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"""flood_fill.py - inplace flood fill algorithm
This module provides a function to fill all equal (or within tolerance) values
connected to a given seed point with a different value.
"""
import numpy as np
import warnings
from .extrema import (_resolve_neighborhood, _set_edge_values_inplace,
_fast_pad)
from .watershed import _offsets_to_raveled_neighbors
from ._flood_fill_cy import _flood_fill_equal, _flood_fill_tolerance
def flood_fill(image, seed_point, new_value, *, selem=None, connectivity=None,
tolerance=None, inplace=False):
"""Perform flood filling on an image.
Starting at a specific `seed_point`, connected points equal or within
`tolerance` of the seed value are found, then set to `new_value`.
Parameters
----------
image : ndarray
An n-dimensional array.
seed_point : tuple or int
The point in `image` used as the starting point for the flood fill. If
the image is 1D, this point may be given as an integer.
new_value : `image` type
New value to set the entire fill. This must be chosen in agreement
with the dtype of `image`.
selem : ndarray, optional
A structuring element used to determine the neighborhood of each
evaluated pixel. It must contain only 1's and 0's, have the same number
of dimensions as `image`. If not given, all adjacent pixels are
considered as part of the neighborhood (fully connected).
connectivity : int, optional
A number used to determine the neighborhood of each evaluated pixel.
Adjacent pixels whose squared distance from the center is less than or
equal to `connectivity` are considered neighbors. Ignored if `selem` is
not None.
tolerance : float or int, optional
If None (default), adjacent values must be strictly equal to the
value of `image` at `seed_point` to be filled. This is fastest.
If a tolerance is provided, adjacent points with values within plus or
minus tolerance from the seed point are filled (inclusive).
inplace : bool, optional
If True, flood filling is applied to `image` inplace. If False, the
flood filled result is returned without modifying the input `image`
(default).
Returns
-------
filled : ndarray
An array with the same shape as `image` is returned, with values in
areas connected to and equal (or within tolerance of) the seed point
replaced with `new_value`.
Notes
-----
The conceptual analogy of this operation is the 'paint bucket' tool in many
raster graphics programs.
Examples
--------
>>> from skimage.morphology import flood_fill
>>> image = np.zeros((4, 7), dtype=int)
>>> image[1:3, 1:3] = 1
>>> image[3, 0] = 1
>>> image[1:3, 4:6] = 2
>>> image[3, 6] = 3
>>> image
array([[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 1, 1, 0, 2, 2, 0],
[0, 1, 1, 0, 2, 2, 0],
[1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 3]])
Fill connected ones with 5, with full connectivity (diagonals included):
>>> flood_fill(image, (1, 1), 5)
array([[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 5, 5, 0, 2, 2, 0],
[0, 5, 5, 0, 2, 2, 0],
[5, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 3]])
Fill connected ones with 5, excluding diagonal points (connectivity 1):
>>> flood_fill(image, (1, 1), 5, connectivity=1)
array([[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 5, 5, 0, 2, 2, 0],
[0, 5, 5, 0, 2, 2, 0],
[1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 3]])
Fill with a tolerance:
>>> flood_fill(image, (0, 0), 5, tolerance=1)
array([[5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5],
[5, 5, 5, 5, 2, 2, 5],
[5, 5, 5, 5, 2, 2, 5],
[5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 3]])
"""
mask = flood(image, seed_point, selem=selem, connectivity=connectivity,
tolerance=tolerance)
if not inplace:
image = image.copy()
image[mask] = new_value
return image
def flood(image, seed_point, *, selem=None, connectivity=None, tolerance=None):
"""Mask corresponding to a flood fill.
Starting at a specific `seed_point`, connected points equal or within
`tolerance` of the seed value are found.
Parameters
----------
image : ndarray
An n-dimensional array.
seed_point : tuple or int
The point in `image` used as the starting point for the flood fill. If
the image is 1D, this point may be given as an integer.
selem : ndarray, optional
A structuring element used to determine the neighborhood of each
evaluated pixel. It must contain only 1's and 0's, have the same number
of dimensions as `image`. If not given, all adjacent pixels are
considered as part of the neighborhood (fully connected).
connectivity : int, optional
A number used to determine the neighborhood of each evaluated pixel.
Adjacent pixels whose squared distance from the center is larger or
equal to `connectivity` are considered neighbors. Ignored if
`selem` is not None.
tolerance : float or int, optional
If None (default), adjacent values must be strictly equal to the
initial value of `image` at `seed_point`. This is fastest. If a value
is given, a comparison will be done at every point and if within
tolerance of the initial value will also be filled (inclusive).
Returns
-------
mask : ndarray
A Boolean array with the same shape as `image` is returned, with True
values for areas connected to and equal (or within tolerance of) the
seed point. All other values are False.
Notes
-----
The conceptual analogy of this operation is the 'paint bucket' tool in many
raster graphics programs. This function returns just the mask
representing the fill.
If indices are desired rather than masks for memory reasons, the user can
simply run `numpy.nonzero` on the result, save the indices, and discard
this mask.
Examples
--------
>>> from skimage.morphology import flood
>>> image = np.zeros((4, 7), dtype=int)
>>> image[1:3, 1:3] = 1
>>> image[3, 0] = 1
>>> image[1:3, 4:6] = 2
>>> image[3, 6] = 3
>>> image
array([[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 1, 1, 0, 2, 2, 0],
[0, 1, 1, 0, 2, 2, 0],
[1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 3]])
Fill connected ones with 5, with full connectivity (diagonals included):
>>> mask = flood(image, (1, 1))
>>> image_flooded = image.copy()
>>> image_flooded[mask] = 5
>>> image_flooded
array([[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 5, 5, 0, 2, 2, 0],
[0, 5, 5, 0, 2, 2, 0],
[5, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 3]])
Fill connected ones with 5, excluding diagonal points (connectivity 1):
>>> mask = flood(image, (1, 1), connectivity=1)
>>> image_flooded = image.copy()
>>> image_flooded[mask] = 5
>>> image_flooded
array([[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 5, 5, 0, 2, 2, 0],
[0, 5, 5, 0, 2, 2, 0],
[1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 3]])
Fill with a tolerance:
>>> mask = flood(image, (0, 0), tolerance=1)
>>> image_flooded = image.copy()
>>> image_flooded[mask] = 5
>>> image_flooded
array([[5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5],
[5, 5, 5, 5, 2, 2, 5],
[5, 5, 5, 5, 2, 2, 5],
[5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 3]])
"""
# Correct start point in ravelled image - only copy if non-contiguous
image = np.asarray(image)
if image.flags.f_contiguous is True:
order = 'F'
elif image.flags.c_contiguous is True:
order = 'C'
else:
image = np.ascontiguousarray(image)
order = 'C'
seed_value = image[seed_point]
# Shortcut for rank zero
if 0 in image.shape:
return np.zeros(image.shape, dtype=np.bool)
# Convenience for 1d input
try:
iter(seed_point)
except TypeError:
seed_point = (seed_point,)
selem = _resolve_neighborhood(selem, connectivity, image.ndim)
# Must annotate borders
working_image = _fast_pad(image, image.min())
# Stride-aware neighbors - works for both C- and Fortran-contiguity
ravelled_seed_idx = np.ravel_multi_index([i+1 for i in seed_point],
working_image.shape, order=order)
neighbor_offsets = _offsets_to_raveled_neighbors(
working_image.shape, selem, center=((1,) * image.ndim))
# Use a set of flags; see _flood_fill_cy.pyx for meanings
flags = np.zeros(working_image.shape, dtype=np.uint8)
_set_edge_values_inplace(flags, value=2)
try:
if tolerance is not None:
# Check if tolerance could create overflow problems
try:
max_value = np.finfo(working_image.dtype).max
min_value = np.finfo(working_image.dtype).min
except ValueError:
max_value = np.iinfo(working_image.dtype).max
min_value = np.iinfo(working_image.dtype).min
high_tol = min(max_value, seed_value + tolerance)
low_tol = max(min_value, seed_value - tolerance)
_flood_fill_tolerance(working_image.ravel(),
flags.ravel(),
neighbor_offsets,
ravelled_seed_idx,
seed_value,
low_tol,
high_tol)
else:
_flood_fill_equal(working_image.ravel(),
flags.ravel(),
neighbor_offsets,
ravelled_seed_idx,
seed_value)
except TypeError:
if working_image.dtype == np.float16:
# Provide the user with clearer error message
raise TypeError("dtype of `image` is float16 which is not "
"supported, try upcasting to float32")
else:
raise
# Output what the user requested; view does not create a new copy.
return flags[(slice(1, -1),) * image.ndim].view(np.bool)
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