Skip to content

HTTPS clone URL

Subversion checkout URL

You can clone with
or
.
Download ZIP
950 lines (800 sloc) 34.723 kb
"""Tools for spectral analysis.
"""
from __future__ import division, print_function, absolute_import
import numpy as np
from scipy import fftpack
from . import signaltools
from .windows import get_window
from ._spectral import lombscargle
import warnings
from scipy._lib.six import string_types
__all__ = ['periodogram', 'welch', 'lombscargle', 'csd', 'coherence',
'spectrogram']
def periodogram(x, fs=1.0, window=None, nfft=None, detrend='constant',
return_onesided=True, scaling='density', axis=-1):
"""
Estimate power spectral density using a periodogram.
Parameters
----------
x : array_like
Time series of measurement values
fs : float, optional
Sampling frequency of the `x` time series. Defaults to 1.0.
window : str or tuple or array_like, optional
Desired window to use. See `get_window` for a list of windows and
required parameters. If `window` is an array it will be used
directly as the window. Defaults to None; equivalent to 'boxcar'.
nfft : int, optional
Length of the FFT used. If None the length of `x` will be used.
detrend : str or function or False, optional
Specifies how to detrend `x` prior to computing the spectrum. If
`detrend` is a string, it is passed as the ``type`` argument to
`detrend`. If it is a function, it should return a detrended array.
If `detrend` is False, no detrending is done. Defaults to 'constant'.
return_onesided : bool, optional
If True, return a one-sided spectrum for real data. If False return
a two-sided spectrum. Note that for complex data, a two-sided
spectrum is always returned.
scaling : { 'density', 'spectrum' }, optional
Selects between computing the power spectral density ('density')
where `Pxx` has units of V**2/Hz and computing the power spectrum
('spectrum') where `Pxx` has units of V**2, if `x` is measured in V
and fs is measured in Hz. Defaults to 'density'
axis : int, optional
Axis along which the periodogram is computed; the default is over
the last axis (i.e. ``axis=-1``).
Returns
-------
f : ndarray
Array of sample frequencies.
Pxx : ndarray
Power spectral density or power spectrum of `x`.
Notes
-----
.. versionadded:: 0.12.0
See Also
--------
welch: Estimate power spectral density using Welch's method
lombscargle: Lomb-Scargle periodogram for unevenly sampled data
Examples
--------
>>> from scipy import signal
>>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
Generate a test signal, a 2 Vrms sine wave at 1234 Hz, corrupted by
0.001 V**2/Hz of white noise sampled at 10 kHz.
>>> fs = 10e3
>>> N = 1e5
>>> amp = 2*np.sqrt(2)
>>> freq = 1234.0
>>> noise_power = 0.001 * fs / 2
>>> time = np.arange(N) / fs
>>> x = amp*np.sin(2*np.pi*freq*time)
>>> x += np.random.normal(scale=np.sqrt(noise_power), size=time.shape)
Compute and plot the power spectral density.
>>> f, Pxx_den = signal.periodogram(x, fs)
>>> plt.semilogy(f, Pxx_den)
>>> plt.ylim([1e-7, 1e2])
>>> plt.xlabel('frequency [Hz]')
>>> plt.ylabel('PSD [V**2/Hz]')
>>> plt.show()
If we average the last half of the spectral density, to exclude the
peak, we can recover the noise power on the signal.
>>> np.mean(Pxx_den[256:])
0.0009924865443739191
Now compute and plot the power spectrum.
>>> f, Pxx_spec = signal.periodogram(x, fs, 'flattop', scaling='spectrum')
>>> plt.figure()
>>> plt.semilogy(f, np.sqrt(Pxx_spec))
>>> plt.ylim([1e-4, 1e1])
>>> plt.xlabel('frequency [Hz]')
>>> plt.ylabel('Linear spectrum [V RMS]')
>>> plt.show()
The peak height in the power spectrum is an estimate of the RMS amplitude.
>>> np.sqrt(Pxx_spec.max())
2.0077340678640727
"""
x = np.asarray(x)
if x.size == 0:
return np.empty(x.shape), np.empty(x.shape)
if window is None:
window = 'boxcar'
if nfft is None:
nperseg = x.shape[axis]
elif nfft == x.shape[axis]:
nperseg = nfft
elif nfft > x.shape[axis]:
nperseg = x.shape[axis]
elif nfft < x.shape[axis]:
s = [np.s_[:]]*len(x.shape)
s[axis] = np.s_[:nfft]
x = x[s]
nperseg = nfft
nfft = None
return welch(x, fs, window, nperseg, 0, nfft, detrend, return_onesided,
scaling, axis)
def welch(x, fs=1.0, window='hanning', nperseg=256, noverlap=None, nfft=None,
detrend='constant', return_onesided=True, scaling='density', axis=-1):
"""
Estimate power spectral density using Welch's method.
Welch's method [1]_ computes an estimate of the power spectral density
by dividing the data into overlapping segments, computing a modified
periodogram for each segment and averaging the periodograms.
Parameters
----------
x : array_like
Time series of measurement values
fs : float, optional
Sampling frequency of the `x` time series. Defaults to 1.0.
window : str or tuple or array_like, optional
Desired window to use. See `get_window` for a list of windows and
required parameters. If `window` is array_like it will be used
directly as the window and its length will be used for nperseg.
Defaults to 'hanning'.
nperseg : int, optional
Length of each segment. Defaults to 256.
noverlap : int, optional
Number of points to overlap between segments. If None,
``noverlap = nperseg // 2``. Defaults to None.
nfft : int, optional
Length of the FFT used, if a zero padded FFT is desired. If None,
the FFT length is `nperseg`. Defaults to None.
detrend : str or function or False, optional
Specifies how to detrend each segment. If `detrend` is a string,
it is passed as the ``type`` argument to `detrend`. If it is a
function, it takes a segment and returns a detrended segment.
If `detrend` is False, no detrending is done. Defaults to 'constant'.
return_onesided : bool, optional
If True, return a one-sided spectrum for real data. If False return
a two-sided spectrum. Note that for complex data, a two-sided
spectrum is always returned.
scaling : { 'density', 'spectrum' }, optional
Selects between computing the power spectral density ('density')
where `Pxx` has units of V**2/Hz and computing the power spectrum
('spectrum') where `Pxx` has units of V**2, if `x` is measured in V
and fs is measured in Hz. Defaults to 'density'
axis : int, optional
Axis along which the periodogram is computed; the default is over
the last axis (i.e. ``axis=-1``).
Returns
-------
f : ndarray
Array of sample frequencies.
Pxx : ndarray
Power spectral density or power spectrum of x.
See Also
--------
periodogram: Simple, optionally modified periodogram
lombscargle: Lomb-Scargle periodogram for unevenly sampled data
Notes
-----
An appropriate amount of overlap will depend on the choice of window
and on your requirements. For the default 'hanning' window an
overlap of 50% is a reasonable trade off between accurately estimating
the signal power, while not over counting any of the data. Narrower
windows may require a larger overlap.
If `noverlap` is 0, this method is equivalent to Bartlett's method [2]_.
.. versionadded:: 0.12.0
References
----------
.. [1] P. Welch, "The use of the fast Fourier transform for the
estimation of power spectra: A method based on time averaging
over short, modified periodograms", IEEE Trans. Audio
Electroacoust. vol. 15, pp. 70-73, 1967.
.. [2] M.S. Bartlett, "Periodogram Analysis and Continuous Spectra",
Biometrika, vol. 37, pp. 1-16, 1950.
Examples
--------
>>> from scipy import signal
>>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
Generate a test signal, a 2 Vrms sine wave at 1234 Hz, corrupted by
0.001 V**2/Hz of white noise sampled at 10 kHz.
>>> fs = 10e3
>>> N = 1e5
>>> amp = 2*np.sqrt(2)
>>> freq = 1234.0
>>> noise_power = 0.001 * fs / 2
>>> time = np.arange(N) / fs
>>> x = amp*np.sin(2*np.pi*freq*time)
>>> x += np.random.normal(scale=np.sqrt(noise_power), size=time.shape)
Compute and plot the power spectral density.
>>> f, Pxx_den = signal.welch(x, fs, nperseg=1024)
>>> plt.semilogy(f, Pxx_den)
>>> plt.ylim([0.5e-3, 1])
>>> plt.xlabel('frequency [Hz]')
>>> plt.ylabel('PSD [V**2/Hz]')
>>> plt.show()
If we average the last half of the spectral density, to exclude the
peak, we can recover the noise power on the signal.
>>> np.mean(Pxx_den[256:])
0.0009924865443739191
Now compute and plot the power spectrum.
>>> f, Pxx_spec = signal.welch(x, fs, 'flattop', 1024, scaling='spectrum')
>>> plt.figure()
>>> plt.semilogy(f, np.sqrt(Pxx_spec))
>>> plt.xlabel('frequency [Hz]')
>>> plt.ylabel('Linear spectrum [V RMS]')
>>> plt.show()
The peak height in the power spectrum is an estimate of the RMS amplitude.
>>> np.sqrt(Pxx_spec.max())
2.0077340678640727
"""
freqs, Pxx = csd(x, x, fs, window, nperseg, noverlap, nfft, detrend,
return_onesided, scaling, axis)
return freqs, Pxx.real
def csd(x, y, fs=1.0, window='hanning', nperseg=256, noverlap=None, nfft=None,
detrend='constant', return_onesided=True, scaling='density', axis=-1):
"""
Estimate the cross power spectral density, Pxy, using Welch's method.
Parameters
----------
x : array_like
Time series of measurement values
y : array_like
Time series of measurement values
fs : float, optional
Sampling frequency of the `x` and `y` time series. Defaults to 1.0.
window : str or tuple or array_like, optional
Desired window to use. See `get_window` for a list of windows and
required parameters. If `window` is array_like it will be used
directly as the window and its length will be used for nperseg.
Defaults to 'hanning'.
nperseg : int, optional
Length of each segment. Defaults to 256.
noverlap: int, optional
Number of points to overlap between segments. If None,
``noverlap = nperseg // 2``. Defaults to None.
nfft : int, optional
Length of the FFT used, if a zero padded FFT is desired. If None,
the FFT length is `nperseg`. Defaults to None.
detrend : str or function or False, optional
Specifies how to detrend each segment. If `detrend` is a string,
it is passed as the ``type`` argument to `detrend`. If it is a
function, it takes a segment and returns a detrended segment.
If `detrend` is False, no detrending is done. Defaults to 'constant'.
return_onesided : bool, optional
If True, return a one-sided spectrum for real data. If False return
a two-sided spectrum. Note that for complex data, a two-sided
spectrum is always returned.
scaling : { 'density', 'spectrum' }, optional
Selects between computing the cross spectral density ('density')
where `Pxy` has units of V**2/Hz and computing the cross spectrum
('spectrum') where `Pxy` has units of V**2, if `x` and `y` are
measured in V and fs is measured in Hz. Defaults to 'density'
axis : int, optional
Axis along which the CSD is computed for both inputs; the default is
over the last axis (i.e. ``axis=-1``).
Returns
-------
f : ndarray
Array of sample frequencies.
Pxy : ndarray
Cross spectral density or cross power spectrum of x,y.
See Also
--------
periodogram: Simple, optionally modified periodogram
lombscargle: Lomb-Scargle periodogram for unevenly sampled data
welch: Power spectral density by Welch's method. [Equivalent to csd(x,x)]
coherence: Magnitude squared coherence by Welch's method.
Notes
--------
By convention, Pxy is computed with the conjugate FFT of X multiplied by
the FFT of Y.
If the input series differ in length, the shorter series will be
zero-padded to match.
An appropriate amount of overlap will depend on the choice of window
and on your requirements. For the default 'hanning' window an
overlap of 50\% is a reasonable trade off between accurately estimating
the signal power, while not over counting any of the data. Narrower
windows may require a larger overlap.
.. versionadded:: 0.16.0
References
----------
.. [1] P. Welch, "The use of the fast Fourier transform for the
estimation of power spectra: A method based on time averaging
over short, modified periodograms", IEEE Trans. Audio
Electroacoust. vol. 15, pp. 70-73, 1967.
.. [2] Rabiner, Lawrence R., and B. Gold. "Theory and Application of
Digital Signal Processing" Prentice-Hall, pp. 414-419, 1975
Examples
--------
>>> from scipy import signal
>>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
Generate two test signals with some common features.
>>> fs = 10e3
>>> N = 1e5
>>> amp = 20
>>> freq = 1234.0
>>> noise_power = 0.001 * fs / 2
>>> time = np.arange(N) / fs
>>> b, a = signal.butter(2, 0.25, 'low')
>>> x = np.random.normal(scale=np.sqrt(noise_power), size=time.shape)
>>> y = signal.lfilter(b, a, x)
>>> x += amp*np.sin(2*np.pi*freq*time)
>>> y += np.random.normal(scale=0.1*np.sqrt(noise_power), size=time.shape)
Compute and plot the magnitude of the cross spectral density.
>>> f, Pxy = signal.csd(x, y, fs, nperseg=1024)
>>> plt.semilogy(f, np.abs(Pxy))
>>> plt.xlabel('frequency [Hz]')
>>> plt.ylabel('CSD [V**2/Hz]')
>>> plt.show()
"""
freqs, Pxy, _ = _spectral_helper(x, y, fs, window, nperseg, noverlap, nfft,
detrend, return_onesided, scaling, axis,
mode='psd')
# Average over windows.
if len(Pxy.shape) >= 2 and Pxy.size > 0:
if Pxy.shape[-1] > 1:
Pxy = Pxy.mean(axis=-1)
else:
Pxy = np.reshape(Pxy, Pxy.shape[:-1])
return freqs, Pxy
def spectrogram(x, fs=1.0, window=('tukey',.25), nperseg=256, noverlap=None,
nfft=None, detrend='constant', return_onesided=True,
scaling='density', axis=-1):
"""
Compute a spectrogram with consecutive Fourier transforms.
Spectrograms can be used as a way of visualizing the change of a
nonstationary signal's frequency content over time.
Parameters
----------
x : array_like
Time series of measurement values
fs : float, optional
Sampling frequency of the `x` time series. Defaults to 1.0.
window : str or tuple or array_like, optional
Desired window to use. See `get_window` for a list of windows and
required parameters. If `window` is array_like it will be used
directly as the window and its length will be used for nperseg.
Defaults to a Tukey window with shape parameter of 0.25.
nperseg : int, optional
Length of each segment. Defaults to 256.
noverlap : int, optional
Number of points to overlap between segments. If None,
``noverlap = nperseg // 8``. Defaults to None.
nfft : int, optional
Length of the FFT used, if a zero padded FFT is desired. If None,
the FFT length is `nperseg`. Defaults to None.
detrend : str or function or False, optional
Specifies how to detrend each segment. If `detrend` is a string,
it is passed as the ``type`` argument to `detrend`. If it is a
function, it takes a segment and returns a detrended segment.
If `detrend` is False, no detrending is done. Defaults to 'constant'.
return_onesided : bool, optional
If True, return a one-sided spectrum for real data. If False return
a two-sided spectrum. Note that for complex data, a two-sided
spectrum is always returned.
scaling : { 'density', 'spectrum' }, optional
Selects between computing the power spectral density ('density')
where `Pxx` has units of V**2/Hz and computing the power spectrum
('spectrum') where `Pxx` has units of V**2, if `x` is measured in V
and fs is measured in Hz. Defaults to 'density'
axis : int, optional
Axis along which the spectrogram is computed; the default is over
the last axis (i.e. ``axis=-1``).
Returns
-------
f : ndarray
Array of sample frequencies.
t : ndarray
Array of segment times.
Sxx : ndarray
Spectrogram of x. By default, the last axis of Sxx corresponds to the
segment times.
See Also
--------
periodogram: Simple, optionally modified periodogram
lombscargle: Lomb-Scargle periodogram for unevenly sampled data
welch: Power spectral density by Welch's method.
csd: Cross spectral density by Welch's method.
Notes
-----
An appropriate amount of overlap will depend on the choice of window
and on your requirements. In contrast to welch's method, where the entire
data stream is averaged over, one may wish to use a smaller overlap (or
perhaps none at all) when computing a spectrogram, to maintain some
statistical independence between individual segments.
.. versionadded:: 0.16.0
References
----------
...[1] Oppenheim, Alan V., Ronald W. Schafer, John R. Buck "Discrete-Time
Signal Processing", Prentice Hall, 1999.
Examples
--------
>>> from scipy import signal
>>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
Generate a test signal, a 2 Vrms sine wave whose frequency linearly changes
with time from 1kHz to 2kHz, corrupted by 0.001 V**2/Hz of white noise
sampled at 10 kHz.
>>> fs = 10e3
>>> N = 1e5
>>> amp = 2 * np.sqrt(2)
>>> noise_power = 0.001 * fs / 2
>>> time = np.arange(N) / fs
>>> freq = np.linspace(1e3, 2e3, N)
>>> x = amp * np.sin(2*np.pi*freq*time)
>>> x += np.random.normal(scale=np.sqrt(noise_power), size=time.shape)
Compute and plot the spectrogram.
>>> f, t, Sxx = signal.spectrogram(x, fs)
>>> plt.pcolormesh(t, f, Sxx)
>>> plt.ylabel('Frequency [Hz]')
>>> plt.xlabel('Time [sec]')
>>> plt.show()
"""
# Less overlap than welch, so samples are more statisically independent
if noverlap is None:
noverlap = nperseg // 8
freqs, Pxy, time = _spectral_helper(x, x, fs, window, nperseg, noverlap,
nfft, detrend, return_onesided, scaling,
axis, mode='psd')
return freqs, time, Pxy
def coherence(x, y, fs=1.0, window='hanning', nperseg=256, noverlap=None,
nfft=None, detrend='constant', axis=-1):
"""
Estimate the magnitude squared coherence estimate, Cxy, of discrete-time
signals X and Y using Welch's method.
Cxy = abs(Pxy)**2/(Pxx*Pyy), where Pxx and Pyy are power spectral density
estimates of X and Y, and Pxy is the cross spectral density estimate of X
and Y.
Parameters
----------
x : array_like
Time series of measurement values
y : array_like
Time series of measurement values
fs : float, optional
Sampling frequency of the `x` and `y` time series. Defaults to 1.0.
window : str or tuple or array_like, optional
Desired window to use. See `get_window` for a list of windows and
required parameters. If `window` is array_like it will be used
directly as the window and its length will be used for nperseg.
Defaults to 'hanning'.
nperseg : int, optional
Length of each segment. Defaults to 256.
noverlap: int, optional
Number of points to overlap between segments. If None,
``noverlap = nperseg // 2``. Defaults to None.
nfft : int, optional
Length of the FFT used, if a zero padded FFT is desired. If None,
the FFT length is `nperseg`. Defaults to None.
detrend : str or function or False, optional
Specifies how to detrend each segment. If `detrend` is a string,
it is passed as the ``type`` argument to `detrend`. If it is a
function, it takes a segment and returns a detrended segment.
If `detrend` is False, no detrending is done. Defaults to 'constant'.
axis : int, optional
Axis along which the coherence is computed for both inputs; the default is
over the last axis (i.e. ``axis=-1``).
Returns
-------
f : ndarray
Array of sample frequencies.
Cxy : ndarray
Magnitude squared coherence of x and y.
See Also
--------
periodogram: Simple, optionally modified periodogram
lombscargle: Lomb-Scargle periodogram for unevenly sampled data
welch: Power spectral density by Welch's method.
csd: Cross spectral density by Welch's method.
Notes
--------
An appropriate amount of overlap will depend on the choice of window
and on your requirements. For the default 'hanning' window an
overlap of 50\% is a reasonable trade off between accurately estimating
the signal power, while not over counting any of the data. Narrower
windows may require a larger overlap.
.. versionadded:: 0.16.0
References
----------
.. [1] P. Welch, "The use of the fast Fourier transform for the
estimation of power spectra: A method based on time averaging
over short, modified periodograms", IEEE Trans. Audio
Electroacoust. vol. 15, pp. 70-73, 1967.
.. [2] Stoica, Petre, and Randolph Moses, "Spectral Analysis of Signals"
Prentice Hall, 2005
Examples
--------
>>> from scipy import signal
>>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
Generate two test signals with some common features.
>>> fs = 10e3
>>> N = 1e5
>>> amp = 20
>>> freq = 1234.0
>>> noise_power = 0.001 * fs / 2
>>> time = np.arange(N) / fs
>>> b, a = signal.butter(2, 0.25, 'low')
>>> x = np.random.normal(scale=np.sqrt(noise_power), size=time.shape)
>>> y = signal.lfilter(b, a, x)
>>> x += amp*np.sin(2*np.pi*freq*time)
>>> y += np.random.normal(scale=0.1*np.sqrt(noise_power), size=time.shape)
Compute and plot the coherence.
>>> f, Cxy = signal.coherence(x, y, fs, nperseg=1024)
>>> plt.semilogy(f, Cxy)
>>> plt.xlabel('frequency [Hz]')
>>> plt.ylabel('Coherence')
>>> plt.show()
"""
freqs, Pxx = welch(x, fs, window, nperseg, noverlap, nfft, detrend,
axis=axis)
_, Pyy = welch(y, fs, window, nperseg, noverlap, nfft, detrend, axis=axis)
_, Pxy = csd(x, y, fs, window, nperseg, noverlap, nfft, detrend, axis=axis)
Cxy = np.abs(Pxy)**2 / Pxx / Pyy
return freqs, Cxy
def _spectral_helper(x, y, fs=1.0, window='hanning', nperseg=256,
noverlap=None, nfft=None, detrend='constant',
return_onesided=True, scaling='spectrum', axis=-1,
mode='psd'):
'''
Calculate various forms of windowed FFTs for PSD, CSD, etc.
This is a helper function that implements the commonality between the
psd, csd, and spectrogram functions. It is not designed to be called
externally. The windows are not averaged over; the result from each window
is returned.
Parameters
---------
x : array_like
Array or sequence containing the data to be analyzed.
y : array_like
Array or sequence containing the data to be analyzed. If this is
the same object in memoery as x (i.e. _spectral_helper(x, x, ...)),
the extra computations are spared.
fs : float, optional
Sampling frequency of the time series. Defaults to 1.0.
window : str or tuple or array_like, optional
Desired window to use. See `get_window` for a list of windows and
required parameters. If `window` is array_like it will be used
directly as the window and its length will be used for nperseg.
Defaults to 'hanning'.
nperseg : int, optional
Length of each segment. Defaults to 256.
noverlap : int, optional
Number of points to overlap between segments. If None,
``noverlap = nperseg // 2``. Defaults to None.
nfft : int, optional
Length of the FFT used, if a zero padded FFT is desired. If None,
the FFT length is `nperseg`. Defaults to None.
detrend : str or function or False, optional
Specifies how to detrend each segment. If `detrend` is a string,
it is passed as the ``type`` argument to `detrend`. If it is a
function, it takes a segment and returns a detrended segment.
If `detrend` is False, no detrending is done. Defaults to 'constant'.
return_onesided : bool, optional
If True, return a one-sided spectrum for real data. If False return
a two-sided spectrum. Note that for complex data, a two-sided
spectrum is always returned.
scaling : { 'density', 'spectrum' }, optional
Selects between computing the cross spectral density ('density')
where `Pxy` has units of V**2/Hz and computing the cross spectrum
('spectrum') where `Pxy` has units of V**2, if `x` and `y` are
measured in V and fs is measured in Hz. Defaults to 'density'
axis : int, optional
Axis along which the periodogram is computed; the default is over
the last axis (i.e. ``axis=-1``).
mode : str, optional
Defines what kind of return values are expected. Options are ['psd',
'complex', 'magnitude', 'angle', 'phase'].
Returns
-------
freqs : ndarray
Array of sample frequencies.
result : ndarray
Array of output data, contents dependant on *mode* kwarg.
t : ndarray
Array of times corresponding to each data segment
References
----------
stackoverflow: Rolling window for 1D arrays in Numpy?
<http://stackoverflow.com/a/6811241>
stackoverflow: Using strides for an efficient moving average filter
<http://stackoverflow.com/a/4947453>
Notes
-----
Adapted from matplotlib.mlab
.. versionadded:: 0.16.0
'''
if mode not in ['psd', 'complex', 'magnitude', 'angle', 'phase']:
raise ValueError("Unknown value for mode %s, must be one of: "
"'default', 'psd', 'complex', "
"'magnitude', 'angle', 'phase'" % mode)
# If x and y are the same object we can save ourselves some computation.
same_data = y is x
if not same_data and mode != 'psd':
raise ValueError("x and y must be equal if mode is not 'psd'")
axis = int(axis)
# Ensure we have np.arrays, get outdtype
x = np.asarray(x)
if not same_data:
y = np.asarray(y)
outdtype = np.result_type(x,y,np.complex64)
else:
outdtype = np.result_type(x,np.complex64)
if not same_data:
# Check if we can broadcast the outer axes together
xouter = list(x.shape)
youter = list(y.shape)
xouter.pop(axis)
youter.pop(axis)
try:
outershape = np.broadcast(np.empty(xouter), np.empty(youter)).shape
except ValueError:
raise ValueError('x and y cannot be broadcast together.')
if same_data:
if x.size == 0:
return np.empty(x.shape), np.empty(x.shape), np.empty(x.shape)
else:
if x.size == 0 or y.size == 0:
outshape = outershape + (min([x.shape[axis], y.shape[axis]]),)
emptyout = np.rollaxis(np.empty(outshape), -1, axis)
return emptyout, emptyout, emptyout
if x.ndim > 1:
if axis != -1:
x = np.rollaxis(x, axis, len(x.shape))
if not same_data and y.ndim > 1:
y = np.rollaxis(y, axis, len(y.shape))
# Check if x and y are the same length, zero-pad if neccesary
if not same_data:
if x.shape[-1] != y.shape[-1]:
if x.shape[-1] < y.shape[-1]:
pad_shape = list(x.shape)
pad_shape[-1] = y.shape[-1] - x.shape[-1]
x = np.concatenate((x, np.zeros(pad_shape)), -1)
else:
pad_shape = list(y.shape)
pad_shape[-1] = x.shape[-1] - y.shape[-1]
y = np.concatenate((y, np.zeros(pad_shape)), -1)
# X and Y are same length now, can test nperseg with either
if x.shape[-1] < nperseg:
warnings.warn('nperseg = {0:d}, is greater than input length = {1:d}, '
'using nperseg = {1:d}'.format(nperseg, x.shape[-1]))
nperseg = x.shape[-1]
nperseg = int(nperseg)
if nperseg < 1:
raise ValueError('nperseg must be a positive integer')
if nfft is None:
nfft = nperseg
elif nfft < nperseg:
raise ValueError('nfft must be greater than or equal to nperseg.')
else:
nfft = int(nfft)
if noverlap is None:
noverlap = nperseg//2
elif noverlap >= nperseg:
raise ValueError('noverlap must be less than nperseg.')
else:
noverlap = int(noverlap)
# Handle detrending and window functions
if not detrend:
def detrend_func(d):
return d
elif not hasattr(detrend, '__call__'):
def detrend_func(d):
return signaltools.detrend(d, type=detrend, axis=-1)
elif axis != -1:
# Wrap this function so that it receives a shape that it could
# reasonably expect to receive.
def detrend_func(d):
d = np.rollaxis(d, -1, axis)
d = detrend(d)
return np.rollaxis(d, axis, len(d.shape))
else:
detrend_func = detrend
if isinstance(window, string_types) or type(window) is tuple:
win = get_window(window, nperseg)
else:
win = np.asarray(window)
if len(win.shape) != 1:
raise ValueError('window must be 1-D')
if win.shape[0] != nperseg:
raise ValueError('window must have length of nperseg')
if np.result_type(win,np.complex64) != outdtype:
win = win.astype(outdtype)
if mode == 'psd':
if scaling == 'density':
scale = 1.0 / (fs * (win*win).sum())
elif scaling == 'spectrum':
scale = 1.0 / win.sum()**2
else:
raise ValueError('Unknown scaling: %r' % scaling)
else:
scale = 1
if return_onesided is True:
if np.iscomplexobj(x):
sides = 'twosided'
else:
sides = 'onesided'
if not same_data:
if np.iscomplexobj(y):
sides = 'twosided'
else:
sides = 'twosided'
if sides == 'twosided':
num_freqs = nfft
elif sides == 'onesided':
if nperseg % 2:
num_freqs = (nfft + 1)//2
else:
num_freqs = nfft//2 + 1
# Perform the windowed FFTs
result = _fft_helper(x, win, detrend_func, nperseg, noverlap, nfft)
result = result[..., :num_freqs]
freqs = fftpack.fftfreq(nfft, 1/fs)[:num_freqs]
if not same_data:
# All the same operations on the y data
result_y = _fft_helper(y, win, detrend_func, nperseg, noverlap, nfft)
result_y = result_y[..., :num_freqs]
result = np.conjugate(result) * result_y
elif mode == 'psd':
result = np.conjugate(result) * result
elif mode == 'magnitude':
result = np.absolute(result)
elif mode == 'angle' or mode == 'phase':
result = np.angle(result)
elif mode == 'complex':
pass
result *= scale
if sides == 'onesided':
if nfft % 2:
result[...,1:] *= 2
else:
# Last point is unpaired Nyquist freq point, don't double
result[...,1:-1] *= 2
t = np.arange(nfft/2, x.shape[-1] - nfft/2 + 1, nfft - noverlap)/float(fs)
if sides != 'twosided' and not nfft % 2:
# get the last value correctly, it is negative otherwise
freqs[-1] *= -1
# we unwrap the phase here to handle the onesided vs. twosided case
if mode == 'phase':
result = np.unwrap(result, axis=-1)
result = result.astype(outdtype)
# All imaginary parts are zero anyways
if same_data:
result = result.real
# Output is going to have new last axis for window index
if axis != -1:
# Specify as positive axis index
if axis < 0:
axis = len(result.shape)-1-axis
# Roll frequency axis back to axis where the data came from
result = np.rollaxis(result, -1, axis)
else:
# Make sure window/time index is last axis
result = np.rollaxis(result, -1, -2)
return freqs, result, t
def _fft_helper(x, win, detrend_func, nperseg, noverlap, nfft):
'''
Calculate windowed FFT, for internal use by scipy.signal._spectral_helper
This is a helper function that does the main FFT calculation for
_spectral helper. All input valdiation is performed there, and the data
axis is assumed to be the last axis of x. It is not designed to be called
externally. The windows are not averaged over; the result from each window
is returned.
Returns
-------
result : ndarray
Array of FFT data
References
----------
stackoverflow: Repeat NumPy array without replicating data?
<http://stackoverflow.com/a/5568169>
Notes
-----
Adapted from matplotlib.mlab
.. versionadded:: 0.16.0
'''
# Created strided array of data segments
if nperseg == 1 and noverlap == 0:
result = x[..., np.newaxis]
else:
step = nperseg - noverlap
shape = x.shape[:-1]+((x.shape[-1]-noverlap)//step, nperseg)
strides = x.strides[:-1]+(step*x.strides[-1], x.strides[-1])
result = np.lib.stride_tricks.as_strided(x, shape=shape,
strides=strides)
# Detrend each data segment individually
result = detrend_func(result)
# Apply window by multiplication
result = win * result
# Perform the fft. Acts on last axis by default. Zero-pads automatically
result = fftpack.fft(result, n=nfft)
return result
Jump to Line
Something went wrong with that request. Please try again.