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Describe the funding of a person/project/creative work #383

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hubgit opened this Issue Mar 17, 2015 · 69 comments

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hubgit commented Mar 17, 2015

A schema (funder name, funder identifier, award number) for describing the funding of academic research and journal articles is published as part of FundRef.

It would be useful to have something similar - and more broadly applicable - in schema.org, to describe the funding of various things.

As an example:

  • A CreativeWork would have one or more funding, the value of which is a Funding.
  • A Funding would have one or more funder, the value of which is one or more Organisation or Person.
  • A Funding would have zero or more awardNumber, the value of which is text (e.g. an NIH grant number).
  • A Funding would have zero or more startDate and endDate.

To consider:

  • Should the funding property be attached to the CreativeWork, the project, or each Person/contributor?
  • When attached to a Person, should this include professional awards, such as fellowships, or employers?
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chaals Mar 20, 2015

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The best example I can think of for noting people being funded are politicians, but there are certainly cases of both projects, and creative works they produce, being funded and wanting to acknowledge that funding.

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chaals commented Mar 20, 2015

The best example I can think of for noting people being funded are politicians, but there are certainly cases of both projects, and creative works they produce, being funded and wanting to acknowledge that funding.

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chaals Mar 20, 2015

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For schema.org's purposes, if we do this I would be inclined to keep it pretty generic - i.e. Thing could have a funder (by the time we allow for organisations, people, documents, sculptures, projects and so on, I'm not sure what we gain by trying to think of the things that cannot be funded…

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chaals commented Mar 20, 2015

For schema.org's purposes, if we do this I would be inclined to keep it pretty generic - i.e. Thing could have a funder (by the time we allow for organisations, people, documents, sculptures, projects and so on, I'm not sure what we gain by trying to think of the things that cannot be funded…

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thadguidry Mar 20, 2015

@hubgit Your ideas are similar to mine in the past: https://www.freebase.com/user/thadguidry/default_domain/grant_program?schema=

here's my past playground, you might find some interesting types and properties to explore:
https://www.freebase.com/user/thadguidry/default_domain

So I suggest that Grants be an extension of Schema.org and try to make it as generic as possible starting out. It seems as if your data is aligned with a list of Grants. So I would start with a basic Grant type that anyone at any organization could use (USA, Europe, etc). After that then you can see the abstractions needed, and perhaps then create a higher type if needed for Fund (where a project can be funded by a Grant, or Online Funding Campaign, i.e. Kickstarter, Backme, etc., or Investment and then create those other types as well, if need be... OnlineCampaign, Investment, etc...)

Best of luck.

thadguidry commented Mar 20, 2015

@hubgit Your ideas are similar to mine in the past: https://www.freebase.com/user/thadguidry/default_domain/grant_program?schema=

here's my past playground, you might find some interesting types and properties to explore:
https://www.freebase.com/user/thadguidry/default_domain

So I suggest that Grants be an extension of Schema.org and try to make it as generic as possible starting out. It seems as if your data is aligned with a list of Grants. So I would start with a basic Grant type that anyone at any organization could use (USA, Europe, etc). After that then you can see the abstractions needed, and perhaps then create a higher type if needed for Fund (where a project can be funded by a Grant, or Online Funding Campaign, i.e. Kickstarter, Backme, etc., or Investment and then create those other types as well, if need be... OnlineCampaign, Investment, etc...)

Best of luck.

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hubgit Mar 21, 2015

I wonder if the existing PayAction would be appropriate (perhaps with an inverse property).

hubgit commented Mar 21, 2015

I wonder if the existing PayAction would be appropriate (perhaps with an inverse property).

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rvguha Mar 21, 2015

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I would strongly prefer to stay away from putting everything on Thing.

Lets start with CreativeWork and Project (or something like that). We can
then proceed from there.

guha

On Fri, Mar 20, 2015 at 3:52 AM, chaals notifications@github.com wrote:

For schema.org's purposes, if we do this I would be inclined to keep it
pretty generic - i.e. Thing could have a funder (by the time we allow for
organisations, people, documents, sculptures, projects and so on, I'm not
sure what we gain by trying to think of the things that cannot be funded…


Reply to this email directly or view it on GitHub
#383 (comment).

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rvguha commented Mar 21, 2015

I would strongly prefer to stay away from putting everything on Thing.

Lets start with CreativeWork and Project (or something like that). We can
then proceed from there.

guha

On Fri, Mar 20, 2015 at 3:52 AM, chaals notifications@github.com wrote:

For schema.org's purposes, if we do this I would be inclined to keep it
pretty generic - i.e. Thing could have a funder (by the time we allow for
organisations, people, documents, sculptures, projects and so on, I'm not
sure what we gain by trying to think of the things that cannot be funded…


Reply to this email directly or view it on GitHub
#383 (comment).

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rvguha Mar 21, 2015

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In keeping with our desired naming convention, let us not have both Funding
and funding. Lets come up with different terms.

Further, the term 'Funding' is a bit too generic. Lets use something more
descriptive

guha

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 7:05 AM, Alf Eaton notifications@github.com wrote:

A schema (funder name, funder identifier, award number) for describing the
funding of academic research and journal articles is published as part of
FundRef http://help.crossref.org/fundref.

It would be useful to have something similar - and more broadly applicable

  • in schema.org, to describe the funding of various things.

As an example:

  • A ScholarlyArticle would have one or more funding, the value of
    which is a Funding.
  • A Funding would have one or more funder, the value of which is one
    or more Organisation or Person.
  • A Funding would have zero or more awardNumber, the value of which is
    text (e.g. an NIH grant number
    http://era.nih.gov/commons/commons-help/198.htm).

To consider:

  • Should the funding property be attached to the CreativeWork, the
    project, or each Person/contributor?
  • When attached to a Person, should this include professional awards,
    such as fellowships, or employers?


Reply to this email directly or view it on GitHub
#383.

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rvguha commented Mar 21, 2015

In keeping with our desired naming convention, let us not have both Funding
and funding. Lets come up with different terms.

Further, the term 'Funding' is a bit too generic. Lets use something more
descriptive

guha

On Tue, Mar 17, 2015 at 7:05 AM, Alf Eaton notifications@github.com wrote:

A schema (funder name, funder identifier, award number) for describing the
funding of academic research and journal articles is published as part of
FundRef http://help.crossref.org/fundref.

It would be useful to have something similar - and more broadly applicable

  • in schema.org, to describe the funding of various things.

As an example:

  • A ScholarlyArticle would have one or more funding, the value of
    which is a Funding.
  • A Funding would have one or more funder, the value of which is one
    or more Organisation or Person.
  • A Funding would have zero or more awardNumber, the value of which is
    text (e.g. an NIH grant number
    http://era.nih.gov/commons/commons-help/198.htm).

To consider:

  • Should the funding property be attached to the CreativeWork, the
    project, or each Person/contributor?
  • When attached to a Person, should this include professional awards,
    such as fellowships, or employers?


Reply to this email directly or view it on GitHub
#383.

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rvguha Mar 21, 2015

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Yes. There is a whole domain around 'grants', which should cover all the
use cases you mention. Including some additional ones like donations. There
is quite a bit of interest in getting this kind of data made public
(especially the donation case).

guha

On Fri, Mar 20, 2015 at 8:37 AM, Thad Guidry notifications@github.com
wrote:

@hubgit https://github.com/hubgit Your ideas are similar to mine in the
past:
https://www.freebase.com/user/thadguidry/default_domain/grant_program?schema=

here's my past playground, you might find some interesting types and
properties to explore:
https://www.freebase.com/user/thadguidry/default_domain

So I suggest that Grants be an extension of Schema.org and try to make it
as generic as possible starting out. It seems as if your data is aligned
with a list of Grants. So I would start with a basic Grant type that anyone
at any organization could use (USA, Europe, etc). After that then you can
see the abstractions needed, and perhaps then create a higher type if
needed for Fund (where a project can be funded by a Grant, or Online
Funding Campaign, i.e. Kickstarter, Backme, etc., or Investment and then
create those other types as well, if need be... OnlineCampaign, Investment,
etc...)

Best of luck.


Reply to this email directly or view it on GitHub
#383 (comment).

Contributor

rvguha commented Mar 21, 2015

Yes. There is a whole domain around 'grants', which should cover all the
use cases you mention. Including some additional ones like donations. There
is quite a bit of interest in getting this kind of data made public
(especially the donation case).

guha

On Fri, Mar 20, 2015 at 8:37 AM, Thad Guidry notifications@github.com
wrote:

@hubgit https://github.com/hubgit Your ideas are similar to mine in the
past:
https://www.freebase.com/user/thadguidry/default_domain/grant_program?schema=

here's my past playground, you might find some interesting types and
properties to explore:
https://www.freebase.com/user/thadguidry/default_domain

So I suggest that Grants be an extension of Schema.org and try to make it
as generic as possible starting out. It seems as if your data is aligned
with a list of Grants. So I would start with a basic Grant type that anyone
at any organization could use (USA, Europe, etc). After that then you can
see the abstractions needed, and perhaps then create a higher type if
needed for Fund (where a project can be funded by a Grant, or Online
Funding Campaign, i.e. Kickstarter, Backme, etc., or Investment and then
create those other types as well, if need be... OnlineCampaign, Investment,
etc...)

Best of luck.


Reply to this email directly or view it on GitHub
#383 (comment).

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hubgit Apr 13, 2015

Exploring some terms (deliberately broad, to try to include all the possiblities):

  • grant
  • payment / Pay (agent, recipient, description, amount, start + end date)
  • sponsor (in some fields implies "guarantor")
  • backer
  • funder / fund
  • contributor (using Role)

Properties needed (see PayAction):

  • donor/giver (agent)
  • recipient
  • start ± end date
  • purpose / assistance type
  • amount + currency (price)
  • description
  • award id / program number (local identifier)
  • id (global identifier)
  • program (larger body that the grant is part of)
  • other roles (administrator, institution, etc)

hubgit commented Apr 13, 2015

Exploring some terms (deliberately broad, to try to include all the possiblities):

  • grant
  • payment / Pay (agent, recipient, description, amount, start + end date)
  • sponsor (in some fields implies "guarantor")
  • backer
  • funder / fund
  • contributor (using Role)

Properties needed (see PayAction):

  • donor/giver (agent)
  • recipient
  • start ± end date
  • purpose / assistance type
  • amount + currency (price)
  • description
  • award id / program number (local identifier)
  • id (global identifier)
  • program (larger body that the grant is part of)
  • other roles (administrator, institution, etc)
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hubgit Apr 13, 2015

An experiment at giving grant donors a "contributor" role on the work:

[http://example.org/works/1]:
  type: CreativeWork
  contributor:
    - type: FundingRole
      roleName: "donor" # could be "sponsor", "backer", etc
      contributor:
        - type: Organization
          name: "Medical Research Council"
      award:
        - type: Grant
          awardId: "MRC123"
          startDate: 2014-01-01
          endDate: 2015-01-01
          recipient:
            - type: Person
              name: "Bob Smith"

In this example, FundingRole has an extra award property, which is a Grant, which has similar properties to a PayAction.

hubgit commented Apr 13, 2015

An experiment at giving grant donors a "contributor" role on the work:

[http://example.org/works/1]:
  type: CreativeWork
  contributor:
    - type: FundingRole
      roleName: "donor" # could be "sponsor", "backer", etc
      contributor:
        - type: Organization
          name: "Medical Research Council"
      award:
        - type: Grant
          awardId: "MRC123"
          startDate: 2014-01-01
          endDate: 2015-01-01
          recipient:
            - type: Person
              name: "Bob Smith"

In this example, FundingRole has an extra award property, which is a Grant, which has similar properties to a PayAction.

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hubgit Apr 13, 2015

An experiment at attaching the grant (with properties copied from PayAction) directly to the work:

[http://example.org/works/1]:
  type: CreativeWork
  funding:
    - type: Grant      
      awardId: "MRC123"
      startDate: 2014-01-01
      endDate: 2015-01-01
      agent:
        - type: Organization
          name: "Medical Research Council"
      recipient:
        - type: Person
          name: "Bob Smith"

hubgit commented Apr 13, 2015

An experiment at attaching the grant (with properties copied from PayAction) directly to the work:

[http://example.org/works/1]:
  type: CreativeWork
  funding:
    - type: Grant      
      awardId: "MRC123"
      startDate: 2014-01-01
      endDate: 2015-01-01
      agent:
        - type: Organization
          name: "Medical Research Council"
      recipient:
        - type: Person
          name: "Bob Smith"
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hubgit Apr 13, 2015

Question: Is Grant a generic enough name to cover all of the following (and more)?:

  • Kickstarter backing
  • Donations to a political party
  • Research funding by a charity
  • Sponsorship by a commercial organisation
  • Charitable donations
  • Venture capital
  • Film production companies/record labels paying for production of a movie/album.
  • Employer contributions to an employee's work on an open-source project.

hubgit commented Apr 13, 2015

Question: Is Grant a generic enough name to cover all of the following (and more)?:

  • Kickstarter backing
  • Donations to a political party
  • Research funding by a charity
  • Sponsorship by a commercial organisation
  • Charitable donations
  • Venture capital
  • Film production companies/record labels paying for production of a movie/album.
  • Employer contributions to an employee's work on an open-source project.
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hubgit Apr 13, 2015

An experiment at using PayAction to attach a Grant to a CreativeWork (following the example of potentialAction => AssessAction => resultReview => Review => itemReviewed => CreativeWork):

[http://example.org/works/1]:
  type: CreativeWork
  potentialAction:
    - type: PayAction
  funding:
    - type: Grant
      url: http://example.org/grants/1

[http://example.org/payments/1]:
  type: PayAction
  startDate: 2014-01-01
  endDate: 2015-01-01
  agent:
    - type: Organization
      name: "Medical Research Council"
  recipient:
    - type: Person
      name: "Bob Smith"
  resultGrant:
    - type: Grant
      url: http://example.org/grants/1
      awardId: "MRC123"
      itemFunded:
        - type: CreativeWork
          url: http://example.org/works/1

I quite like this example, except that there's no way of getting from the Grant to the agent and recipient. It seems like the properties of the grant should actually be properties of the PayAction (perhaps as a GrantAction), but then there's no Grant object to use in the reverse direction…

hubgit commented Apr 13, 2015

An experiment at using PayAction to attach a Grant to a CreativeWork (following the example of potentialAction => AssessAction => resultReview => Review => itemReviewed => CreativeWork):

[http://example.org/works/1]:
  type: CreativeWork
  potentialAction:
    - type: PayAction
  funding:
    - type: Grant
      url: http://example.org/grants/1

[http://example.org/payments/1]:
  type: PayAction
  startDate: 2014-01-01
  endDate: 2015-01-01
  agent:
    - type: Organization
      name: "Medical Research Council"
  recipient:
    - type: Person
      name: "Bob Smith"
  resultGrant:
    - type: Grant
      url: http://example.org/grants/1
      awardId: "MRC123"
      itemFunded:
        - type: CreativeWork
          url: http://example.org/works/1

I quite like this example, except that there's no way of getting from the Grant to the agent and recipient. It seems like the properties of the grant should actually be properties of the PayAction (perhaps as a GrantAction), but then there's no Grant object to use in the reverse direction…

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sballesteros Oct 31, 2015

Another experiment leveraging sponsor and assuming that it would be reasonable to bump the domain of sponsor from MedicalStudy to CreativeWork:

{
  "@type": "ScholarlyArticle",
  "sponsor": { // bump domain to CreativeWork
    "@type": "SponsorRole", //subclass of schema:Role
    "sponsor": {
      "@type": "Organization"
    },
    "roleOffer": {
      "@type": "FundingSource", // subclass of schema:Offer
      "serialNumber": "grantId"
    },
    "startDate": "2015-01-01"
  }
}

sballesteros commented Oct 31, 2015

Another experiment leveraging sponsor and assuming that it would be reasonable to bump the domain of sponsor from MedicalStudy to CreativeWork:

{
  "@type": "ScholarlyArticle",
  "sponsor": { // bump domain to CreativeWork
    "@type": "SponsorRole", //subclass of schema:Role
    "sponsor": {
      "@type": "Organization"
    },
    "roleOffer": {
      "@type": "FundingSource", // subclass of schema:Offer
      "serialNumber": "grantId"
    },
    "startDate": "2015-01-01"
  }
}
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FWIW we use the experiment that @sballesteros describes over at http://scholarly.vernacular.io/#funding.

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darobin commented Nov 1, 2015

FWIW we use the experiment that @sballesteros describes over at http://scholarly.vernacular.io/#funding.

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danbri May 31, 2016

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How about broadening http://schema.org/sponsor and also adding funder as a subproperty?

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danbri commented May 31, 2016

How about broadening http://schema.org/sponsor and also adding funder as a subproperty?

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hubgit May 31, 2016

sponsor sounds good to me - would it still need something like SponsorRole to attach the properties of the sponsorship to?

hubgit commented May 31, 2016

sponsor sounds good to me - would it still need something like SponsorRole to attach the properties of the sponsorship to?

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jaygray0919 Jun 1, 2016

Here is a reference to support @sballesteros comment: http://ns.science.ai/ (about which I believe he may be an author). IOHO it is comprehensive approach to this thread topic and, importantly, is an extension to schema.org and the BIB extension https://bib.schema.org/. A presentation is here http://scholarly.vernacular.io/

jaygray0919 commented Jun 1, 2016

Here is a reference to support @sballesteros comment: http://ns.science.ai/ (about which I believe he may be an author). IOHO it is comprehensive approach to this thread topic and, importantly, is an extension to schema.org and the BIB extension https://bib.schema.org/. A presentation is here http://scholarly.vernacular.io/

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sballesteros Jun 1, 2016

yes, @darobin and I are maintaining http://ns.science.ai/ . We also have https://science.ai/documentation/archive which contains multiple examples of how we use schema.org (and our little extension) in the context of scholarly publishing. In particular you can find example of funding statements (and the corresponding JSON-LD / RDFa markup).

sballesteros commented Jun 1, 2016

yes, @darobin and I are maintaining http://ns.science.ai/ . We also have https://science.ai/documentation/archive which contains multiple examples of how we use schema.org (and our little extension) in the context of scholarly publishing. In particular you can find example of funding statements (and the corresponding JSON-LD / RDFa markup).

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janober Jun 15, 2016

Hi,
came also across this issue and would have expected something roughly like this:

{
    "@type": "Corporation",
    "name": "Big Company",
    "fundingReceived": 3000000,
    "fundingReceivedCurrency": "USD",
    "funding": [
      {
        "@type": "FundingRound",
        "name": "Seed",
        "Lead Investor": {
          "@type": "Corporation",
          "name": "Big VC"
        },
        "fundingDate": "2014-01-01",
        "amount": 3000000,
        "amountCurrency": "USD",
        "investments": [
          {
            "@type": "Investment",
            "investmentType": "Convertible Note",
            "amount": 1000000,
            "amountCurrency": "USD",
            "investor": [
              {
                "@type": "Person",
                "name": "Rich Guy"
              },
              {
                "@type": "Person",
                "name": "Another Rich Guy"
              }
            ]
          },
          {
            "@type": "Investment",
            "investmentType": "Convertible Note",
            "amount": 2000000,
            "amountCurrency": "USD",
            "investor": {
              "@type": "Corporation",
              "name": "Big VC"
            }
          }
        ]
      }
    ]
  }

Some remarks:
-Think it is important to have somewhere the whole funding received amount because the often not every single amount of every investment is known only the full amount (therefor "fundingReceived")
-Not a big fan of the "fundingReceived" & "fundingReceivedCurrency" on the "Corporation" but I think probably makes sense unless another type gets created to contain the whole funding for a company
-"funding" could either have directly "Investment" or the "FundingRound"

janober commented Jun 15, 2016

Hi,
came also across this issue and would have expected something roughly like this:

{
    "@type": "Corporation",
    "name": "Big Company",
    "fundingReceived": 3000000,
    "fundingReceivedCurrency": "USD",
    "funding": [
      {
        "@type": "FundingRound",
        "name": "Seed",
        "Lead Investor": {
          "@type": "Corporation",
          "name": "Big VC"
        },
        "fundingDate": "2014-01-01",
        "amount": 3000000,
        "amountCurrency": "USD",
        "investments": [
          {
            "@type": "Investment",
            "investmentType": "Convertible Note",
            "amount": 1000000,
            "amountCurrency": "USD",
            "investor": [
              {
                "@type": "Person",
                "name": "Rich Guy"
              },
              {
                "@type": "Person",
                "name": "Another Rich Guy"
              }
            ]
          },
          {
            "@type": "Investment",
            "investmentType": "Convertible Note",
            "amount": 2000000,
            "amountCurrency": "USD",
            "investor": {
              "@type": "Corporation",
              "name": "Big VC"
            }
          }
        ]
      }
    ]
  }

Some remarks:
-Think it is important to have somewhere the whole funding received amount because the often not every single amount of every investment is known only the full amount (therefor "fundingReceived")
-Not a big fan of the "fundingReceived" & "fundingReceivedCurrency" on the "Corporation" but I think probably makes sense unless another type gets created to contain the whole funding for a company
-"funding" could either have directly "Investment" or the "FundingRound"

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RichardWallis Jun 15, 2016

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Using MonetaryAmount would work better eg:

        ....
         {
            "@type": "Investment",
            "investmentType": "Convertible Note",
            "amount": {
                   "@type": "MonetaryAmount",
                   "currency": "USD",
                   "value": "2000000"
            },
            "investor": {
              "@type": "Corporation",
              "name": "Big VC"
            }
Contributor

RichardWallis commented Jun 15, 2016

Using MonetaryAmount would work better eg:

        ....
         {
            "@type": "Investment",
            "investmentType": "Convertible Note",
            "amount": {
                   "@type": "MonetaryAmount",
                   "currency": "USD",
                   "value": "2000000"
            },
            "investor": {
              "@type": "Corporation",
              "name": "Big VC"
            }
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janober Jun 15, 2016

Ah yes great, that is exactly what I was looking for! Much prettier! The same then for "fundingReceived". Thanks!

janober commented Jun 15, 2016

Ah yes great, that is exactly what I was looking for! Much prettier! The same then for "fundingReceived". Thanks!

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hubgit Nov 1, 2016

Noting that the funder property now exists, as a sub-property of sponsor.
"A person or organization that supports (sponsors) something through some kind of financial contribution."

hubgit commented Nov 1, 2016

Noting that the funder property now exists, as a sub-property of sponsor.
"A person or organization that supports (sponsors) something through some kind of financial contribution."

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agbeltran Nov 8, 2016

Following up from discussions in #1083, I think that http://schema.org/MonetaryAmount, suggested above, would work as supertype for Grant.

(while there might be in kind contributions too, I think that MonetaryAmount would cover the most important aspects - NIH activity codes would help confirming this: http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/ac_search_results.htm)

Could also another property associating a CreativeWork (and in particular a Dataset for our use cases from #1083) and a Grant also be added?

We have used 'acknowledges' in DATS (https://github.com/biocaddie/WG3-MetadataSpecifications/) but also fundedBy would work.

agbeltran commented Nov 8, 2016

Following up from discussions in #1083, I think that http://schema.org/MonetaryAmount, suggested above, would work as supertype for Grant.

(while there might be in kind contributions too, I think that MonetaryAmount would cover the most important aspects - NIH activity codes would help confirming this: http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/ac_search_results.htm)

Could also another property associating a CreativeWork (and in particular a Dataset for our use cases from #1083) and a Grant also be added?

We have used 'acknowledges' in DATS (https://github.com/biocaddie/WG3-MetadataSpecifications/) but also fundedBy would work.

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agbeltran Nov 8, 2016

Previous comment follows this issue: #1196 (instead of #1083)

agbeltran commented Nov 8, 2016

Previous comment follows this issue: #1196 (instead of #1083)

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acka47 Jan 30, 2017

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We are using schema.org a lot in https://oerworldmap.org (https://github.com/hbz/oerworldmap) and had to add some funding information. In the end we decided to use the Funding, Research Administration and Projects Ontology ontology (FRAPO) for this. If you want to extend schema.org in this direction, I recommend taking a look at how FRAPO handles things.

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acka47 commented Jan 30, 2017

We are using schema.org a lot in https://oerworldmap.org (https://github.com/hbz/oerworldmap) and had to add some funding information. In the end we decided to use the Funding, Research Administration and Projects Ontology ontology (FRAPO) for this. If you want to extend schema.org in this direction, I recommend taking a look at how FRAPO handles things.

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thadguidry Jul 10, 2017

I have a need to determine and say many things about something being Sponsored or Financed.

I think we have been shortsighted on sponsor and funder properties to only take in a "by whom".

Ideally, I'd like to see sponsor and funder take on new life as expecting more fuller Types of Sponsorship and Financed(or whatever)...then we can say many things about a CreativeWork, Event, Organization, or Person being sponsored or financed by whom, when, why, invested in, early-stage financed, etc. instead of just only the current "by whom."

sponsor would be updated to "sponsored" that would have a new expected type of Sponsorship

funded would be updated to "financed" that would have expected Types of LoanorCredit and Investment ( breaking up the existing InvestmentorDeposit to separate Investment and Deposit Types to allow a more richer ecosystem that is coming around with the FIBO proposals. See my comment about FinancialProduct #1253 (comment)

thadguidry commented Jul 10, 2017

I have a need to determine and say many things about something being Sponsored or Financed.

I think we have been shortsighted on sponsor and funder properties to only take in a "by whom".

Ideally, I'd like to see sponsor and funder take on new life as expecting more fuller Types of Sponsorship and Financed(or whatever)...then we can say many things about a CreativeWork, Event, Organization, or Person being sponsored or financed by whom, when, why, invested in, early-stage financed, etc. instead of just only the current "by whom."

sponsor would be updated to "sponsored" that would have a new expected type of Sponsorship

funded would be updated to "financed" that would have expected Types of LoanorCredit and Investment ( breaking up the existing InvestmentorDeposit to separate Investment and Deposit Types to allow a more richer ecosystem that is coming around with the FIBO proposals. See my comment about FinancialProduct #1253 (comment)

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hubgit Oct 12, 2017

Given that funder and PayAction / DonateAction already exist, is anything else needed here?

hubgit commented Oct 12, 2017

Given that funder and PayAction / DonateAction already exist, is anything else needed here?

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smrgeoinfo Mar 22, 2018

note proposal for funding and Grant in codemeta/codemeta#160

smrgeoinfo commented Mar 22, 2018

note proposal for funding and Grant in codemeta/codemeta#160

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mfenner Mar 23, 2018

To summarize the discussion there:

  • create new property funding
  • allow domains CreativeWork, Person, Organization, Product and Service for funding.
  • describe funding as Resources provided by or for this item.
  • Values for funding are expected to be one of these types: Grant, Organization or Person (when used with Organization or Person it covers the previous definition of funder)
  • create new intangible Grant
  • the Grant intagible inherits from Thing and also includes these properties from Event: startDate, endDate and duration. We need the funder property here as well.

There are probably further issues to be sorted out, but it would be a huge step forward for the scholarly use of schema.org if we could properly describe grants and their connection to a CreativeWork or funder.

mfenner commented Mar 23, 2018

To summarize the discussion there:

  • create new property funding
  • allow domains CreativeWork, Person, Organization, Product and Service for funding.
  • describe funding as Resources provided by or for this item.
  • Values for funding are expected to be one of these types: Grant, Organization or Person (when used with Organization or Person it covers the previous definition of funder)
  • create new intangible Grant
  • the Grant intagible inherits from Thing and also includes these properties from Event: startDate, endDate and duration. We need the funder property here as well.

There are probably further issues to be sorted out, but it would be a huge step forward for the scholarly use of schema.org if we could properly describe grants and their connection to a CreativeWork or funder.

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As noted above, we heavily use schema.org in https://oerworldmap.org and imported funding information for projects from the Hewlett Foundation database (see the issue). See the JSON-LD for an example project with funding information at https://oerworldmap.org/resource/urn:uuid:bde9a6b3-ebf4-4c9a-a517-b6ad1ee5d35e.json.

We use schema:Action as type for projects so it would be good if Action would be added to the list of allowed domains. (Although I am not sure whether anybody else is using Action like this but I think it definitely makes sense.)

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acka47 commented Mar 23, 2018

As noted above, we heavily use schema.org in https://oerworldmap.org and imported funding information for projects from the Hewlett Foundation database (see the issue). See the JSON-LD for an example project with funding information at https://oerworldmap.org/resource/urn:uuid:bde9a6b3-ebf4-4c9a-a517-b6ad1ee5d35e.json.

We use schema:Action as type for projects so it would be good if Action would be added to the list of allowed domains. (Although I am not sure whether anybody else is using Action like this but I think it definitely makes sense.)

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mfenner Mar 23, 2018

I am sure there are a number of questions that need to be sorted out before finalizing, e.g.

  • is a Grant always something formal that involves a contract and exchanging money?
  • in other words, can we use Grant for something sometimes more informal, such as project?

mfenner commented Mar 23, 2018

I am sure there are a number of questions that need to be sorted out before finalizing, e.g.

  • is a Grant always something formal that involves a contract and exchanging money?
  • in other words, can we use Grant for something sometimes more informal, such as project?
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smrgeoinfo Mar 23, 2018

@mfenner thanks for the examples.

I'm a splitter more that lumper; my suggestion would be that a Grant has to provide some kind of resources, and as I understand a project (an activity with some goal, a time frame, some set of participants and a sponsor or funder), it would not be a kind of thing that could provide a grant. A CreateiveWork, Product, Event, Service could be the product of a project, persons and organizations might be participants or sponsor/funder for a project. A Project could be a kind of Event, but currently there is no such entity in schema.org, perhaps another extension to recommend related to data acquisition?

smrgeoinfo commented Mar 23, 2018

@mfenner thanks for the examples.

I'm a splitter more that lumper; my suggestion would be that a Grant has to provide some kind of resources, and as I understand a project (an activity with some goal, a time frame, some set of participants and a sponsor or funder), it would not be a kind of thing that could provide a grant. A CreateiveWork, Product, Event, Service could be the product of a project, persons and organizations might be participants or sponsor/funder for a project. A Project could be a kind of Event, but currently there is no such entity in schema.org, perhaps another extension to recommend related to data acquisition?

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Note we already have sponsor as a property on Event, CreativeWork, Organization & Person. Would this work instead of ‘funder’? - or maybe funder could be a sub-property of sponsor.

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RichardWallis commented Mar 23, 2018

Note we already have sponsor as a property on Event, CreativeWork, Organization & Person. Would this work instead of ‘funder’? - or maybe funder could be a sub-property of sponsor.

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smrgeoinfo Mar 23, 2018

if the Grant were a valid value type for sponsor, that could work. Currently domain for funder and sponsor is Person or Organization.

smrgeoinfo commented Mar 23, 2018

if the Grant were a valid value type for sponsor, that could work. Currently domain for funder and sponsor is Person or Organization.

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HughP commented Mar 23, 2018

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mfenner Mar 24, 2018

@HughP as in many other places in schema.org, I think that there can be more than one funder and/or funding. amount should be included as property of Grant. I think there is a conceptual difference between gift and grant.

mfenner commented Mar 24, 2018

@HughP as in many other places in schema.org, I think that there can be more than one funder and/or funding. amount should be included as property of Grant. I think there is a conceptual difference between gift and grant.

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mfenner Mar 24, 2018

As funder is a sub-property of sponsor, we could allow Grant for sponsor. But I am not sure about the use case for that.

mfenner commented Mar 24, 2018

As funder is a sub-property of sponsor, we could allow Grant for sponsor. But I am not sure about the use case for that.

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mfenner Mar 24, 2018

@smrgeoinfo I agree that what distinguishes a grant from a project is that some kind of resources are provided (which typically comes with other signs of being more formal). project is an important, but very difficult to define concept, that I would rather address in a separate discussion.

mfenner commented Mar 24, 2018

@smrgeoinfo I agree that what distinguishes a grant from a project is that some kind of resources are provided (which typically comes with other signs of being more formal). project is an important, but very difficult to define concept, that I would rather address in a separate discussion.

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smrgeoinfo Mar 25, 2018

I agree, project is a separate, more complex discussion. The conversation here indicates its being treated as either an Action or an Event.

smrgeoinfo commented Mar 25, 2018

I agree, project is a separate, more complex discussion. The conversation here indicates its being treated as either an Action or an Event.

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smrgeoinfo Mar 25, 2018

+1 amount is property of Grant.

Gift vs. Grant... slippery slope, seems like it leads to needing an abstraction for 'financial instrument' that would subsume Gift, Grant, Bequest, Kickstarter, Contract... (something like FinancialProduct). Maybe a good short term solution is to soft type these varieties using additionalType on Grant.

smrgeoinfo commented Mar 25, 2018

+1 amount is property of Grant.

Gift vs. Grant... slippery slope, seems like it leads to needing an abstraction for 'financial instrument' that would subsume Gift, Grant, Bequest, Kickstarter, Contract... (something like FinancialProduct). Maybe a good short term solution is to soft type these varieties using additionalType on Grant.

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smrgeoinfo Mar 25, 2018

@mfenner are you suggesting that Grant would be a valid value for sponsor along with Person and Organization. Makes sense to me.

smrgeoinfo commented Mar 25, 2018

@mfenner are you suggesting that Grant would be a valid value for sponsor along with Person and Organization. Makes sense to me.

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aaryani Apr 12, 2018

@mfenner, In the Research Graph data, we have grants as individual nodes; hens, on the grant page your suggestion would work quite well.

  "@context": "http://schema.org",
  "@type": "Grant",
  "identifier": "1448821",
  "url": "https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1448821&HistoricalAwards=false",
  "name": "Making Data Count: Developing a Data Metrics Pilot",
  "startDate": "2014-09-01",
  "endDate": "2016-02-29",
  "funder": {
     "@type": "Organization",
     "name": National Science Foundation",
     "identifier": "https://doi.org/10.13039/100000001"
  }
}

and most likely the relationships between grants and other research objects (e.g. dataset) will be presented inside the research object metadata. Also given there is no universal grant identifier system, we have to repeat the funder info in each JSON object for datasets and publications.

{
  "@context": "http://schema.org",
  "@type": "Dataset",
  "@id": "https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m53r1",
  "funding": {
    "@type": "Grant",
    "identifier": "1452510",
    "funder": {
      "@type": "Organization",
      "name": National Science Foundation",
      "identifier": "https://doi.org/10.13039/100000001"
     }
   }
}

aaryani commented Apr 12, 2018

@mfenner, In the Research Graph data, we have grants as individual nodes; hens, on the grant page your suggestion would work quite well.

  "@context": "http://schema.org",
  "@type": "Grant",
  "identifier": "1448821",
  "url": "https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1448821&HistoricalAwards=false",
  "name": "Making Data Count: Developing a Data Metrics Pilot",
  "startDate": "2014-09-01",
  "endDate": "2016-02-29",
  "funder": {
     "@type": "Organization",
     "name": National Science Foundation",
     "identifier": "https://doi.org/10.13039/100000001"
  }
}

and most likely the relationships between grants and other research objects (e.g. dataset) will be presented inside the research object metadata. Also given there is no universal grant identifier system, we have to repeat the funder info in each JSON object for datasets and publications.

{
  "@context": "http://schema.org",
  "@type": "Dataset",
  "@id": "https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m53r1",
  "funding": {
    "@type": "Grant",
    "identifier": "1452510",
    "funder": {
      "@type": "Organization",
      "name": National Science Foundation",
      "identifier": "https://doi.org/10.13039/100000001"
     }
   }
}
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aaryani Apr 12, 2018

What is the difference between a project and a grant? Can we say all grants are projects but only some projects are grants?

aaryani commented Apr 12, 2018

What is the difference between a project and a grant? Can we say all grants are projects but only some projects are grants?

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smrgeoinfo Apr 12, 2018

my understanding would be that a grant is a financial instrument that pays for something --it might be a project, or it might be buying mass spectrometer. A project can be funded by a grant (or not--maybe no funding, maybe some other financial arrangement--e.g. the company's R&D budget), a grant can fund a project, or might pay for something else. A project is an activity involving some actors with some purpose and time interval.

smrgeoinfo commented Apr 12, 2018

my understanding would be that a grant is a financial instrument that pays for something --it might be a project, or it might be buying mass spectrometer. A project can be funded by a grant (or not--maybe no funding, maybe some other financial arrangement--e.g. the company's R&D budget), a grant can fund a project, or might pay for something else. A project is an activity involving some actors with some purpose and time interval.

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FYI I'm at a Wikibase (Wikidata's database) oriented workshop focussed on modeling in this area - https://m.wikidata.org/wiki/Wikidata:WikiProject_Wikidata_for_research/Meetups/2018-06-17-19-Berlin

I'd like to pick up the most recent version of this proposal and get it drafted into the Pending area of Schema.org, and then we can see how it compares to related efforts. I'll make a start at that and report back here. It is also an interesting testcase to see how schema.org and wikidata vocabularies can evolve together (/cc @thadguidry )

/cc @andrawaag @ericprud

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danbri commented Jun 17, 2018

FYI I'm at a Wikibase (Wikidata's database) oriented workshop focussed on modeling in this area - https://m.wikidata.org/wiki/Wikidata:WikiProject_Wikidata_for_research/Meetups/2018-06-17-19-Berlin

I'd like to pick up the most recent version of this proposal and get it drafted into the Pending area of Schema.org, and then we can see how it compares to related efforts. I'll make a start at that and report back here. It is also an interesting testcase to see how schema.org and wikidata vocabularies can evolve together (/cc @thadguidry )

/cc @andrawaag @ericprud

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smrgeoinfo Jun 17, 2018

@danbri looks like an interesting meeting. I look forward to seeing your draft, glad so see things moving forward.

smrgeoinfo commented Jun 17, 2018

@danbri looks like an interesting meeting. I look forward to seeing your draft, glad so see things moving forward.

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thadguidry Jun 17, 2018

@danbri Will you be there Sunday also, to see @wetneb Antonin demo our OpenRefine Wikidata reconciling ?

thadguidry commented Jun 17, 2018

@danbri Will you be there Sunday also, to see @wetneb Antonin demo our OpenRefine Wikidata reconciling ?

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@thadguidry - Yes, though I shouldn't have sat at the back of the room with my crappy eyesight, I should take a closer look :) cool work for sure!

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danbri commented Jun 17, 2018

@thadguidry - Yes, though I shouldn't have sat at the back of the room with my crappy eyesight, I should take a closer look :) cool work for sure!

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danbri commented Jun 18, 2018

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dcodings Jun 18, 2018

Hi everybody, a link to this discussion was signalled at the workshop mentioned by @danbri. I can share a model proposed here for grants and related concept. Here is a graphical visualization https://github.com/dcodings/schemas/blob/master/Wikidata/research_funding/doc/GrantModel_RDFGraph.pdf .

There are also some shape expressions in that repository about the same model, but they are not updated and so do not match completely the actual model (the one in the graph)

dcodings commented Jun 18, 2018

Hi everybody, a link to this discussion was signalled at the workshop mentioned by @danbri. I can share a model proposed here for grants and related concept. Here is a graphical visualization https://github.com/dcodings/schemas/blob/master/Wikidata/research_funding/doc/GrantModel_RDFGraph.pdf .

There are also some shape expressions in that repository about the same model, but they are not updated and so do not match completely the actual model (the one in the graph)

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danbri commented Jun 18, 2018

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From @ericprud, a strawman shex + instance data example based on @mfenner 's proposal above.

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danbri commented Jun 18, 2018

From @ericprud, a strawman shex + instance data example based on @mfenner 's proposal above.

danbri added a commit that referenced this issue Jun 18, 2018

Very rough first cut at implementing a rough consensus based on #383
This may be INCOHERENT or BUGGY but it's a start at a writeup of what
we have discussed so far.

espinr added a commit to espinr/schemaorg that referenced this issue Jun 19, 2018

Merge branch 'master' of https://github.com/schemaorg/schemaorg
* 'master' of https://github.com/schemaorg/schemaorg: (31 commits)
  Tweaked wording and removed ')'.
  Removed clutter copied from an earlier example.
  Fixed RDFa/HTML comment nesting error.
  Very rough first cut at implementing a rough consensus based on #383
  Typo; missing '/' gave a 404.
  Removed version line from config for appengine, as demanded by cloud sdk.
  Tweak format of developers.html
  Removed (?) help link after Canonical URL display
  elease build of 3.4
  Typo plus shows how to generate versioned snapshot on webschemas.org
  Updates for Python 3 print() not print ...
  Files for 3.4 release, #1891
  Tweak for a typo and no ampersands.
  H4->H3, H3->H2 for CSS.
  Release prep for 3.4. See #1891
  Release preparation for v3.4.
  Added link to schemaorg.owl + indication that it is experimental to the developers page. (#1946)
  Update RELEASING.TXT
  More tweaks to dependancies in Gemfile.lock to solve Vulnerabilities
  teaks to ruby dependancies
  ...
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For proposals on marking up funding information in scholarly HTML documents, see also https://w3c.github.io/scholarly-html/#funding (@darobin et al.)

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danbri commented Jun 19, 2018

For proposals on marking up funding information in scholarly HTML documents, see also https://w3c.github.io/scholarly-html/#funding (@darobin et al.)

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Ok snapshotted what we have so far into pending.webschemas.org drafting site.

types: FundingAgency, FundingScheme, Grant, MonetaryGrant, Project, ResearchProject
properties: fundedItem

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danbri commented Jun 19, 2018

Ok snapshotted what we have so far into pending.webschemas.org drafting site.

types: FundingAgency, FundingScheme, Grant, MonetaryGrant, Project, ResearchProject
properties: fundedItem

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sballesteros commented Jun 19, 2018

We have some examples here as well (https://science.ai/documentation/archive#funding)

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smrgeoinfo Jun 19, 2018

Should we start new issues discussing these proposals, or continue in this thread (which is getting pretty long and winding....)

smrgeoinfo commented Jun 19, 2018

Should we start new issues discussing these proposals, or continue in this thread (which is getting pretty long and winding....)

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smrgeoinfo Jun 19, 2018

@sballesteros the science.ai ontology looks interesting, but I don't see any links for documentation on provenance or more complete explanation of who and what its for, any pointers? thanks
Update: this looks like the place https://science.ai/overview, that solves it.

smrgeoinfo commented Jun 19, 2018

@sballesteros the science.ai ontology looks interesting, but I don't see any links for documentation on provenance or more complete explanation of who and what its for, any pointers? thanks
Update: this looks like the place https://science.ai/overview, that solves it.

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smrgeoinfo Jul 16, 2018

Comments On Project:
Main point-- Project would better be a subtype of intangible with some appropriate properties outlined below.

A project is an Activity that involves a group of participants with some particular objective. The current proposed definition defines as 'an enterprise' and subtypes from sdo:Organization. Organization is not actually defined (https://pending.webschemas.org/Organization: an organization is an organization...). First dictionary definition of 'enterprise' is 'a project or undertaking....' (https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/enterprise). Given the weak semantics in SDO, the best approach to determine the 'parent' concept is to match based on the existing SDO high-level concept that has the most existing properties we are interested in for a Project.

Here's what I'd like to know about a project in the science research context:

  • Participants: Person or Organization, each with a Role (participation in a particular role might also have a time interval)
  • Managed by: some organization or person [optional] (a special participant role)
  • Goal: Reason for existance of project; an Event or Product
  • Starting date: when started
  • Planned completion; target date for finish
  • Funding: identification for specific instruments of support (financial or otherwise); proposed type is grant (Grant links to funder, identifier, time etc); what about projects supported by internal organization funding or legal contracts?
  • Events: planned or actual activities, e.g. meetings, sprints, reviews, presentations....
  • Status: indication of project progress towards completion
  • Products: tangible things produced by the project; CreativeWork or Product

A comparison with the properties of organization does not generate very good match:

Related properties in organization
contactPoint: ContactPoint-- just address and telephone number (this is a participant role)
employee: Person (projects don't employ people)
member: Person or Organization (?? participant???, have to shoe-horn by using the sdo:role)
event: Event (reasonable match)
founder: Person (a participant role, unclear exactly what this means for a project)
funder: Organization or Person (misses connection to grant, see note below)
sponsor: Organization or Person (ditto)
parentOrganization: Organization (hmmm, maybe this is the managing organization umbrella, if it exists)
thing properties like name, description, identifier, URL (standard stuff, good)

FundingScheme: should be a property of a Grant, not a project. The association chain should be Project -> funding -> Grant -> {FundingAgency -> FundingScheme} Grant PI in many cases will be project CEO/PI, but not necessarily. A grant might fund various projects.

smrgeoinfo commented Jul 16, 2018

Comments On Project:
Main point-- Project would better be a subtype of intangible with some appropriate properties outlined below.

A project is an Activity that involves a group of participants with some particular objective. The current proposed definition defines as 'an enterprise' and subtypes from sdo:Organization. Organization is not actually defined (https://pending.webschemas.org/Organization: an organization is an organization...). First dictionary definition of 'enterprise' is 'a project or undertaking....' (https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/enterprise). Given the weak semantics in SDO, the best approach to determine the 'parent' concept is to match based on the existing SDO high-level concept that has the most existing properties we are interested in for a Project.

Here's what I'd like to know about a project in the science research context:

  • Participants: Person or Organization, each with a Role (participation in a particular role might also have a time interval)
  • Managed by: some organization or person [optional] (a special participant role)
  • Goal: Reason for existance of project; an Event or Product
  • Starting date: when started
  • Planned completion; target date for finish
  • Funding: identification for specific instruments of support (financial or otherwise); proposed type is grant (Grant links to funder, identifier, time etc); what about projects supported by internal organization funding or legal contracts?
  • Events: planned or actual activities, e.g. meetings, sprints, reviews, presentations....
  • Status: indication of project progress towards completion
  • Products: tangible things produced by the project; CreativeWork or Product

A comparison with the properties of organization does not generate very good match:

Related properties in organization
contactPoint: ContactPoint-- just address and telephone number (this is a participant role)
employee: Person (projects don't employ people)
member: Person or Organization (?? participant???, have to shoe-horn by using the sdo:role)
event: Event (reasonable match)
founder: Person (a participant role, unclear exactly what this means for a project)
funder: Organization or Person (misses connection to grant, see note below)
sponsor: Organization or Person (ditto)
parentOrganization: Organization (hmmm, maybe this is the managing organization umbrella, if it exists)
thing properties like name, description, identifier, URL (standard stuff, good)

FundingScheme: should be a property of a Grant, not a project. The association chain should be Project -> funding -> Grant -> {FundingAgency -> FundingScheme} Grant PI in many cases will be project CEO/PI, but not necessarily. A grant might fund various projects.

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smrgeoinfo Jul 16, 2018

Comments on Grant:
proposed definition is not a definition -- https://pending.webschemas.org/Grant 'a grant is a grant....'

here's the applicable merriam-webster definition of 'Grant'
a : a transfer of property by deed or writing
b : the instrument (see instrument definition 4) by which such a transfer is made; also : the property so transferred

For SDO purposes maybe 'an agreement to transfer resources (financial or other) to support some activity' Propeties of Grant:

  • source-- the fundingAgency,
  • recipient -- person or organization
  • fundingScheme under which the grant is administered
  • time period
  • amount
  • standard Thing properties

smrgeoinfo commented Jul 16, 2018

Comments on Grant:
proposed definition is not a definition -- https://pending.webschemas.org/Grant 'a grant is a grant....'

here's the applicable merriam-webster definition of 'Grant'
a : a transfer of property by deed or writing
b : the instrument (see instrument definition 4) by which such a transfer is made; also : the property so transferred

For SDO purposes maybe 'an agreement to transfer resources (financial or other) to support some activity' Propeties of Grant:

  • source-- the fundingAgency,
  • recipient -- person or organization
  • fundingScheme under which the grant is administered
  • time period
  • amount
  • standard Thing properties
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smrgeoinfo Jul 16, 2018

Why is fundingAgency a kind of project, not a kind of organization?

smrgeoinfo commented Jul 16, 2018

Why is fundingAgency a kind of project, not a kind of organization?

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lambdamusic Jul 19, 2018

Hello and thanks for the stimulating discussion. I work on Springer Nature SciGraph. We published around 90k grants data last year using our own model (shapes | ontology | example) but recently have been thinking of republishing the whole thing using schema.org.

We have been using this approach:

  • ontologically, a project is a process/activity/occurrent (it ‘happens’) which has a duration, location(s), participants and can be funded by a grant
  • a grant is an abstract continuant (ie a schema:intangible, like an award) that stipulates conditions on a project eg how long a project-funding can run for
  • a research project is most often funded by more than one grant; also, the same grant can support more than one project (more or less transparently)
  • as a result we concluded that research projects are hard to pin down (unless you are the person responsible for it) so we decided to focus on modeling grants and publications instead.

I tried to represent our data using schema.org and this is where we got to. I have little experience with schema.org so wondering if this looks ok. In particular

  • I'm using recipient to link to organization and person receiving the grant. Is this prop applicable? the domain is an action at the moment..
  • another approach is to go through Project (as a blank node) and say that the project got the grant, the project has a certain person as PI and an organization as a host. Longwinded but maybe more appropriate?

As per the hierarchy I agree with @smrgeoinfo and would rather see something like this

+ Intangible
- - Grant
- - FundingScheme
- - Project
- - - ResearchProject

+ Organization
- - FundingAgency

Note: I'd vote for having Project under a branch including activities and other 'temporal' entities but the only one available now is Eventwhich seem to focus on activities with a much shorter life-span..

lambdamusic commented Jul 19, 2018

Hello and thanks for the stimulating discussion. I work on Springer Nature SciGraph. We published around 90k grants data last year using our own model (shapes | ontology | example) but recently have been thinking of republishing the whole thing using schema.org.

We have been using this approach:

  • ontologically, a project is a process/activity/occurrent (it ‘happens’) which has a duration, location(s), participants and can be funded by a grant
  • a grant is an abstract continuant (ie a schema:intangible, like an award) that stipulates conditions on a project eg how long a project-funding can run for
  • a research project is most often funded by more than one grant; also, the same grant can support more than one project (more or less transparently)
  • as a result we concluded that research projects are hard to pin down (unless you are the person responsible for it) so we decided to focus on modeling grants and publications instead.

I tried to represent our data using schema.org and this is where we got to. I have little experience with schema.org so wondering if this looks ok. In particular

  • I'm using recipient to link to organization and person receiving the grant. Is this prop applicable? the domain is an action at the moment..
  • another approach is to go through Project (as a blank node) and say that the project got the grant, the project has a certain person as PI and an organization as a host. Longwinded but maybe more appropriate?

As per the hierarchy I agree with @smrgeoinfo and would rather see something like this

+ Intangible
- - Grant
- - FundingScheme
- - Project
- - - ResearchProject

+ Organization
- - FundingAgency

Note: I'd vote for having Project under a branch including activities and other 'temporal' entities but the only one available now is Eventwhich seem to focus on activities with a much shorter life-span..

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thadguidry Jul 19, 2018

"FundingScheme: should be a property of a Grant, not a project. "

@smrgeoinfo I think we will need that property available on both sides, those issuing a Grant, and the Project applying for/receiving Grants. I, and many others, setup Projects and choose the funding scheme that is appropriate for the Project. In fact, sometimes there's a need to ensure that "policy aspects" of the Project itself are adhered to. Its a 2 way street. So we need a new type for ProjectPolicies.

ProjectPolicy:

  • fundingRestrictions (examples below)
  • policyStatus (new policy)
  • responsibleOfficer
  • effectiveDate

Examples of ProjectPolicies:

  • "Only Grants from those entities with a sustainability policy can be engaged"
  • "Grants that place restrictions on the use of funds beyond scientific purposes will not be engaged, since our Project also proposes Educational needs as well"
  • "No Grant money can be received from non-profit organizations 501(c)3, only for-profit organizations are allowed to fund the Project"
  • "Only Government sponsored Grants will be engaged"
  • "Grants that contain policies for restricting Human Subject background, culture, race, ethnicity or required data reporting in those areas will not be engaged"

@danbri The current description of FundingScheme...
"A FundingScheme combines organizational, project and policy aspects of grant-based funding that sets guidelines, principles and mechanisms to support other kinds of projects and activities. Funding is typically organized via [[Grant]] funding.
Examples of funding schemes: Swiss Priority Programmes (SPPs); EU Framework 7 (FP7); Horizon 2020; the NIH-R01 Grant Program; Wellcome institutional strategic support fund. For large scale public sector funding, the management and administration of grant awards is often handled by other, dedicated, organizations - [[FundingAgency]]s such as ERC, REA, ..."

probably needs to be tweaked more to account for my additional proposed Type of ProjectPolicy for a Project itself, versus FundingScheme for a Grant or Grantors. We might even change the term "Scheme" to something better. I do not understand the Scheme example of the Swiss Priority Programmes.... how is that a "scheme" ? Maybe you are trying to say "GrantProgram" ?

thadguidry commented Jul 19, 2018

"FundingScheme: should be a property of a Grant, not a project. "

@smrgeoinfo I think we will need that property available on both sides, those issuing a Grant, and the Project applying for/receiving Grants. I, and many others, setup Projects and choose the funding scheme that is appropriate for the Project. In fact, sometimes there's a need to ensure that "policy aspects" of the Project itself are adhered to. Its a 2 way street. So we need a new type for ProjectPolicies.

ProjectPolicy:

  • fundingRestrictions (examples below)
  • policyStatus (new policy)
  • responsibleOfficer
  • effectiveDate

Examples of ProjectPolicies:

  • "Only Grants from those entities with a sustainability policy can be engaged"
  • "Grants that place restrictions on the use of funds beyond scientific purposes will not be engaged, since our Project also proposes Educational needs as well"
  • "No Grant money can be received from non-profit organizations 501(c)3, only for-profit organizations are allowed to fund the Project"
  • "Only Government sponsored Grants will be engaged"
  • "Grants that contain policies for restricting Human Subject background, culture, race, ethnicity or required data reporting in those areas will not be engaged"

@danbri The current description of FundingScheme...
"A FundingScheme combines organizational, project and policy aspects of grant-based funding that sets guidelines, principles and mechanisms to support other kinds of projects and activities. Funding is typically organized via [[Grant]] funding.
Examples of funding schemes: Swiss Priority Programmes (SPPs); EU Framework 7 (FP7); Horizon 2020; the NIH-R01 Grant Program; Wellcome institutional strategic support fund. For large scale public sector funding, the management and administration of grant awards is often handled by other, dedicated, organizations - [[FundingAgency]]s such as ERC, REA, ..."

probably needs to be tweaked more to account for my additional proposed Type of ProjectPolicy for a Project itself, versus FundingScheme for a Grant or Grantors. We might even change the term "Scheme" to something better. I do not understand the Scheme example of the Swiss Priority Programmes.... how is that a "scheme" ? Maybe you are trying to say "GrantProgram" ?

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smrgeoinfo Jul 19, 2018

Perhaps FundingScheme is a convolution of a couple things:

  1. FundingProgram -- an activity (yes, we need an activity concept) associated with an agency (organization, person) that provides funding to support one or more projects for some purpose.
  2. Policies -- a set of rules that constrain the behavior (actions?) of some thing

Both Project ( as outlined by @thadguidry) and FundingProgram can be constrained by Policies

smrgeoinfo commented Jul 19, 2018

Perhaps FundingScheme is a convolution of a couple things:

  1. FundingProgram -- an activity (yes, we need an activity concept) associated with an agency (organization, person) that provides funding to support one or more projects for some purpose.
  2. Policies -- a set of rules that constrain the behavior (actions?) of some thing

Both Project ( as outlined by @thadguidry) and FundingProgram can be constrained by Policies

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thadguidry Jul 19, 2018

The use case is "Build an app that uses Schema.org, to facilitate matching of Grants... with Projects that need Grants". Both sides have needs, requirements, policies, limits, time period needs, etc. That's the kind of high level properties that need to be exposed. Imagine if NIH could send R01 and its schema into that app or its crawled into it, and imagine if Project ABC could send their Project and its schema into that app or its crawled into it...and they match. Wedding bells ring.

Would not this URL be cool to see one day: https://grants.google.com

And btw, for those looking for a Grant to actually work on Linked Open Data towards Humanities :) https://www.neh.gov/grants/preservation/research-and-development

thadguidry commented Jul 19, 2018

The use case is "Build an app that uses Schema.org, to facilitate matching of Grants... with Projects that need Grants". Both sides have needs, requirements, policies, limits, time period needs, etc. That's the kind of high level properties that need to be exposed. Imagine if NIH could send R01 and its schema into that app or its crawled into it, and imagine if Project ABC could send their Project and its schema into that app or its crawled into it...and they match. Wedding bells ring.

Would not this URL be cool to see one day: https://grants.google.com

And btw, for those looking for a Grant to actually work on Linked Open Data towards Humanities :) https://www.neh.gov/grants/preservation/research-and-development

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