# scipy/scipy

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 """ This module implements the Sequential Least SQuares Programming optimization algorithm (SLSQP), originally developed by Dieter Kraft. See http://www.netlib.org/toms/733 Functions --------- .. autosummary:: :toctree: generated/ approx_jacobian fmin_slsqp """ from __future__ import division, print_function, absolute_import __all__ = ['approx_jacobian','fmin_slsqp'] import numpy as np from scipy.optimize._slsqp import slsqp from numpy import zeros, array, linalg, append, asfarray, concatenate, finfo, \ sqrt, vstack, exp, inf, where, isfinite, atleast_1d from .optimize import wrap_function, OptimizeResult, _check_unknown_options __docformat__ = "restructuredtext en" _epsilon = sqrt(finfo(float).eps) def approx_jacobian(x,func,epsilon,*args): """ Approximate the Jacobian matrix of a callable function. Parameters ---------- x : array_like The state vector at which to compute the Jacobian matrix. func : callable f(x,*args) The vector-valued function. epsilon : float The perturbation used to determine the partial derivatives. args : sequence Additional arguments passed to func. Returns ------- An array of dimensions ``(lenf, lenx)`` where ``lenf`` is the length of the outputs of `func`, and ``lenx`` is the number of elements in `x`. Notes ----- The approximation is done using forward differences. """ x0 = asfarray(x) f0 = atleast_1d(func(*((x0,)+args))) jac = zeros([len(x0),len(f0)]) dx = zeros(len(x0)) for i in range(len(x0)): dx[i] = epsilon jac[i] = (func(*((x0+dx,)+args)) - f0)/epsilon dx[i] = 0.0 return jac.transpose() def fmin_slsqp(func, x0, eqcons=(), f_eqcons=None, ieqcons=(), f_ieqcons=None, bounds=(), fprime=None, fprime_eqcons=None, fprime_ieqcons=None, args=(), iter=100, acc=1.0E-6, iprint=1, disp=None, full_output=0, epsilon=_epsilon, callback=None): """ Minimize a function using Sequential Least SQuares Programming Python interface function for the SLSQP Optimization subroutine originally implemented by Dieter Kraft. Parameters ---------- func : callable f(x,*args) Objective function. Must return a scalar. x0 : 1-D ndarray of float Initial guess for the independent variable(s). eqcons : list, optional A list of functions of length n such that eqcons[j](x,*args) == 0.0 in a successfully optimized problem. f_eqcons : callable f(x,*args), optional Returns a 1-D array in which each element must equal 0.0 in a successfully optimized problem. If f_eqcons is specified, eqcons is ignored. ieqcons : list, optional A list of functions of length n such that ieqcons[j](x,*args) >= 0.0 in a successfully optimized problem. f_ieqcons : callable f(x,*args), optional Returns a 1-D ndarray in which each element must be greater or equal to 0.0 in a successfully optimized problem. If f_ieqcons is specified, ieqcons is ignored. bounds : list, optional A list of tuples specifying the lower and upper bound for each independent variable [(xl0, xu0),(xl1, xu1),...] Infinite values will be interpreted as large floating values. fprime : callable `f(x,*args)`, optional A function that evaluates the partial derivatives of func. fprime_eqcons : callable `f(x,*args)`, optional A function of the form `f(x, *args)` that returns the m by n array of equality constraint normals. If not provided, the normals will be approximated. The array returned by fprime_eqcons should be sized as ( len(eqcons), len(x0) ). fprime_ieqcons : callable `f(x,*args)`, optional A function of the form `f(x, *args)` that returns the m by n array of inequality constraint normals. If not provided, the normals will be approximated. The array returned by fprime_ieqcons should be sized as ( len(ieqcons), len(x0) ). args : sequence, optional Additional arguments passed to func and fprime. iter : int, optional The maximum number of iterations. acc : float, optional Requested accuracy. iprint : int, optional The verbosity of fmin_slsqp : * iprint <= 0 : Silent operation * iprint == 1 : Print summary upon completion (default) * iprint >= 2 : Print status of each iterate and summary disp : int, optional Over-rides the iprint interface (preferred). full_output : bool, optional If False, return only the minimizer of func (default). Otherwise, output final objective function and summary information. epsilon : float, optional The step size for finite-difference derivative estimates. callback : callable, optional Called after each iteration, as ``callback(x)``, where ``x`` is the current parameter vector. Returns ------- out : ndarray of float The final minimizer of func. fx : ndarray of float, if full_output is true The final value of the objective function. its : int, if full_output is true The number of iterations. imode : int, if full_output is true The exit mode from the optimizer (see below). smode : string, if full_output is true Message describing the exit mode from the optimizer. See also -------- minimize: Interface to minimization algorithms for multivariate functions. See the 'SLSQP' `method` in particular. Notes ----- Exit modes are defined as follows :: -1 : Gradient evaluation required (g & a) 0 : Optimization terminated successfully. 1 : Function evaluation required (f & c) 2 : More equality constraints than independent variables 3 : More than 3*n iterations in LSQ subproblem 4 : Inequality constraints incompatible 5 : Singular matrix E in LSQ subproblem 6 : Singular matrix C in LSQ subproblem 7 : Rank-deficient equality constraint subproblem HFTI 8 : Positive directional derivative for linesearch 9 : Iteration limit exceeded Examples -------- Examples are given :ref:`in the tutorial `. """ if disp is not None: iprint = disp opts = {'maxiter': iter, 'ftol': acc, 'iprint': iprint, 'disp': iprint != 0, 'eps': epsilon, 'callback': callback} # Build the constraints as a tuple of dictionaries cons = () # 1. constraints of the 1st kind (eqcons, ieqcons); no jacobian; take # the same extra arguments as the objective function. cons += tuple({'type': 'eq', 'fun': c, 'args': args} for c in eqcons) cons += tuple({'type': 'ineq', 'fun': c, 'args': args} for c in ieqcons) # 2. constraints of the 2nd kind (f_eqcons, f_ieqcons) and their jacobian # (fprime_eqcons, fprime_ieqcons); also take the same extra arguments # as the objective function. if f_eqcons: cons += ({'type': 'eq', 'fun': f_eqcons, 'jac': fprime_eqcons, 'args': args}, ) if f_ieqcons: cons += ({'type': 'ineq', 'fun': f_ieqcons, 'jac': fprime_ieqcons, 'args': args}, ) res = _minimize_slsqp(func, x0, args, jac=fprime, bounds=bounds, constraints=cons, **opts) if full_output: return res['x'], res['fun'], res['nit'], res['status'], res['message'] else: return res['x'] def _minimize_slsqp(func, x0, args=(), jac=None, bounds=None, constraints=(), maxiter=100, ftol=1.0E-6, iprint=1, disp=False, eps=_epsilon, callback=None, **unknown_options): """ Minimize a scalar function of one or more variables using Sequential Least SQuares Programming (SLSQP). Options ------- ftol : float Precision goal for the value of f in the stopping criterion. eps : float Step size used for numerical approximation of the jacobian. disp : bool Set to True to print convergence messages. If False, `verbosity` is ignored and set to 0. maxiter : int Maximum number of iterations. """ _check_unknown_options(unknown_options) fprime = jac iter = maxiter acc = ftol epsilon = eps if not disp: iprint = 0 # Constraints are triaged per type into a dictionnary of tuples if isinstance(constraints, dict): constraints = (constraints, ) cons = {'eq': (), 'ineq': ()} for ic, con in enumerate(constraints): # check type try: ctype = con['type'].lower() except KeyError: raise KeyError('Constraint %d has no type defined.' % ic) except TypeError: raise TypeError('Constraints must be defined using a ' 'dictionary.') except AttributeError: raise TypeError("Constraint's type must be a string.") else: if ctype not in ['eq', 'ineq']: raise ValueError("Unknown constraint type '%s'." % con['type']) # check function if 'fun' not in con: raise ValueError('Constraint %d has no function defined.' % ic) # check jacobian cjac = con.get('jac') if cjac is None: # approximate jacobian function. The factory function is needed # to keep a reference to `fun`, see gh-4240. def cjac_factory(fun): def cjac(x, *args): return approx_jacobian(x, fun, epsilon, *args) return cjac cjac = cjac_factory(con['fun']) # update constraints' dictionary cons[ctype] += ({'fun': con['fun'], 'jac': cjac, 'args': con.get('args', ())}, ) exit_modes = {-1: "Gradient evaluation required (g & a)", 0: "Optimization terminated successfully.", 1: "Function evaluation required (f & c)", 2: "More equality constraints than independent variables", 3: "More than 3*n iterations in LSQ subproblem", 4: "Inequality constraints incompatible", 5: "Singular matrix E in LSQ subproblem", 6: "Singular matrix C in LSQ subproblem", 7: "Rank-deficient equality constraint subproblem HFTI", 8: "Positive directional derivative for linesearch", 9: "Iteration limit exceeded"} # Wrap func feval, func = wrap_function(func, args) # Wrap fprime, if provided, or approx_jacobian if not if fprime: geval, fprime = wrap_function(fprime, args) else: geval, fprime = wrap_function(approx_jacobian, (func, epsilon)) # Transform x0 into an array. x = asfarray(x0).flatten() # Set the parameters that SLSQP will need # meq, mieq: number of equality and inequality constraints meq = sum(map(len, [atleast_1d(c['fun'](x, *c['args'])) for c in cons['eq']])) mieq = sum(map(len, [atleast_1d(c['fun'](x, *c['args'])) for c in cons['ineq']])) # m = The total number of constraints m = meq + mieq # la = The number of constraints, or 1 if there are no constraints la = array([1, m]).max() # n = The number of independent variables n = len(x) # Define the workspaces for SLSQP n1 = n + 1 mineq = m - meq + n1 + n1 len_w = (3*n1+m)*(n1+1)+(n1-meq+1)*(mineq+2) + 2*mineq+(n1+mineq)*(n1-meq) \ + 2*meq + n1 + ((n+1)*n)//2 + 2*m + 3*n + 3*n1 + 1 len_jw = mineq w = zeros(len_w) jw = zeros(len_jw) # Decompose bounds into xl and xu if bounds is None or len(bounds) == 0: xl = np.empty(n, dtype=float) xu = np.empty(n, dtype=float) xl.fill(np.nan) xu.fill(np.nan) else: bnds = array(bounds, float) if bnds.shape[0] != n: raise IndexError('SLSQP Error: the length of bounds is not ' 'compatible with that of x0.') bnderr = where(bnds[:, 0] > bnds[:, 1])[0] if bnderr.any(): raise ValueError('SLSQP Error: lb > ub in bounds %s.' % ', '.join(str(b) for b in bnderr)) xl, xu = bnds[:, 0], bnds[:, 1] # Mark infinite bounds with nans; the Fortran code understands this infbnd = ~isfinite(bnds) xl[infbnd[:, 0]] = np.nan xu[infbnd[:, 1]] = np.nan # Initialize the iteration counter and the mode value mode = array(0,int) acc = array(acc,float) majiter = array(iter,int) majiter_prev = 0 # Print the header if iprint >= 2 if iprint >= 2: print("%5s %5s %16s %16s" % ("NIT","FC","OBJFUN","GNORM")) while 1: if mode == 0 or mode == 1: # objective and constraint evaluation requird # Compute objective function try: fx = float(np.asarray(func(x))) except: raise ValueError("Objective function must return a scalar") # Compute the constraints if cons['eq']: c_eq = concatenate([atleast_1d(con['fun'](x, *con['args'])) for con in cons['eq']]) else: c_eq = zeros(0) if cons['ineq']: c_ieq = concatenate([atleast_1d(con['fun'](x, *con['args'])) for con in cons['ineq']]) else: c_ieq = zeros(0) # Now combine c_eq and c_ieq into a single matrix c = concatenate((c_eq, c_ieq)) if mode == 0 or mode == -1: # gradient evaluation required # Compute the derivatives of the objective function # For some reason SLSQP wants g dimensioned to n+1 g = append(fprime(x),0.0) # Compute the normals of the constraints if cons['eq']: a_eq = vstack([con['jac'](x, *con['args']) for con in cons['eq']]) else: # no equality constraint a_eq = zeros((meq, n)) if cons['ineq']: a_ieq = vstack([con['jac'](x, *con['args']) for con in cons['ineq']]) else: # no inequality constraint a_ieq = zeros((mieq, n)) # Now combine a_eq and a_ieq into a single a matrix if m == 0: # no constraints a = zeros((la, n)) else: a = vstack((a_eq, a_ieq)) a = concatenate((a,zeros([la,1])),1) # Call SLSQP slsqp(m, meq, x, xl, xu, fx, c, g, a, acc, majiter, mode, w, jw) # call callback if major iteration has incremented if callback is not None and majiter > majiter_prev: callback(x) # Print the status of the current iterate if iprint > 2 and the # major iteration has incremented if iprint >= 2 and majiter > majiter_prev: print("%5i %5i % 16.6E % 16.6E" % (majiter,feval[0], fx,linalg.norm(g))) # If exit mode is not -1 or 1, slsqp has completed if abs(mode) != 1: break majiter_prev = int(majiter) # Optimization loop complete. Print status if requested if iprint >= 1: print(exit_modes[int(mode)] + " (Exit mode " + str(mode) + ')') print(" Current function value:", fx) print(" Iterations:", majiter) print(" Function evaluations:", feval[0]) print(" Gradient evaluations:", geval[0]) return OptimizeResult(x=x, fun=fx, jac=g[:-1], nit=int(majiter), nfev=feval[0], njev=geval[0], status=int(mode), message=exit_modes[int(mode)], success=(mode == 0)) if __name__ == '__main__': # objective function def fun(x, r=[4, 2, 4, 2, 1]): """ Objective function """ return exp(x[0]) * (r[0] * x[0]**2 + r[1] * x[1]**2 + r[2] * x[0] * x[1] + r[3] * x[1] + r[4]) # bounds bnds = array([[-inf]*2, [inf]*2]).T bnds[:, 0] = [0.1, 0.2] # constraints def feqcon(x, b=1): """ Equality constraint """ return array([x[0]**2 + x[1] - b]) def jeqcon(x, b=1): """ Jacobian of equality constraint """ return array([[2*x[0], 1]]) def fieqcon(x, c=10): """ Inequality constraint """ return array([x[0] * x[1] + c]) def jieqcon(x, c=10): """ Jacobian of Inequality constraint """ return array([[1, 1]]) # constraints dictionaries cons = ({'type': 'eq', 'fun': feqcon, 'jac': jeqcon, 'args': (1, )}, {'type': 'ineq', 'fun': fieqcon, 'jac': jieqcon, 'args': (10,)}) # Bounds constraint problem print(' Bounds constraints '.center(72, '-')) print(' * fmin_slsqp') x, f = fmin_slsqp(fun, array([-1, 1]), bounds=bnds, disp=1, full_output=True)[:2] print(' * _minimize_slsqp') res = _minimize_slsqp(fun, array([-1, 1]), bounds=bnds, **{'disp': True}) # Equality and inequality constraints problem print(' Equality and inequality constraints '.center(72, '-')) print(' * fmin_slsqp') x, f = fmin_slsqp(fun, array([-1, 1]), f_eqcons=feqcon, fprime_eqcons=jeqcon, f_ieqcons=fieqcon, fprime_ieqcons=jieqcon, disp=1, full_output=True)[:2] print(' * _minimize_slsqp') res = _minimize_slsqp(fun, array([-1, 1]), constraints=cons, **{'disp': True})