Describe the funding of a person/project/creative work #383

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hubgit opened this Issue Mar 17, 2015 · 24 comments

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@hubgit
hubgit commented Mar 17, 2015

A schema (funder name, funder identifier, award number) for describing the funding of academic research and journal articles is published as part of FundRef.

It would be useful to have something similar - and more broadly applicable - in schema.org, to describe the funding of various things.

As an example:

  • A CreativeWork would have one or more funding, the value of which is a Funding.
  • A Funding would have one or more funder, the value of which is one or more Organisation or Person.
  • A Funding would have zero or more awardNumber, the value of which is text (e.g. an NIH grant number).
  • A Funding would have zero or more startDate and endDate.

To consider:

  • Should the funding property be attached to the CreativeWork, the project, or each Person/contributor?
  • When attached to a Person, should this include professional awards, such as fellowships, or employers?
@chaals
Contributor
chaals commented Mar 20, 2015

The best example I can think of for noting people being funded are politicians, but there are certainly cases of both projects, and creative works they produce, being funded and wanting to acknowledge that funding.

@chaals
Contributor
chaals commented Mar 20, 2015

For schema.org's purposes, if we do this I would be inclined to keep it pretty generic - i.e. Thing could have a funder (by the time we allow for organisations, people, documents, sculptures, projects and so on, I'm not sure what we gain by trying to think of the things that cannot be funded…

@thadguidry

@hubgit Your ideas are similar to mine in the past: https://www.freebase.com/user/thadguidry/default_domain/grant_program?schema=

here's my past playground, you might find some interesting types and properties to explore:
https://www.freebase.com/user/thadguidry/default_domain

So I suggest that Grants be an extension of Schema.org and try to make it as generic as possible starting out. It seems as if your data is aligned with a list of Grants. So I would start with a basic Grant type that anyone at any organization could use (USA, Europe, etc). After that then you can see the abstractions needed, and perhaps then create a higher type if needed for Fund (where a project can be funded by a Grant, or Online Funding Campaign, i.e. Kickstarter, Backme, etc., or Investment and then create those other types as well, if need be... OnlineCampaign, Investment, etc...)

Best of luck.

@hubgit
hubgit commented Mar 21, 2015

I wonder if the existing PayAction would be appropriate (perhaps with an inverse property).

@rvguha
Contributor
rvguha commented Mar 21, 2015

I would strongly prefer to stay away from putting everything on Thing.

Lets start with CreativeWork and Project (or something like that). We can
then proceed from there.

guha

On Fri, Mar 20, 2015 at 3:52 AM, chaals notifications@github.com wrote:

For schema.org's purposes, if we do this I would be inclined to keep it
pretty generic - i.e. Thing could have a funder (by the time we allow for
organisations, people, documents, sculptures, projects and so on, I'm not
sure what we gain by trying to think of the things that cannot be funded…


Reply to this email directly or view it on GitHub
#383 (comment).

@rvguha
Contributor
rvguha commented Mar 21, 2015

In keeping with our desired naming convention, let us not have both Funding
and funding. Lets come up with different terms.

Further, the term 'Funding' is a bit too generic. Lets use something more
descriptive

guha

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 7:05 AM, Alf Eaton notifications@github.com wrote:

A schema (funder name, funder identifier, award number) for describing the
funding of academic research and journal articles is published as part of
FundRef http://help.crossref.org/fundref.

It would be useful to have something similar - and more broadly applicable

  • in schema.org, to describe the funding of various things.

As an example:

  • A ScholarlyArticle would have one or more funding, the value of
    which is a Funding.
  • A Funding would have one or more funder, the value of which is one
    or more Organisation or Person.
  • A Funding would have zero or more awardNumber, the value of which is
    text (e.g. an NIH grant number
    http://era.nih.gov/commons/commons-help/198.htm).

To consider:

  • Should the funding property be attached to the CreativeWork, the
    project, or each Person/contributor?
  • When attached to a Person, should this include professional awards,
    such as fellowships, or employers?


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#383.

@rvguha
Contributor
rvguha commented Mar 21, 2015

Yes. There is a whole domain around 'grants', which should cover all the
use cases you mention. Including some additional ones like donations. There
is quite a bit of interest in getting this kind of data made public
(especially the donation case).

guha

On Fri, Mar 20, 2015 at 8:37 AM, Thad Guidry notifications@github.com
wrote:

@hubgit https://github.com/hubgit Your ideas are similar to mine in the
past:
https://www.freebase.com/user/thadguidry/default_domain/grant_program?schema=

here's my past playground, you might find some interesting types and
properties to explore:
https://www.freebase.com/user/thadguidry/default_domain

So I suggest that Grants be an extension of Schema.org and try to make it
as generic as possible starting out. It seems as if your data is aligned
with a list of Grants. So I would start with a basic Grant type that anyone
at any organization could use (USA, Europe, etc). After that then you can
see the abstractions needed, and perhaps then create a higher type if
needed for Fund (where a project can be funded by a Grant, or Online
Funding Campaign, i.e. Kickstarter, Backme, etc., or Investment and then
create those other types as well, if need be... OnlineCampaign, Investment,
etc...)

Best of luck.


Reply to this email directly or view it on GitHub
#383 (comment).

@hubgit
hubgit commented Apr 13, 2015

Exploring some terms (deliberately broad, to try to include all the possiblities):

  • grant
  • payment / Pay (agent, recipient, description, amount, start + end date)
  • sponsor (in some fields implies "guarantor")
  • backer
  • funder / fund
  • contributor (using Role)

Properties needed (see PayAction):

  • donor/giver (agent)
  • recipient
  • start ± end date
  • purpose / assistance type
  • amount + currency (price)
  • description
  • award id / program number (local identifier)
  • id (global identifier)
  • program (larger body that the grant is part of)
  • other roles (administrator, institution, etc)
@hubgit
hubgit commented Apr 13, 2015

An experiment at giving grant donors a "contributor" role on the work:

[http://example.org/works/1]:
  type: CreativeWork
  contributor:
    - type: FundingRole
      roleName: "donor" # could be "sponsor", "backer", etc
      contributor:
        - type: Organization
          name: "Medical Research Council"
      award:
        - type: Grant
          awardId: "MRC123"
          startDate: 2014-01-01
          endDate: 2015-01-01
          recipient:
            - type: Person
              name: "Bob Smith"

In this example, FundingRole has an extra award property, which is a Grant, which has similar properties to a PayAction.

@hubgit
hubgit commented Apr 13, 2015

An experiment at attaching the grant (with properties copied from PayAction) directly to the work:

[http://example.org/works/1]:
  type: CreativeWork
  funding:
    - type: Grant      
      awardId: "MRC123"
      startDate: 2014-01-01
      endDate: 2015-01-01
      agent:
        - type: Organization
          name: "Medical Research Council"
      recipient:
        - type: Person
          name: "Bob Smith"
@hubgit
hubgit commented Apr 13, 2015

Question: Is Grant a generic enough name to cover all of the following (and more)?:

  • Kickstarter backing
  • Donations to a political party
  • Research funding by a charity
  • Sponsorship by a commercial organisation
  • Charitable donations
  • Venture capital
  • Film production companies/record labels paying for production of a movie/album.
  • Employer contributions to an employee's work on an open-source project.
@hubgit
hubgit commented Apr 13, 2015

An experiment at using PayAction to attach a Grant to a CreativeWork (following the example of potentialAction => AssessAction => resultReview => Review => itemReviewed => CreativeWork):

[http://example.org/works/1]:
  type: CreativeWork
  potentialAction:
    - type: PayAction
  funding:
    - type: Grant
      url: http://example.org/grants/1

[http://example.org/payments/1]:
  type: PayAction
  startDate: 2014-01-01
  endDate: 2015-01-01
  agent:
    - type: Organization
      name: "Medical Research Council"
  recipient:
    - type: Person
      name: "Bob Smith"
  resultGrant:
    - type: Grant
      url: http://example.org/grants/1
      awardId: "MRC123"
      itemFunded:
        - type: CreativeWork
          url: http://example.org/works/1

I quite like this example, except that there's no way of getting from the Grant to the agent and recipient. It seems like the properties of the grant should actually be properties of the PayAction (perhaps as a GrantAction), but then there's no Grant object to use in the reverse direction…

@sballesteros

Another experiment leveraging sponsor and assuming that it would be reasonable to bump the domain of sponsor from MedicalStudy to CreativeWork:

{
  "@type": "ScholarlyArticle",
  "sponsor": { // bump domain to CreativeWork
    "@type": "SponsorRole", //subclass of schema:Role
    "sponsor": {
      "@type": "Organization"
    },
    "roleOffer": {
      "@type": "FundingSource", // subclass of schema:Offer
      "serialNumber": "grantId"
    },
    "startDate": "2015-01-01"
  }
}
@darobin
Contributor
darobin commented Nov 1, 2015

FWIW we use the experiment that @sballesteros describes over at http://scholarly.vernacular.io/#funding.

@danbri
Contributor
danbri commented May 31, 2016

How about broadening http://schema.org/sponsor and also adding funder as a subproperty?

@hubgit
hubgit commented May 31, 2016

sponsor sounds good to me - would it still need something like SponsorRole to attach the properties of the sponsorship to?

@jaygray0919

Here is a reference to support @sballesteros comment: http://ns.science.ai/ (about which I believe he may be an author). IOHO it is comprehensive approach to this thread topic and, importantly, is an extension to schema.org and the BIB extension https://bib.schema.org/. A presentation is here http://scholarly.vernacular.io/

@sballesteros

yes, @darobin and I are maintaining http://ns.science.ai/ . We also have http://docx.science.ai which contains multiple examples of how we use schema.org (and our little extension) in the context of scholarly publishing. In particular you can find example of funding statements (and the corresponding JSON-LD in the view collected data sections).

@janober
janober commented Jun 15, 2016

Hi,
came also across this issue and would have expected something roughly like this:

{
    "@type": "Corporation",
    "name": "Big Company",
    "fundingReceived": 3000000,
    "fundingReceivedCurrency": "USD",
    "funding": [
      {
        "@type": "FundingRound",
        "name": "Seed",
        "Lead Investor": {
          "@type": "Corporation",
          "name": "Big VC"
        },
        "fundingDate": "2014-01-01",
        "amount": 3000000,
        "amountCurrency": "USD",
        "investments": [
          {
            "@type": "Investment",
            "investmentType": "Convertible Note",
            "amount": 1000000,
            "amountCurrency": "USD",
            "investor": [
              {
                "@type": "Person",
                "name": "Rich Guy"
              },
              {
                "@type": "Person",
                "name": "Another Rich Guy"
              }
            ]
          },
          {
            "@type": "Investment",
            "investmentType": "Convertible Note",
            "amount": 2000000,
            "amountCurrency": "USD",
            "investor": {
              "@type": "Corporation",
              "name": "Big VC"
            }
          }
        ]
      }
    ]
  }

Some remarks:
-Think it is important to have somewhere the whole funding received amount because the often not every single amount of every investment is known only the full amount (therefor "fundingReceived")
-Not a big fan of the "fundingReceived" & "fundingReceivedCurrency" on the "Corporation" but I think probably makes sense unless another type gets created to contain the whole funding for a company
-"funding" could either have directly "Investment" or the "FundingRound"

@RichardWallis
Contributor

Using MonetaryAmount would work better eg:

        ....
         {
            "@type": "Investment",
            "investmentType": "Convertible Note",
            "amount": {
                   "@type": "MonetaryAmount",
                   "currency": "USD",
                   "value": "2000000"
            },
            "investor": {
              "@type": "Corporation",
              "name": "Big VC"
            }
@janober
janober commented Jun 15, 2016

Ah yes great, that is exactly what I was looking for! Much prettier! The same then for "fundingReceived". Thanks!

@danbri danbri pushed a commit that referenced this issue Jul 15, 2016
Dan Brickley Broadened 'sponsor' to apply to CreativeWork e.g. Dataset, added 'fun…
…der' subproperty.

See #383
3cca63b
@hubgit
hubgit commented Nov 1, 2016

Noting that the funder property now exists, as a sub-property of sponsor.
"A person or organization that supports (sponsors) something through some kind of financial contribution."

@agbeltran

Following up from discussions in #1083, I think that http://schema.org/MonetaryAmount, suggested above, would work as supertype for Grant.

(while there might be in kind contributions too, I think that MonetaryAmount would cover the most important aspects - NIH activity codes would help confirming this: http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/ac_search_results.htm)

Could also another property associating a CreativeWork (and in particular a Dataset for our use cases from #1083) and a Grant also be added?

We have used 'acknowledges' in DATS (https://github.com/biocaddie/WG3-MetadataSpecifications/) but also fundedBy would work.

@agbeltran

Previous comment follows this issue: #1196 (instead of #1083)

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