Add vocab to support markup of fact-checking sites #1061

danbri opened this Issue Mar 29, 2016 · 13 comments


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danbri commented Mar 29, 2016 edited

The following markup is proposed for use by a collaboration amongst fact-checking sites.

It adds vocabulary around Review to make more explicit when these are from fact-checking sites:

  • 1.) ClaimReview as a subtype of Review. "A fact-checking review of claims made in some creative work."
  • 2.) claimReviewed as a property of ClaimReview. "A short summary of the specific claims reviewed in a ClaimReview."
  • 3.) It uses the existing 'author' property on Review to indicate the organization behind the review.
  • 4.) It uses a new property, claimReviewSiteLogo on the (Claim)Review to indicate the fact-checking organization's logo.
  • 5.) It uses the existing itemReviewed property to indicate the document that carries the claims being reviewed (which could include as shown here, offline newspaper articles).


(updated for Feb 2017 but original was close)

<script type="application/ld+json">
    "@context": "",
    "@type":  "ClaimReview",
    "datePublished": "2014-07-23",
    "url": "",
    "author": {
        "@type": "Organization",
        "url": "",
        "sameAs": ""
    "claimReviewed": "More than 3,000 homicides were committed by \"illegal aliens\" over the past six years.",
    "reviewRating": {
        "@type": "Rating",
        "ratingValue": 1,
        "bestRating": 6,
        "alternateName": "True",
        "image": ""
    "itemReviewed": {
        "@type": "CreativeWork",
        "author": {
            "@type": "Person",
            "name": "Rich Perry",
            "jobTitle": "Former Governor of Texas",
            "image": "",
            "sameAs": [
        "datePublished": "2014-07-17",
        "name": "The St. Petersburg Times interview [...]"

 See also

@danbri danbri pushed a commit that referenced this issue Mar 29, 2016
Dan Brickley Adding proposal for fact-checking vocabulary. 048ba8a
danbri commented Mar 29, 2016


  • Instead of 'twitter' as a property, use 'sameAs' with full URL.
  • Can we use 'logo' of the Organization instead of claimReviewSiteLogo?
  • What is "text": "True" for?
  • The example has "image" : "" on the Rating - seems redundant as that URL is already in there.
  • sourceName should probably be just 'name', but we could distinguish the source article versus its publisher explicitly.
  • Use 'jobTitle' rather than 'title' (for "Former Governor of Texas")
@danbri danbri pushed a commit that referenced this issue Mar 29, 2016
Dan Brickley Draft example taken from #1061 proposal. 49a2c46
danbri commented Apr 4, 2016

Note that #271 proposes a Quotation type under CreativeWork, now implemented within the pending extension as ... this should plug in directly here.

@danbri danbri pushed a commit that referenced this issue Apr 12, 2016
Dan Brickley Tweaked to use alternateName and image properties.
for #1061
@danbri danbri pushed a commit that referenced this issue Apr 22, 2016
Dan Brickley Tidied 1061 ClaimReview schema.
Added 'source' link so github shows up in pending site.
Removed old image property that wasn't needed.
For #1061
danbri commented Jul 20, 2016

An update on adoption of this vocabulary, for those who might have missed it. If you inspect (via in-browser element inspection) the post-Javascript DOM of URLs such as

you will see Widget-injected JSON-LD using the ClaimReview type, and that augments the Rating item with (in the last case) a 'name' property that carries non-numeric codes, e.g.

"reviewRating": {
   "@type": "Rating",
   "ratingValue": "2",
   "bestRating": "5",
   "name": "Two Pinocchios",
   "image" : ""

See also which has related widget code.

I mention this in part because of nearby discussion (#668 #915 and most recently #780) around the question of representing awards, "star ratings" (esp. for accomodation) and other endorsements, and how general vs domain specific we want various constructions to be.

The point of overlap (beyond the general connection to the notion of Review and/or Rating) is that the fact checking sites have situations such as "Two Pinocchios" in which a well known (and site/provider-specific) informal but named code is applied to something. The broadly analogous situation with awards is that something is awarded "critic's pick", "x of the year" etc., which can be conceived of as a kind of rating. Meanwhile defaults to 5-point scales.

Despite that discussion, my feeling is that ClaimReview has proved its worth and the design seems reasonably stable. I suggest we move it into the core (it is currently staged in to encourage further adoption.

danbri commented Aug 19, 2016

Given the relatively small number of sites in the fact-checking audience, I believe having politifact, and the Washington Post is excellent progress. I'll proceed with moving this into Core just as soon as we figure out how exactly to structure this technically (so that the old URLs are still useful). /cc @shankarnat @tmarshbing @chaals @nicolastorzec @scor @mfhepp @rvguha @vholland in case anyone cares to suggest another course of action.

bquinn commented Aug 23, 2016

Just thought I'd mention that this proposal gets a mention in the recent "State of Automated Factchecking" report in case that adds fuel to the fire of getting it moved into core.

danbri commented Aug 23, 2016

Oh, that is nice, thanks @bquinn. Makes a change from reading about "post factual" democracy...

unor commented Oct 14, 2016

For reference:

Google News suggests to use ClaimReview in their blog post Labeling fact-check articles in Google News (link to pending) and in their help about source labels (Fact Check) (link core, where the type does not yet exist).

danbri commented Nov 1, 2016

See also blog post with ideas around this from Leigh Dodds @ldodds

@danbri danbri pushed a commit that referenced this issue Nov 3, 2016
Dan Brickley Moved ClaimReview into core from pending area.
See #1061
@danbri danbri pushed a commit that referenced this issue Nov 3, 2016
Dan Brickley Moved examples into core area for ClaimReview.
See #1061
@danbri danbri pushed a commit that referenced this issue Nov 3, 2016
Dan Brickley ClaimReview is now (proposed to be) in core, so multiple-typing with …
…Review not needed.

Also the image in the example was attached to the Rating instead of the rater.
/cc #1061
@danbri danbri pushed a commit that referenced this issue Nov 3, 2016
Dan Brickley Moved image property to be of the organization not of the rating it m…

This is because it is a general image for Politifact, not an icon
representing a specific rating score.
/cc #1061
@danbri danbri pushed a commit that referenced this issue Nov 9, 2016
Dan Brickley Updated example to show image representing a specific rating.
/cc #1061

Suggestion, it would be helpful to include a property for a link to a source for where the claim is made. Most fact checking articles include such a link to an original piece of news reporting or a primary source that is the origin (or close to the origin) of the claim.

unor commented Dec 16, 2016

@thinkcontext The description of ClaimReview suggests to reference the work where the claim is made with the itemReviewed property.

For example:

<article vocab="" typeof="ClaimReview">
  <h2 property="name">Fact check: Foo (</h2>

  <div property="itemReviewed" typeof="Article">
    <a property="url" href=""><cite property="name">Foo</cite></a>


Does this work for you?


I see, thanks for that clarification @unor

@brmayes brmayes referenced this issue in nprapps/anno-docs Jan 4, 2017

Support Google fact-check tag #3


The use of sameAs in the example, seems kind of problematic, particularly in the context of reviews.

I might like Ricky Martin's home page, but not like Ricky Martin.

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