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# Authors: Lars Buitinck
# Dan Blanchard <dblanchard@ets.org>
# License: BSD 3 clause
from array import array
from collections import Mapping
from operator import itemgetter
import numpy as np
import scipy.sparse as sp
from ..base import BaseEstimator, TransformerMixin
from ..externals import six
from ..externals.six.moves import xrange
from ..utils import check_array, tosequence
def _tosequence(X):
"""Turn X into a sequence or ndarray, avoiding a copy if possible."""
if isinstance(X, Mapping): # single sample
return [X]
else:
return tosequence(X)
class DictVectorizer(BaseEstimator, TransformerMixin):
"""Transforms lists of feature-value mappings to vectors.
This transformer turns lists of mappings (dict-like objects) of feature
names to feature values into Numpy arrays or scipy.sparse matrices for use
with scikit-learn estimators.
When feature values are strings, this transformer will do a binary one-hot
(aka one-of-K) coding: one boolean-valued feature is constructed for each
of the possible string values that the feature can take on. For instance,
a feature "f" that can take on the values "ham" and "spam" will become two
features in the output, one signifying "f=ham", the other "f=spam".
However, note that this transformer will only do a binary one-hot encoding
when feature values are of type string. If categorical features are
represented as numeric values such as int, the DictVectorizer can be
followed by OneHotEncoder to complete binary one-hot encoding.
Features that do not occur in a sample (mapping) will have a zero value
in the resulting array/matrix.
Read more in the :ref:`User Guide <dict_feature_extraction>`.
Parameters
----------
dtype : callable, optional
The type of feature values. Passed to Numpy array/scipy.sparse matrix
constructors as the dtype argument.
separator : string, optional
Separator string used when constructing new features for one-hot
coding.
sparse : boolean, optional.
Whether transform should produce scipy.sparse matrices.
True by default.
sort : boolean, optional.
Whether ``feature_names_`` and ``vocabulary_`` should be sorted when fitting.
True by default.
Attributes
----------
vocabulary_ : dict
A dictionary mapping feature names to feature indices.
feature_names_ : list
A list of length n_features containing the feature names (e.g., "f=ham"
and "f=spam").
Examples
--------
>>> from sklearn.feature_extraction import DictVectorizer
>>> v = DictVectorizer(sparse=False)
>>> D = [{'foo': 1, 'bar': 2}, {'foo': 3, 'baz': 1}]
>>> X = v.fit_transform(D)
>>> X
array([[ 2., 0., 1.],
[ 0., 1., 3.]])
>>> v.inverse_transform(X) == \
[{'bar': 2.0, 'foo': 1.0}, {'baz': 1.0, 'foo': 3.0}]
True
>>> v.transform({'foo': 4, 'unseen_feature': 3})
array([[ 0., 0., 4.]])
See also
--------
FeatureHasher : performs vectorization using only a hash function.
sklearn.preprocessing.OneHotEncoder : handles nominal/categorical features
encoded as columns of integers.
"""
def __init__(self, dtype=np.float64, separator="=", sparse=True,
sort=True):
self.dtype = dtype
self.separator = separator
self.sparse = sparse
self.sort = sort
def fit(self, X, y=None):
"""Learn a list of feature name -> indices mappings.
Parameters
----------
X : Mapping or iterable over Mappings
Dict(s) or Mapping(s) from feature names (arbitrary Python
objects) to feature values (strings or convertible to dtype).
y : (ignored)
Returns
-------
self
"""
feature_names = []
vocab = {}
for x in X:
for f, v in six.iteritems(x):
if isinstance(v, six.string_types):
f = "%s%s%s" % (f, self.separator, v)
if f not in vocab:
feature_names.append(f)
vocab[f] = len(vocab)
if self.sort:
feature_names.sort()
vocab = dict((f, i) for i, f in enumerate(feature_names))
self.feature_names_ = feature_names
self.vocabulary_ = vocab
return self
def _transform(self, X, fitting):
# Sanity check: Python's array has no way of explicitly requesting the
# signed 32-bit integers that scipy.sparse needs, so we use the next
# best thing: typecode "i" (int). However, if that gives larger or
# smaller integers than 32-bit ones, np.frombuffer screws up.
assert array("i").itemsize == 4, (
"sizeof(int) != 4 on your platform; please report this at"
" https://github.com/scikit-learn/scikit-learn/issues and"
" include the output from platform.platform() in your bug report")
dtype = self.dtype
if fitting:
feature_names = []
vocab = {}
else:
feature_names = self.feature_names_
vocab = self.vocabulary_
# Process everything as sparse regardless of setting
X = [X] if isinstance(X, Mapping) else X
indices = array("i")
indptr = array("i", [0])
# XXX we could change values to an array.array as well, but it
# would require (heuristic) conversion of dtype to typecode...
values = []
# collect all the possible feature names and build sparse matrix at
# same time
for x in X:
for f, v in six.iteritems(x):
if isinstance(v, six.string_types):
f = "%s%s%s" % (f, self.separator, v)
v = 1
if f in vocab:
indices.append(vocab[f])
values.append(dtype(v))
else:
if fitting:
feature_names.append(f)
vocab[f] = len(vocab)
indices.append(vocab[f])
values.append(dtype(v))
indptr.append(len(indices))
if len(indptr) == 1:
raise ValueError("Sample sequence X is empty.")
indices = np.frombuffer(indices, dtype=np.intc)
indptr = np.frombuffer(indptr, dtype=np.intc)
shape = (len(indptr) - 1, len(vocab))
result_matrix = sp.csr_matrix((values, indices, indptr),
shape=shape, dtype=dtype)
# Sort everything if asked
if fitting and self.sort:
feature_names.sort()
map_index = np.empty(len(feature_names), dtype=np.int32)
for new_val, f in enumerate(feature_names):
map_index[new_val] = vocab[f]
vocab[f] = new_val
result_matrix = result_matrix[:, map_index]
if self.sparse:
result_matrix.sort_indices()
else:
result_matrix = result_matrix.toarray()
if fitting:
self.feature_names_ = feature_names
self.vocabulary_ = vocab
return result_matrix
def fit_transform(self, X, y=None):
"""Learn a list of feature name -> indices mappings and transform X.
Like fit(X) followed by transform(X), but does not require
materializing X in memory.
Parameters
----------
X : Mapping or iterable over Mappings
Dict(s) or Mapping(s) from feature names (arbitrary Python
objects) to feature values (strings or convertible to dtype).
y : (ignored)
Returns
-------
Xa : {array, sparse matrix}
Feature vectors; always 2-d.
"""
return self._transform(X, fitting=True)
def inverse_transform(self, X, dict_type=dict):
"""Transform array or sparse matrix X back to feature mappings.
X must have been produced by this DictVectorizer's transform or
fit_transform method; it may only have passed through transformers
that preserve the number of features and their order.
In the case of one-hot/one-of-K coding, the constructed feature
names and values are returned rather than the original ones.
Parameters
----------
X : {array-like, sparse matrix}, shape = [n_samples, n_features]
Sample matrix.
dict_type : callable, optional
Constructor for feature mappings. Must conform to the
collections.Mapping API.
Returns
-------
D : list of dict_type objects, length = n_samples
Feature mappings for the samples in X.
"""
# COO matrix is not subscriptable
X = check_array(X, accept_sparse=['csr', 'csc'])
n_samples = X.shape[0]
names = self.feature_names_
dicts = [dict_type() for _ in xrange(n_samples)]
if sp.issparse(X):
for i, j in zip(*X.nonzero()):
dicts[i][names[j]] = X[i, j]
else:
for i, d in enumerate(dicts):
for j, v in enumerate(X[i, :]):
if v != 0:
d[names[j]] = X[i, j]
return dicts
def transform(self, X):
"""Transform feature->value dicts to array or sparse matrix.
Named features not encountered during fit or fit_transform will be
silently ignored.
Parameters
----------
X : Mapping or iterable over Mappings, length = n_samples
Dict(s) or Mapping(s) from feature names (arbitrary Python
objects) to feature values (strings or convertible to dtype).
Returns
-------
Xa : {array, sparse matrix}
Feature vectors; always 2-d.
"""
if self.sparse:
return self._transform(X, fitting=False)
else:
dtype = self.dtype
vocab = self.vocabulary_
X = _tosequence(X)
Xa = np.zeros((len(X), len(vocab)), dtype=dtype)
for i, x in enumerate(X):
for f, v in six.iteritems(x):
if isinstance(v, six.string_types):
f = "%s%s%s" % (f, self.separator, v)
v = 1
try:
Xa[i, vocab[f]] = dtype(v)
except KeyError:
pass
return Xa
def get_feature_names(self):
"""Returns a list of feature names, ordered by their indices.
If one-of-K coding is applied to categorical features, this will
include the constructed feature names but not the original ones.
"""
return self.feature_names_
def restrict(self, support, indices=False):
"""Restrict the features to those in support using feature selection.
This function modifies the estimator in-place.
Parameters
----------
support : array-like
Boolean mask or list of indices (as returned by the get_support
member of feature selectors).
indices : boolean, optional
Whether support is a list of indices.
Returns
-------
self
Examples
--------
>>> from sklearn.feature_extraction import DictVectorizer
>>> from sklearn.feature_selection import SelectKBest, chi2
>>> v = DictVectorizer()
>>> D = [{'foo': 1, 'bar': 2}, {'foo': 3, 'baz': 1}]
>>> X = v.fit_transform(D)
>>> support = SelectKBest(chi2, k=2).fit(X, [0, 1])
>>> v.get_feature_names()
['bar', 'baz', 'foo']
>>> v.restrict(support.get_support()) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
DictVectorizer(dtype=..., separator='=', sort=True,
sparse=True)
>>> v.get_feature_names()
['bar', 'foo']
"""
if not indices:
support = np.where(support)[0]
names = self.feature_names_
new_vocab = {}
for i in support:
new_vocab[names[i]] = len(new_vocab)
self.vocabulary_ = new_vocab
self.feature_names_ = [f for f, i in sorted(six.iteritems(new_vocab),
key=itemgetter(1))]
return self