Permalink
Find file Copy path
17a5b3f Aug 22, 2018
1 contributor

Users who have contributed to this file

441 lines (347 sloc) 14.8 KB
from itertools import cycle
import numpy as np
from scipy import ndimage as ndi
from .._shared.utils import assert_nD
__all__ = ['morphological_chan_vese',
'morphological_geodesic_active_contour',
'inverse_gaussian_gradient',
'circle_level_set',
'checkerboard_level_set'
]
class _fcycle(object):
def __init__(self, iterable):
"""Call functions from the iterable each time it is called."""
self.funcs = cycle(iterable)
def __call__(self, *args, **kwargs):
f = next(self.funcs)
return f(*args, **kwargs)
# SI and IS operators for 2D and 3D.
_P2 = [np.eye(3),
np.array([[0, 1, 0]] * 3),
np.flipud(np.eye(3)),
np.rot90([[0, 1, 0]] * 3)]
_P3 = [np.zeros((3, 3, 3)) for i in range(9)]
_P3[0][:, :, 1] = 1
_P3[1][:, 1, :] = 1
_P3[2][1, :, :] = 1
_P3[3][:, [0, 1, 2], [0, 1, 2]] = 1
_P3[4][:, [0, 1, 2], [2, 1, 0]] = 1
_P3[5][[0, 1, 2], :, [0, 1, 2]] = 1
_P3[6][[0, 1, 2], :, [2, 1, 0]] = 1
_P3[7][[0, 1, 2], [0, 1, 2], :] = 1
_P3[8][[0, 1, 2], [2, 1, 0], :] = 1
def sup_inf(u):
"""SI operator."""
if np.ndim(u) == 2:
P = _P2
elif np.ndim(u) == 3:
P = _P3
else:
raise ValueError("u has an invalid number of dimensions "
"(should be 2 or 3)")
erosions = []
for P_i in P:
erosions.append(ndi.binary_erosion(u, P_i))
return np.array(erosions, dtype=np.int8).max(0)
def inf_sup(u):
"""IS operator."""
if np.ndim(u) == 2:
P = _P2
elif np.ndim(u) == 3:
P = _P3
else:
raise ValueError("u has an invalid number of dimensions "
"(should be 2 or 3)")
dilations = []
for P_i in P:
dilations.append(ndi.binary_dilation(u, P_i))
return np.array(dilations, dtype=np.int8).min(0)
_curvop = _fcycle([lambda u: sup_inf(inf_sup(u)), # SIoIS
lambda u: inf_sup(sup_inf(u))]) # ISoSI
def _check_input(image, init_level_set):
"""Check that shapes of `image` and `init_level_set` match."""
assert_nD(image, [2, 3])
if len(image.shape) != len(init_level_set.shape):
raise ValueError("The dimensions of the initial level set do not "
"match the dimensions of the image.")
def _init_level_set(init_level_set, image_shape):
"""Auxiliary function for initializing level sets with a string.
If `init_level_set` is not a string, it is returned as is.
"""
if isinstance(init_level_set, str):
if init_level_set == 'checkerboard':
res = checkerboard_level_set(image_shape)
elif init_level_set == 'circle':
res = circle_level_set(image_shape)
else:
raise ValueError("`init_level_set` not in "
"['checkerboard', 'circle']")
else:
res = init_level_set
return res
def circle_level_set(image_shape, center=None, radius=None):
"""Create a circle level set with binary values.
Parameters
----------
image_shape : tuple of positive integers
Shape of the image
center : tuple of positive integers, optional
Coordinates of the center of the circle given in (row, column). If not
given, it defaults to the center of the image.
radius : float, optional
Radius of the circle. If not given, it is set to the 75% of the
smallest image dimension.
Returns
-------
out : array with shape `image_shape`
Binary level set of the circle with the given `radius` and `center`.
See also
--------
checkerboard_level_set
"""
if center is None:
center = tuple(i // 2 for i in image_shape)
if radius is None:
radius = min(image_shape) * 3.0 / 8.0
grid = np.mgrid[[slice(i) for i in image_shape]]
grid = (grid.T - center).T
phi = radius - np.sqrt(np.sum((grid)**2, 0))
res = np.int8(phi > 0)
return res
def checkerboard_level_set(image_shape, square_size=5):
"""Create a checkerboard level set with binary values.
Parameters
----------
image_shape : tuple of positive integers
Shape of the image.
square_size : int, optional
Size of the squares of the checkerboard. It defaults to 5.
Returns
-------
out : array with shape `image_shape`
Binary level set of the checkerboard.
See also
--------
circle_level_set
"""
grid = np.mgrid[[slice(i) for i in image_shape]]
grid = (grid // square_size)
# Alternate 0/1 for even/odd numbers.
grid = grid & 1
checkerboard = np.bitwise_xor.reduce(grid, axis=0)
res = np.int8(checkerboard)
return res
def inverse_gaussian_gradient(image, alpha=100.0, sigma=5.0):
"""Inverse of gradient magnitude.
Compute the magnitude of the gradients in the image and then inverts the
result in the range [0, 1]. Flat areas are assigned values close to 1,
while areas close to borders are assigned values close to 0.
This function or a similar one defined by the user should be applied over
the image as a preprocessing step before calling
`morphological_geodesic_active_contour`.
Parameters
----------
image : (M, N) or (L, M, N) array
Grayscale image or volume.
alpha : float, optional
Controls the steepness of the inversion. A larger value will make the
transition between the flat areas and border areas steeper in the
resulting array.
sigma : float, optional
Standard deviation of the Gaussian filter applied over the image.
Returns
-------
gimage : (M, N) or (L, M, N) array
Preprocessed image (or volume) suitable for
`morphological_geodesic_active_contour`.
"""
gradnorm = ndi.gaussian_gradient_magnitude(image, sigma, mode='nearest')
return 1.0 / np.sqrt(1.0 + alpha * gradnorm)
def morphological_chan_vese(image, iterations, init_level_set='checkerboard',
smoothing=1, lambda1=1, lambda2=1,
iter_callback=lambda x: None):
"""Morphological Active Contours without Edges (MorphACWE)
Active contours without edges implemented with morphological operators. It
can be used to segment objects in images and volumes without well defined
borders. It is required that the inside of the object looks different on
average than the outside (i.e., the inner area of the object should be
darker or lighter than the outer area on average).
Parameters
----------
image : (M, N) or (L, M, N) array
Grayscale image or volume to be segmented.
iterations : uint
Number of iterations to run
init_level_set : str, (M, N) array, or (L, M, N) array
Initial level set. If an array is given, it will be binarized and used
as the initial level set. If a string is given, it defines the method
to generate a reasonable initial level set with the shape of the
`image`. Accepted values are 'checkerboard' and 'circle'. See the
documentation of `checkerboard_level_set` and `circle_level_set`
respectively for details about how these level sets are created.
smoothing : uint, optional
Number of times the smoothing operator is applied per iteration.
Reasonable values are around 1-4. Larger values lead to smoother
segmentations.
lambda1 : float, optional
Weight parameter for the outer region. If `lambda1` is larger than
`lambda2`, the outer region will contain a larger range of values than
the inner region.
lambda2 : float, optional
Weight parameter for the inner region. If `lambda2` is larger than
`lambda1`, the inner region will contain a larger range of values than
the outer region.
iter_callback : function, optional
If given, this function is called once per iteration with the current
level set as the only argument. This is useful for debugging or for
plotting intermediate results during the evolution.
Returns
-------
out : (M, N) or (L, M, N) array
Final segmentation (i.e., the final level set)
See also
--------
circle_level_set, checkerboard_level_set
Notes
-----
This is a version of the Chan-Vese algorithm that uses morphological
operators instead of solving a partial differential equation (PDE) for the
evolution of the contour. The set of morphological operators used in this
algorithm are proved to be infinitesimally equivalent to the Chan-Vese PDE
(see [1]_). However, morphological operators are do not suffer from the
numerical stability issues typically found in PDEs (it is not necessary to
find the right time step for the evolution), and are computationally
faster.
The algorithm and its theoretical derivation are described in [1]_.
References
----------
.. [1] A Morphological Approach to Curvature-based Evolution of Curves and
Surfaces, Pablo Márquez-Neila, Luis Baumela, Luis Álvarez. In IEEE
Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (PAMI),
2014, :DOI:`10.1109/TPAMI.2013.106`
"""
init_level_set = _init_level_set(init_level_set, image.shape)
_check_input(image, init_level_set)
u = np.int8(init_level_set > 0)
iter_callback(u)
for _ in range(iterations):
# inside = u > 0
# outside = u <= 0
c0 = (image * (1 - u)).sum() / float((1 - u).sum() + 1e-8)
c1 = (image * u).sum() / float(u.sum() + 1e-8)
# Image attachment
du = np.gradient(u)
abs_du = np.abs(du).sum(0)
aux = abs_du * (lambda1 * (image - c1)**2 - lambda2 * (image - c0)**2)
u[aux < 0] = 1
u[aux > 0] = 0
# Smoothing
for _ in range(smoothing):
u = _curvop(u)
iter_callback(u)
return u
def morphological_geodesic_active_contour(gimage, iterations,
init_level_set='circle', smoothing=1,
threshold='auto', balloon=0,
iter_callback=lambda x: None):
"""Morphological Geodesic Active Contours (MorphGAC).
Geodesic active contours implemented with morphological operators. It can
be used to segment objects with visible but noisy, cluttered, broken
borders.
Parameters
----------
gimage : (M, N) or (L, M, N) array
Preprocessed image or volume to be segmented. This is very rarely the
original image. Instead, this is usually a preprocessed version of the
original image that enhances and highlights the borders (or other
structures) of the object to segment.
`morphological_geodesic_active_contour` will try to stop the contour
evolution in areas where `gimage` is small. See
`morphsnakes.inverse_gaussian_gradient` as an example function to
perform this preprocessing. Note that the quality of
`morphological_geodesic_active_contour` might greatly depend on this
preprocessing.
iterations : uint
Number of iterations to run.
init_level_set : str, (M, N) array, or (L, M, N) array
Initial level set. If an array is given, it will be binarized and used
as the initial level set. If a string is given, it defines the method
to generate a reasonable initial level set with the shape of the
`image`. Accepted values are 'checkerboard' and 'circle'. See the
documentation of `checkerboard_level_set` and `circle_level_set`
respectively for details about how these level sets are created.
smoothing : uint, optional
Number of times the smoothing operator is applied per iteration.
Reasonable values are around 1-4. Larger values lead to smoother
segmentations.
threshold : float, optional
Areas of the image with a value smaller than this threshold will be
considered borders. The evolution of the contour will stop in this
areas.
balloon : float, optional
Balloon force to guide the contour in non-informative areas of the
image, i.e., areas where the gradient of the image is too small to push
the contour towards a border. A negative value will shrink the contour,
while a positive value will expand the contour in these areas. Setting
this to zero will disable the balloon force.
iter_callback : function, optional
If given, this function is called once per iteration with the current
level set as the only argument. This is useful for debugging or for
plotting intermediate results during the evolution.
Returns
-------
out : (M, N) or (L, M, N) array
Final segmentation (i.e., the final level set)
See also
--------
inverse_gaussian_gradient, circle_level_set, checkerboard_level_set
Notes
-----
This is a version of the Geodesic Active Contours (GAC) algorithm that uses
morphological operators instead of solving partial differential equations
(PDEs) for the evolution of the contour. The set of morphological operators
used in this algorithm are proved to be infinitesimally equivalent to the
GAC PDEs (see [1]_). However, morphological operators are do not suffer
from the numerical stability issues typically found in PDEs (e.g., it is
not necessary to find the right time step for the evolution), and are
computationally faster.
The algorithm and its theoretical derivation are described in [1]_.
References
----------
.. [1] A Morphological Approach to Curvature-based Evolution of Curves and
Surfaces, Pablo Márquez-Neila, Luis Baumela, Luis Álvarez. In IEEE
Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (PAMI),
2014, :DOI:`10.1109/TPAMI.2013.106`
"""
image = gimage
init_level_set = _init_level_set(init_level_set, image.shape)
_check_input(image, init_level_set)
if threshold == 'auto':
threshold = np.percentile(image, 40)
structure = np.ones((3,) * len(image.shape), dtype=np.int8)
dimage = np.gradient(image)
# threshold_mask = image > threshold
if balloon != 0:
threshold_mask_balloon = image > threshold / np.abs(balloon)
u = np.int8(init_level_set > 0)
iter_callback(u)
for _ in range(iterations):
# Balloon
if balloon > 0:
aux = ndi.binary_dilation(u, structure)
elif balloon < 0:
aux = ndi.binary_erosion(u, structure)
if balloon != 0:
u[threshold_mask_balloon] = aux[threshold_mask_balloon]
# Image attachment
aux = np.zeros_like(image)
du = np.gradient(u)
for el1, el2 in zip(dimage, du):
aux += el1 * el2
u[aux > 0] = 1
u[aux < 0] = 0
# Smoothing
for _ in range(smoothing):
u = _curvop(u)
iter_callback(u)
return u