Permalink
872 lines (752 sloc) 31.9 KB
from __future__ import division, print_function, absolute_import
import warnings
from . import _minpack
import numpy as np
from numpy import (atleast_1d, dot, take, triu, shape, eye,
transpose, zeros, product, greater, array,
all, where, isscalar, asarray, inf, abs,
finfo, inexact, issubdtype, dtype)
from scipy.linalg import svd, cholesky, solve_triangular, LinAlgError
from scipy._lib._util import _asarray_validated, _lazywhere
from .optimize import OptimizeResult, _check_unknown_options, OptimizeWarning
from ._lsq import least_squares
from ._lsq.common import make_strictly_feasible
from ._lsq.least_squares import prepare_bounds
error = _minpack.error
__all__ = ['fsolve', 'leastsq', 'fixed_point', 'curve_fit']
def _check_func(checker, argname, thefunc, x0, args, numinputs,
output_shape=None):
res = atleast_1d(thefunc(*((x0[:numinputs],) + args)))
if (output_shape is not None) and (shape(res) != output_shape):
if (output_shape[0] != 1):
if len(output_shape) > 1:
if output_shape[1] == 1:
return shape(res)
msg = "%s: there is a mismatch between the input and output " \
"shape of the '%s' argument" % (checker, argname)
func_name = getattr(thefunc, '__name__', None)
if func_name:
msg += " '%s'." % func_name
else:
msg += "."
msg += 'Shape should be %s but it is %s.' % (output_shape, shape(res))
raise TypeError(msg)
if issubdtype(res.dtype, inexact):
dt = res.dtype
else:
dt = dtype(float)
return shape(res), dt
def fsolve(func, x0, args=(), fprime=None, full_output=0,
col_deriv=0, xtol=1.49012e-8, maxfev=0, band=None,
epsfcn=None, factor=100, diag=None):
"""
Find the roots of a function.
Return the roots of the (non-linear) equations defined by
``func(x) = 0`` given a starting estimate.
Parameters
----------
func : callable ``f(x, *args)``
A function that takes at least one (possibly vector) argument.
x0 : ndarray
The starting estimate for the roots of ``func(x) = 0``.
args : tuple, optional
Any extra arguments to `func`.
fprime : callable(x), optional
A function to compute the Jacobian of `func` with derivatives
across the rows. By default, the Jacobian will be estimated.
full_output : bool, optional
If True, return optional outputs.
col_deriv : bool, optional
Specify whether the Jacobian function computes derivatives down
the columns (faster, because there is no transpose operation).
xtol : float, optional
The calculation will terminate if the relative error between two
consecutive iterates is at most `xtol`.
maxfev : int, optional
The maximum number of calls to the function. If zero, then
``100*(N+1)`` is the maximum where N is the number of elements
in `x0`.
band : tuple, optional
If set to a two-sequence containing the number of sub- and
super-diagonals within the band of the Jacobi matrix, the
Jacobi matrix is considered banded (only for ``fprime=None``).
epsfcn : float, optional
A suitable step length for the forward-difference
approximation of the Jacobian (for ``fprime=None``). If
`epsfcn` is less than the machine precision, it is assumed
that the relative errors in the functions are of the order of
the machine precision.
factor : float, optional
A parameter determining the initial step bound
(``factor * || diag * x||``). Should be in the interval
``(0.1, 100)``.
diag : sequence, optional
N positive entries that serve as a scale factors for the
variables.
Returns
-------
x : ndarray
The solution (or the result of the last iteration for
an unsuccessful call).
infodict : dict
A dictionary of optional outputs with the keys:
``nfev``
number of function calls
``njev``
number of Jacobian calls
``fvec``
function evaluated at the output
``fjac``
the orthogonal matrix, q, produced by the QR
factorization of the final approximate Jacobian
matrix, stored column wise
``r``
upper triangular matrix produced by QR factorization
of the same matrix
``qtf``
the vector ``(transpose(q) * fvec)``
ier : int
An integer flag. Set to 1 if a solution was found, otherwise refer
to `mesg` for more information.
mesg : str
If no solution is found, `mesg` details the cause of failure.
See Also
--------
root : Interface to root finding algorithms for multivariate
functions. See the 'hybr' `method` in particular.
Notes
-----
``fsolve`` is a wrapper around MINPACK's hybrd and hybrj algorithms.
"""
options = {'col_deriv': col_deriv,
'xtol': xtol,
'maxfev': maxfev,
'band': band,
'eps': epsfcn,
'factor': factor,
'diag': diag}
res = _root_hybr(func, x0, args, jac=fprime, **options)
if full_output:
x = res['x']
info = dict((k, res.get(k))
for k in ('nfev', 'njev', 'fjac', 'r', 'qtf') if k in res)
info['fvec'] = res['fun']
return x, info, res['status'], res['message']
else:
status = res['status']
msg = res['message']
if status == 0:
raise TypeError(msg)
elif status == 1:
pass
elif status in [2, 3, 4, 5]:
warnings.warn(msg, RuntimeWarning)
else:
raise TypeError(msg)
return res['x']
def _root_hybr(func, x0, args=(), jac=None,
col_deriv=0, xtol=1.49012e-08, maxfev=0, band=None, eps=None,
factor=100, diag=None, **unknown_options):
"""
Find the roots of a multivariate function using MINPACK's hybrd and
hybrj routines (modified Powell method).
Options
-------
col_deriv : bool
Specify whether the Jacobian function computes derivatives down
the columns (faster, because there is no transpose operation).
xtol : float
The calculation will terminate if the relative error between two
consecutive iterates is at most `xtol`.
maxfev : int
The maximum number of calls to the function. If zero, then
``100*(N+1)`` is the maximum where N is the number of elements
in `x0`.
band : tuple
If set to a two-sequence containing the number of sub- and
super-diagonals within the band of the Jacobi matrix, the
Jacobi matrix is considered banded (only for ``fprime=None``).
eps : float
A suitable step length for the forward-difference
approximation of the Jacobian (for ``fprime=None``). If
`eps` is less than the machine precision, it is assumed
that the relative errors in the functions are of the order of
the machine precision.
factor : float
A parameter determining the initial step bound
(``factor * || diag * x||``). Should be in the interval
``(0.1, 100)``.
diag : sequence
N positive entries that serve as a scale factors for the
variables.
"""
_check_unknown_options(unknown_options)
epsfcn = eps
x0 = asarray(x0).flatten()
n = len(x0)
if not isinstance(args, tuple):
args = (args,)
shape, dtype = _check_func('fsolve', 'func', func, x0, args, n, (n,))
if epsfcn is None:
epsfcn = finfo(dtype).eps
Dfun = jac
if Dfun is None:
if band is None:
ml, mu = -10, -10
else:
ml, mu = band[:2]
if maxfev == 0:
maxfev = 200 * (n + 1)
retval = _minpack._hybrd(func, x0, args, 1, xtol, maxfev,
ml, mu, epsfcn, factor, diag)
else:
_check_func('fsolve', 'fprime', Dfun, x0, args, n, (n, n))
if (maxfev == 0):
maxfev = 100 * (n + 1)
retval = _minpack._hybrj(func, Dfun, x0, args, 1,
col_deriv, xtol, maxfev, factor, diag)
x, status = retval[0], retval[-1]
errors = {0: "Improper input parameters were entered.",
1: "The solution converged.",
2: "The number of calls to function has "
"reached maxfev = %d." % maxfev,
3: "xtol=%f is too small, no further improvement "
"in the approximate\n solution "
"is possible." % xtol,
4: "The iteration is not making good progress, as measured "
"by the \n improvement from the last five "
"Jacobian evaluations.",
5: "The iteration is not making good progress, "
"as measured by the \n improvement from the last "
"ten iterations.",
'unknown': "An error occurred."}
info = retval[1]
info['fun'] = info.pop('fvec')
sol = OptimizeResult(x=x, success=(status == 1), status=status)
sol.update(info)
try:
sol['message'] = errors[status]
except KeyError:
info['message'] = errors['unknown']
return sol
def leastsq(func, x0, args=(), Dfun=None, full_output=0,
col_deriv=0, ftol=1.49012e-8, xtol=1.49012e-8,
gtol=0.0, maxfev=0, epsfcn=None, factor=100, diag=None):
"""
Minimize the sum of squares of a set of equations.
::
x = arg min(sum(func(y)**2,axis=0))
y
Parameters
----------
func : callable
should take at least one (possibly length N vector) argument and
returns M floating point numbers. It must not return NaNs or
fitting might fail.
x0 : ndarray
The starting estimate for the minimization.
args : tuple, optional
Any extra arguments to func are placed in this tuple.
Dfun : callable, optional
A function or method to compute the Jacobian of func with derivatives
across the rows. If this is None, the Jacobian will be estimated.
full_output : bool, optional
non-zero to return all optional outputs.
col_deriv : bool, optional
non-zero to specify that the Jacobian function computes derivatives
down the columns (faster, because there is no transpose operation).
ftol : float, optional
Relative error desired in the sum of squares.
xtol : float, optional
Relative error desired in the approximate solution.
gtol : float, optional
Orthogonality desired between the function vector and the columns of
the Jacobian.
maxfev : int, optional
The maximum number of calls to the function. If `Dfun` is provided
then the default `maxfev` is 100*(N+1) where N is the number of elements
in x0, otherwise the default `maxfev` is 200*(N+1).
epsfcn : float, optional
A variable used in determining a suitable step length for the forward-
difference approximation of the Jacobian (for Dfun=None).
Normally the actual step length will be sqrt(epsfcn)*x
If epsfcn is less than the machine precision, it is assumed that the
relative errors are of the order of the machine precision.
factor : float, optional
A parameter determining the initial step bound
(``factor * || diag * x||``). Should be in interval ``(0.1, 100)``.
diag : sequence, optional
N positive entries that serve as a scale factors for the variables.
Returns
-------
x : ndarray
The solution (or the result of the last iteration for an unsuccessful
call).
cov_x : ndarray
Uses the fjac and ipvt optional outputs to construct an
estimate of the jacobian around the solution. None if a
singular matrix encountered (indicates very flat curvature in
some direction). This matrix must be multiplied by the
residual variance to get the covariance of the
parameter estimates -- see curve_fit.
infodict : dict
a dictionary of optional outputs with the key s:
``nfev``
The number of function calls
``fvec``
The function evaluated at the output
``fjac``
A permutation of the R matrix of a QR
factorization of the final approximate
Jacobian matrix, stored column wise.
Together with ipvt, the covariance of the
estimate can be approximated.
``ipvt``
An integer array of length N which defines
a permutation matrix, p, such that
fjac*p = q*r, where r is upper triangular
with diagonal elements of nonincreasing
magnitude. Column j of p is column ipvt(j)
of the identity matrix.
``qtf``
The vector (transpose(q) * fvec).
mesg : str
A string message giving information about the cause of failure.
ier : int
An integer flag. If it is equal to 1, 2, 3 or 4, the solution was
found. Otherwise, the solution was not found. In either case, the
optional output variable 'mesg' gives more information.
Notes
-----
"leastsq" is a wrapper around MINPACK's lmdif and lmder algorithms.
cov_x is a Jacobian approximation to the Hessian of the least squares
objective function.
This approximation assumes that the objective function is based on the
difference between some observed target data (ydata) and a (non-linear)
function of the parameters `f(xdata, params)` ::
func(params) = ydata - f(xdata, params)
so that the objective function is ::
min sum((ydata - f(xdata, params))**2, axis=0)
params
"""
x0 = asarray(x0).flatten()
n = len(x0)
if not isinstance(args, tuple):
args = (args,)
shape, dtype = _check_func('leastsq', 'func', func, x0, args, n)
m = shape[0]
if n > m:
raise TypeError('Improper input: N=%s must not exceed M=%s' % (n, m))
if epsfcn is None:
epsfcn = finfo(dtype).eps
if Dfun is None:
if maxfev == 0:
maxfev = 200*(n + 1)
retval = _minpack._lmdif(func, x0, args, full_output, ftol, xtol,
gtol, maxfev, epsfcn, factor, diag)
else:
if col_deriv:
_check_func('leastsq', 'Dfun', Dfun, x0, args, n, (n, m))
else:
_check_func('leastsq', 'Dfun', Dfun, x0, args, n, (m, n))
if maxfev == 0:
maxfev = 100 * (n + 1)
retval = _minpack._lmder(func, Dfun, x0, args, full_output, col_deriv,
ftol, xtol, gtol, maxfev, factor, diag)
errors = {0: ["Improper input parameters.", TypeError],
1: ["Both actual and predicted relative reductions "
"in the sum of squares\n are at most %f" % ftol, None],
2: ["The relative error between two consecutive "
"iterates is at most %f" % xtol, None],
3: ["Both actual and predicted relative reductions in "
"the sum of squares\n are at most %f and the "
"relative error between two consecutive "
"iterates is at \n most %f" % (ftol, xtol), None],
4: ["The cosine of the angle between func(x) and any "
"column of the\n Jacobian is at most %f in "
"absolute value" % gtol, None],
5: ["Number of calls to function has reached "
"maxfev = %d." % maxfev, ValueError],
6: ["ftol=%f is too small, no further reduction "
"in the sum of squares\n is possible.""" % ftol,
ValueError],
7: ["xtol=%f is too small, no further improvement in "
"the approximate\n solution is possible." % xtol,
ValueError],
8: ["gtol=%f is too small, func(x) is orthogonal to the "
"columns of\n the Jacobian to machine "
"precision." % gtol, ValueError],
'unknown': ["Unknown error.", TypeError]}
info = retval[-1] # The FORTRAN return value
if info not in [1, 2, 3, 4] and not full_output:
if info in [5, 6, 7, 8]:
warnings.warn(errors[info][0], RuntimeWarning)
else:
try:
raise errors[info][1](errors[info][0])
except KeyError:
raise errors['unknown'][1](errors['unknown'][0])
mesg = errors[info][0]
if full_output:
cov_x = None
if info in [1, 2, 3, 4]:
from numpy.dual import inv
perm = take(eye(n), retval[1]['ipvt'] - 1, 0)
r = triu(transpose(retval[1]['fjac'])[:n, :])
R = dot(r, perm)
try:
cov_x = inv(dot(transpose(R), R))
except (LinAlgError, ValueError):
pass
return (retval[0], cov_x) + retval[1:-1] + (mesg, info)
else:
return (retval[0], info)
def _wrap_func(func, xdata, ydata, transform):
if transform is None:
def func_wrapped(params):
return func(xdata, *params) - ydata
elif transform.ndim == 1:
def func_wrapped(params):
return transform * (func(xdata, *params) - ydata)
else:
# Chisq = (y - yd)^T C^{-1} (y-yd)
# transform = L such that C = L L^T
# C^{-1} = L^{-T} L^{-1}
# Chisq = (y - yd)^T L^{-T} L^{-1} (y-yd)
# Define (y-yd)' = L^{-1} (y-yd)
# by solving
# L (y-yd)' = (y-yd)
# and minimize (y-yd)'^T (y-yd)'
def func_wrapped(params):
return solve_triangular(transform, func(xdata, *params) - ydata, lower=True)
return func_wrapped
def _wrap_jac(jac, xdata, transform):
if transform is None:
def jac_wrapped(params):
return jac(xdata, *params)
elif transform.ndim == 1:
def jac_wrapped(params):
return transform[:, np.newaxis] * np.asarray(jac(xdata, *params))
else:
def jac_wrapped(params):
return solve_triangular(transform, np.asarray(jac(xdata, *params)), lower=True)
return jac_wrapped
def _initialize_feasible(lb, ub):
p0 = np.ones_like(lb)
lb_finite = np.isfinite(lb)
ub_finite = np.isfinite(ub)
mask = lb_finite & ub_finite
p0[mask] = 0.5 * (lb[mask] + ub[mask])
mask = lb_finite & ~ub_finite
p0[mask] = lb[mask] + 1
mask = ~lb_finite & ub_finite
p0[mask] = ub[mask] - 1
return p0
def curve_fit(f, xdata, ydata, p0=None, sigma=None, absolute_sigma=False,
check_finite=True, bounds=(-np.inf, np.inf), method=None,
jac=None, **kwargs):
"""
Use non-linear least squares to fit a function, f, to data.
Assumes ``ydata = f(xdata, *params) + eps``
Parameters
----------
f : callable
The model function, f(x, ...). It must take the independent
variable as the first argument and the parameters to fit as
separate remaining arguments.
xdata : An M-length sequence or an (k,M)-shaped array for functions with k predictors
The independent variable where the data is measured.
ydata : M-length sequence
The dependent data --- nominally f(xdata, ...)
p0 : None, scalar, or N-length sequence, optional
Initial guess for the parameters. If None, then the initial
values will all be 1 (if the number of parameters for the function
can be determined using introspection, otherwise a ValueError
is raised).
sigma : None or M-length sequence or MxM array, optional
Determines the uncertainty in `ydata`. If we define residuals as
``r = ydata - f(xdata, *popt)``, then the interpretation of `sigma`
depends on its number of dimensions:
- A 1-d `sigma` should contain values of standard deviations of
errors in `ydata`. In this case, the optimized function is
``chisq = sum((r / sigma) ** 2)``.
- A 2-d `sigma` should contain the covariance matrix of
errors in `ydata`. In this case, the optimized function is
``chisq = r.T @ inv(sigma) @ r``.
.. versionadded:: 0.19
None (default) is equivalent of 1-d `sigma` filled with ones.
absolute_sigma : bool, optional
If True, `sigma` is used in an absolute sense and the estimated parameter
covariance `pcov` reflects these absolute values.
If False, only the relative magnitudes of the `sigma` values matter.
The returned parameter covariance matrix `pcov` is based on scaling
`sigma` by a constant factor. This constant is set by demanding that the
reduced `chisq` for the optimal parameters `popt` when using the
*scaled* `sigma` equals unity. In other words, `sigma` is scaled to
match the sample variance of the residuals after the fit.
Mathematically,
``pcov(absolute_sigma=False) = pcov(absolute_sigma=True) * chisq(popt)/(M-N)``
check_finite : bool, optional
If True, check that the input arrays do not contain nans of infs,
and raise a ValueError if they do. Setting this parameter to
False may silently produce nonsensical results if the input arrays
do contain nans. Default is True.
bounds : 2-tuple of array_like, optional
Lower and upper bounds on independent variables. Defaults to no bounds.
Each element of the tuple must be either an array with the length equal
to the number of parameters, or a scalar (in which case the bound is
taken to be the same for all parameters.) Use ``np.inf`` with an
appropriate sign to disable bounds on all or some parameters.
.. versionadded:: 0.17
method : {'lm', 'trf', 'dogbox'}, optional
Method to use for optimization. See `least_squares` for more details.
Default is 'lm' for unconstrained problems and 'trf' if `bounds` are
provided. The method 'lm' won't work when the number of observations
is less than the number of variables, use 'trf' or 'dogbox' in this
case.
.. versionadded:: 0.17
jac : callable, string or None, optional
Function with signature ``jac(x, ...)`` which computes the Jacobian
matrix of the model function with respect to parameters as a dense
array_like structure. It will be scaled according to provided `sigma`.
If None (default), the Jacobian will be estimated numerically.
String keywords for 'trf' and 'dogbox' methods can be used to select
a finite difference scheme, see `least_squares`.
.. versionadded:: 0.18
kwargs
Keyword arguments passed to `leastsq` for ``method='lm'`` or
`least_squares` otherwise.
Returns
-------
popt : array
Optimal values for the parameters so that the sum of the squared
residuals of ``f(xdata, *popt) - ydata`` is minimized
pcov : 2d array
The estimated covariance of popt. The diagonals provide the variance
of the parameter estimate. To compute one standard deviation errors
on the parameters use ``perr = np.sqrt(np.diag(pcov))``.
How the `sigma` parameter affects the estimated covariance
depends on `absolute_sigma` argument, as described above.
If the Jacobian matrix at the solution doesn't have a full rank, then
'lm' method returns a matrix filled with ``np.inf``, on the other hand
'trf' and 'dogbox' methods use Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse to compute
the covariance matrix.
Raises
------
ValueError
if either `ydata` or `xdata` contain NaNs, or if incompatible options
are used.
RuntimeError
if the least-squares minimization fails.
OptimizeWarning
if covariance of the parameters can not be estimated.
See Also
--------
least_squares : Minimize the sum of squares of nonlinear functions.
scipy.stats.linregress : Calculate a linear least squares regression for
two sets of measurements.
Notes
-----
With ``method='lm'``, the algorithm uses the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm
through `leastsq`. Note that this algorithm can only deal with
unconstrained problems.
Box constraints can be handled by methods 'trf' and 'dogbox'. Refer to
the docstring of `least_squares` for more information.
Examples
--------
>>> import numpy as np
>>> from scipy.optimize import curve_fit
>>> def func(x, a, b, c):
... return a * np.exp(-b * x) + c
>>> xdata = np.linspace(0, 4, 50)
>>> y = func(xdata, 2.5, 1.3, 0.5)
>>> ydata = y + 0.2 * np.random.normal(size=len(xdata))
>>> popt, pcov = curve_fit(func, xdata, ydata)
Constrain the optimization to the region of ``0 < a < 3``, ``0 < b < 2``
and ``0 < c < 1``:
>>> popt, pcov = curve_fit(func, xdata, ydata, bounds=(0, [3., 2., 1.]))
"""
if p0 is None:
# determine number of parameters by inspecting the function
from scipy._lib._util import getargspec_no_self as _getargspec
args, varargs, varkw, defaults = _getargspec(f)
if len(args) < 2:
raise ValueError("Unable to determine number of fit parameters.")
n = len(args) - 1
else:
p0 = np.atleast_1d(p0)
n = p0.size
lb, ub = prepare_bounds(bounds, n)
if p0 is None:
p0 = _initialize_feasible(lb, ub)
bounded_problem = np.any((lb > -np.inf) | (ub < np.inf))
if method is None:
if bounded_problem:
method = 'trf'
else:
method = 'lm'
if method == 'lm' and bounded_problem:
raise ValueError("Method 'lm' only works for unconstrained problems. "
"Use 'trf' or 'dogbox' instead.")
# NaNs can not be handled
if check_finite:
ydata = np.asarray_chkfinite(ydata)
else:
ydata = np.asarray(ydata)
if isinstance(xdata, (list, tuple, np.ndarray)):
# `xdata` is passed straight to the user-defined `f`, so allow
# non-array_like `xdata`.
if check_finite:
xdata = np.asarray_chkfinite(xdata)
else:
xdata = np.asarray(xdata)
# Determine type of sigma
if sigma is not None:
sigma = np.asarray(sigma)
# if 1-d, sigma are errors, define transform = 1/sigma
if sigma.shape == (ydata.size, ):
transform = 1.0 / sigma
# if 2-d, sigma is the covariance matrix,
# define transform = L such that L L^T = C
elif sigma.shape == (ydata.size, ydata.size):
try:
# scipy.linalg.cholesky requires lower=True to return L L^T = A
transform = cholesky(sigma, lower=True)
except LinAlgError:
raise ValueError("`sigma` must be positive definite.")
else:
raise ValueError("`sigma` has incorrect shape.")
else:
transform = None
func = _wrap_func(f, xdata, ydata, transform)
if callable(jac):
jac = _wrap_jac(jac, xdata, transform)
elif jac is None and method != 'lm':
jac = '2-point'
if method == 'lm':
# Remove full_output from kwargs, otherwise we're passing it in twice.
return_full = kwargs.pop('full_output', False)
res = leastsq(func, p0, Dfun=jac, full_output=1, **kwargs)
popt, pcov, infodict, errmsg, ier = res
cost = np.sum(infodict['fvec'] ** 2)
if ier not in [1, 2, 3, 4]:
raise RuntimeError("Optimal parameters not found: " + errmsg)
else:
# Rename maxfev (leastsq) to max_nfev (least_squares), if specified.
if 'max_nfev' not in kwargs:
kwargs['max_nfev'] = kwargs.pop('maxfev', None)
res = least_squares(func, p0, jac=jac, bounds=bounds, method=method,
**kwargs)
if not res.success:
raise RuntimeError("Optimal parameters not found: " + res.message)
cost = 2 * res.cost # res.cost is half sum of squares!
popt = res.x
# Do Moore-Penrose inverse discarding zero singular values.
_, s, VT = svd(res.jac, full_matrices=False)
threshold = np.finfo(float).eps * max(res.jac.shape) * s[0]
s = s[s > threshold]
VT = VT[:s.size]
pcov = np.dot(VT.T / s**2, VT)
return_full = False
warn_cov = False
if pcov is None:
# indeterminate covariance
pcov = zeros((len(popt), len(popt)), dtype=float)
pcov.fill(inf)
warn_cov = True
elif not absolute_sigma:
if ydata.size > p0.size:
s_sq = cost / (ydata.size - p0.size)
pcov = pcov * s_sq
else:
pcov.fill(inf)
warn_cov = True
if warn_cov:
warnings.warn('Covariance of the parameters could not be estimated',
category=OptimizeWarning)
if return_full:
return popt, pcov, infodict, errmsg, ier
else:
return popt, pcov
def check_gradient(fcn, Dfcn, x0, args=(), col_deriv=0):
"""Perform a simple check on the gradient for correctness.
"""
x = atleast_1d(x0)
n = len(x)
x = x.reshape((n,))
fvec = atleast_1d(fcn(x, *args))
m = len(fvec)
fvec = fvec.reshape((m,))
ldfjac = m
fjac = atleast_1d(Dfcn(x, *args))
fjac = fjac.reshape((m, n))
if col_deriv == 0:
fjac = transpose(fjac)
xp = zeros((n,), float)
err = zeros((m,), float)
fvecp = None
_minpack._chkder(m, n, x, fvec, fjac, ldfjac, xp, fvecp, 1, err)
fvecp = atleast_1d(fcn(xp, *args))
fvecp = fvecp.reshape((m,))
_minpack._chkder(m, n, x, fvec, fjac, ldfjac, xp, fvecp, 2, err)
good = (product(greater(err, 0.5), axis=0))
return (good, err)
def _del2(p0, p1, d):
return p0 - np.square(p1 - p0) / d
def _relerr(actual, desired):
return (actual - desired) / desired
def _fixed_point_helper(func, x0, args, xtol, maxiter, use_accel):
p0 = x0
for i in range(maxiter):
p1 = func(p0, *args)
if use_accel:
p2 = func(p1, *args)
d = p2 - 2.0 * p1 + p0
p = _lazywhere(d != 0, (p0, p1, d), f=_del2, fillvalue=p2)
else:
p = p1
relerr = _lazywhere(p0 != 0, (p, p0), f=_relerr, fillvalue=p)
if np.all(np.abs(relerr) < xtol):
return p
p0 = p
msg = "Failed to converge after %d iterations, value is %s" % (maxiter, p)
raise RuntimeError(msg)
def fixed_point(func, x0, args=(), xtol=1e-8, maxiter=500, method='del2'):
"""
Find a fixed point of the function.
Given a function of one or more variables and a starting point, find a
fixed-point of the function: i.e. where ``func(x0) == x0``.
Parameters
----------
func : function
Function to evaluate.
x0 : array_like
Fixed point of function.
args : tuple, optional
Extra arguments to `func`.
xtol : float, optional
Convergence tolerance, defaults to 1e-08.
maxiter : int, optional
Maximum number of iterations, defaults to 500.
method : {"del2", "iteration"}, optional
Method of finding the fixed-point, defaults to "del2"
which uses Steffensen's Method with Aitken's ``Del^2``
convergence acceleration [1]_. The "iteration" method simply iterates
the function until convergence is detected, without attempting to
accelerate the convergence.
References
----------
.. [1] Burden, Faires, "Numerical Analysis", 5th edition, pg. 80
Examples
--------
>>> from scipy import optimize
>>> def func(x, c1, c2):
... return np.sqrt(c1/(x+c2))
>>> c1 = np.array([10,12.])
>>> c2 = np.array([3, 5.])
>>> optimize.fixed_point(func, [1.2, 1.3], args=(c1,c2))
array([ 1.4920333 , 1.37228132])
"""
use_accel = {'del2': True, 'iteration': False}[method]
x0 = _asarray_validated(x0, as_inexact=True)
return _fixed_point_helper(func, x0, args, xtol, maxiter, use_accel)