the server starts a game round and re-scans the plug-in directories, your plug-in will be picked up and your bot should appear in the game arena, saying 'Hello World'.
  • Now read the Game Rules, the Protocol and then get started with the Tutorial! Have fun!

Debug Your Bot

The IntelliJ IDEA development environment provides a very convenient mechanism for debugging your bot by connecting to a running Scalatron server application, generally on your local machine.

Setting up Remote Debugging

To use the remote debugging mechanism, follow these steps:

  • In IDEA, select Run > Edit Configurations in the main menu.
  • In the dialog Run/Debug Configurations that appears, add a new configuration by clicking the + at the top left.
  • In the pop-up menu Add New Configuration that appears, select Remote as the configuration type.
  • In the tab that appears on the right, choose a name for your configuration, such as Scalatron Remote.
  • The text in the table also explains the option that you need to add to the command line invocation of the Scalatron server: -Xdebug -Xrunjdwp:transport=dt_socket,server=y,suspend=n,address=5005
  • Choose the option at the bottom Build on Make to automatically build your .jar file before you connect to the server.
  • Close the dialog with OK

Initiating a Remote Debugging Session

To debug your bot, you now need to follow a two-step process:

  1. Start the Scalatron Server with the required JVM options.
  2. Build your bot and connect the debugger to the running server

To start your server, you have again two options:

  • open a terminal window, then launch it from the command line
  • within the IDE, configure the Scalatron server as a tool and run it from there

In both cases, you will need to specify the command line options you want. For details, please refer to the Scalatron Server Setup guide. Here is an example command that integrates the remote debugging options with some Scalatron options:

java -Xdebug -Xrunjdwp:transport=dt_socket,server=y,suspend=n,address=5005 -jar Scalatron.jar -headless no -x 50 -y 50

To build the bot and connect to the debugger, simply select the Scalatron Remote configuration you created earlier and choose Run > Run... from the main menu.

Working with the Command Line

The following guide was adapted from an article written by Lauri Lehmijoki, which he kindly made available on his blog at and gave permission to include here.


Lauri says: "I believe that working on the *nix command-line interface (CLI) is important if you want to get an in-depth understanding of the programming system you are learning. Here are some of the benefits of working on the CLI instead of an IDE:

  • You get to understand the compiler, because you have to compile the software yourself.
  • You will understand the meaning of every file in your project, since you've created them yourself.
  • You will learn the APIs by heart, since you have to look at the documentation instead of relying on the IDE's auto-complete feature
  • You'll be only a couple of keypresses away from the powerful Unix tools that dwell behind the CLI
  • Working on the CLI allows you to be fully in control of everything that happens during development - modern IDEs easily abstract away too many things, causing you to be at their mercy."

Preparing the Scala environment

We'll assume that you don't have Scala installed on your system. We are going to download the latest Scala version from the language's home page, and then install it onto your Mac or Linux (other Unix systems will also do here).

Its possible to install Scala via a package manager such as Apt-get on Ubuntu, but the Scala version in your package manager's repository might be outdated. Because of that and the idea that working on the CLI helps you understand the programming system you want to learn, I suggest that you install Scala with the steps below.

Installing Scala

First, download Scala (you can check for the latest release on the Scala download page; here we are using the version 2.9.1):

curl > /tmp/

Create the directory where to put Scala and then unpack the zip:

mkdir ~/Install

unzip /tmp/ -d ~/Install

Configuring environment

Create the SCALA\_HOME environment variable by appending a string to your shell configuration:

echo "export SCALA_HOME=~/Install/scala-2.9.1-1" >> ~/.bash_profile

We also need to add Scala into your command path, so that you can invoke Scala without having to rememer the full path to the installation:

echo "export PATH=\$PATH:\$SCALA_HOME/bin" >> ~/.bash_profile

Let's reload .bash_profile to activate the SCALA\_HOME environment variable and the path setting:

source ~/.bash_profile

As the final step we make all the Scala binaries executable:

chmod u+x $SCALA_HOME/bin/*

Your *nix now has Scala. You can give Scala a test run by opening the interpreter with the scala command.

Installing Scalatron server

Scalatron server is the software that contains the game engine and the graphical interface to the game. You need it for running your Scalatron bots. The Scalatron web site has documentation on how to set up a shared server.

You can also install the Scalatron server with the following steps:

  1. Download the latest release from the Scalatron download page
  2. Unpack the downloaded file
  3. Go to the directory where you unpacked the file and invoke cd bin && java -jar Scalatron.jar to start the server

Developing Scalatron bots on CLI

Creating new Scalatron project

Create a new project directory for your bot:

mkdir MorningLightMountain && cd MorningLightMountain

(MorningLightMountain is a nefarious alien in Peter Hamilton's Commonwealth Saga, a science fiction book series.)

Then create the required sub-directories:

mkdir bin src

Edit the file src/Bot.scala and add the code for the simplest bot:

// Contents of src/Bot.scala
class ControlFunctionFactory {
    def create = (input: String) => "Status(text=MorningLightMountain will conquer the whole universe!)"

Next we'll compile the Scalatron bot, and then we'll deploy it on the server. Will humans prevail, or will MorningLightMountain take over and enslave us?

Compiling Scala and Scalatron

Add an empty MANIFEST.MF file into your project's root:


Jar needs it as a header file.

With the following script (available as a gist on github at you can compile your Scalatron bot:

# For compiling a Scalatron bot.
# Assumes that the MANIFEST.MF file is located in the current directory.
# Author: Lauri Lehmijoki -
set -e
rm -rf $BUILD_DIR && mkdir $BUILD_DIR

echo "Building the Scalatron bot..."

scalac -sourcepath src -d $BUILD_DIR `find src -name *.scala`


# MANIFEST.MF can be an empty file, but it has to exist
jar -cfm ../bin/ScalatronBot.jar ../MANIFEST.MF *.*

cd ..

echo "...ready!"
echo "Produced bin/ScalatronBot.jar"

Save the script with name build into your project's root and make it executable with chmod u+x build.

Now you can compile the Scalatron bot with ./build.

Publishing the bot to the server

This step is easy. All we need to do is to make the Scalatron.jar available for the server. Symbolic links will help us. Let's assume that you've installed the Scalatron server in ~/Scala/Scalatron/server and the MorningLightMountain project is in ~/Scala/Scalatron/MorningLightMountain. Run the following commands to create the symbolic link:

mkdir ~/Scala/Scalatron/server/bots/MorningLightMountain

ln -s ~/Scala/Scalatron/MorningLightMountain/bin/ScalatronBot.jar ~/Scala/Scalatron/server/bots/MorningLightMountain/ScalatronBot.jar

Start the Scalatron server, and MorningLightMountain is there!

VIM and Scala

VIM is fits well into Scala development. However, it doesn't have built-in support for Scala indentation and syntax highlighting. Lorenzo Danielsson has written a blog post on how to get them working.

Working with SBT (Simple Build Tool)

The following guide was adapted from an article written by J. M. Hofer, which he kindly made available on his blog at and gave permission to include here.


J. M. Hofer says: "Unfortunately, it's not yet well documented or obvious how to set the Scalatron environment up, except for a huuuge instructions document for IntelliJ IDEA. I mean, 13 pages?! - That just has to be doable in an easier way! As I'm an Eclipse user and somewhat fluent with SBT, I thought I'd try to setup Scalatron with an SBT build. With the sbteclipse (and sbt-idea) plugins, I'll then get the IDE setup for free."

A Basic SBT Build File

So, let's create a basic SBT build file. As I already suspect that I'll need a build that's a bit more complicated than a few lines of configuring standard settings, let's start with a Build.scala file:

import sbt._
import Keys._

object Build extends Build {
  val bot = Project(
    id = "mybot",
    base = file("."),
    settings = Project.defaultSettings ++ botSettings)

  val botSettings = Seq[Setting[_]](
    organization := "de.johoop",
    name := "my-scalatron-bot",
    version := "1.0.0-SNAPSHOT",

    scalaVersion := "2.9.1",
    scalacOptions ++= Seq("-deprecation", "-unchecked"))

This simply initializes my bot project and adds a few standard Scala options I usually like to use.

Scalatron Dependency and Tests

Next, I want to add the dependency to the Scalatron jar file to the project. As Scalatron isn't published anywhere, I'll just create a lib directory and put the jar file from the Scalatron distribution in there.

Another basic thing that's still missing from the build is the configuration of some kind of tests. I absolutely want to write tests against my bot's functionality, as it's very difficult to debug a bot during a running bot war. I'll use Specs2 for that, of course, because it's all kinds of genius. We'll add the following lines to our botSettings:

libraryDependencies ++= Seq(
  "org.specs2" %% "specs2" % "1.8.2" % "test",
  "org.pegdown" % "pegdown" % "1.0.2" % "test",
  "junit" % "junit" % "4.7" % "test"),

testOptions := Seq(
    Tests.Filter(_ == "de.johoop.scalatron.BotSpec"),
    Tests.Argument("html", "console")),

testOptions <+= crossTarget map { ct =>
  Tests.Setup { () =>
        new File(ct, "specs2").getAbsolutePath)

The first few lines add all required dependencies: pegdown for the nice HTML reports, junit for running the tests from within Eclipse using JUnit.

Then I tell SBT to just execute my main test specification called BotSpec and ignore any sub specifications. And I tell it to create HTML reports, too, and where to put them.

Starting the Scalatron Simulation

I can now already hack and test my bot to my heart's content. However, I can't yet try it out in the Scalatron environment. Let's do something about this. I need a way to start the Scalatron simulation, and I probably want to configure the directory where all the bots are kept (the enemy bots as well as my own).

For this, I first create two simple SBT keys and add them to the Build class:

val botDirectory = SettingKey[File]("bot-directory")
val play = TaskKey[Unit]("play")

The botDirectory setting will simply be initialized to where I want to keep the bots (in the botSettings sequence):

botDirectory := file("bots"),

The play task will have the job to take my bot jar and deploy it into the bot directory, and then to start a (forked) Scalatron simulation. In order to be able to do this, it will require quite a few dependencies as inputs:

  • botDirectory: where the bots go,
  • name: in order to name my bot in the bot directory,
  • javaOptions: so that I can configure memory settings and the like for the simulation,
  • unmanagedClasspath in Compile: to retrieve the Scalatron.jar from and finally
  • Keys.package in Compile: to retrieve my bot's jar from.

So, here we go (again, add this to the botSettings):

play <<= (botDirectory, name, javaOptions,
          unmanagedClasspath in Compile,
          Keys.`package` in Compile) map {
            (bots, name, javaOptions, ucp, botJar) =>

  IO createDirectory (bots / name)
  IO copyFile (botJar, bots / name / "ScalatronBot.jar")

  val cmd = "java %s -cp %s scalatron.main.Main -plugins %s" format (
      javaOptions mkString " ",
      Seq(ucp.files.head, botJar).absString,
  cmd run


And that's it!

I can now deploy my bot to the bot directory and run the simulation from within SBT just by typing play into the SBT console.

Except... except that I noticed that the simulation seems to use a lot of memory, so I added a java option for this:

javaOptions += "-Xmx1g"

And also, the Eclipse project I generate via the sbteclipse plugin unfortunately warns me about two Scala runtimes (one generated by the plugin, one inside the Scalatron jar). I won't do anything against this, hoping that we'll soon get a clean published Scalatron jar that doesn't automatically include the Scala runtime...

Here's my complete build file as a gist:

Now go and create your own Scalatron bot!

A CLI-Friendly Scalatron Template

Independently, David Winslow (@godwinsgo) was so kind as to post a command-line-friendly SBT template for Scalatron on github at Thanks!