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pypi docs ghactions coverage black

This is a low level client for working with Crossref's search API. It's been named to be more generic, as other organizations are/will adopt Crossref's search API, making it possible to interact with all from one client.

Crossref API docs

Other Crossref API clients:

Crossref's API issue tracker:

habanero includes three modules you can import as needed (or import all):

Crossref - Crossref search API. The Crossref module includes methods matching Crossref API routes, and a few convenience methods for getting DOI agency and random DOIs:

  • works - /works route
  • members - /members route
  • prefixes - /prefixes route
  • funders - /funders route
  • journals - /journals route
  • types - /types route
  • licenses - /licenses route
  • registration_agency - get DOI minting agency
  • random_dois - get random set of DOIs

counts - citation counts. Includes the single citation_count method

cn - content negotiation. Includes the methods:

  • content_negotiation - get citations in a variety of formats
  • csl_styles - get CSL styles, used in content_negotation method

WorksContainer - A class for handling Crossref works. Pass output of works from methods on the Crossref class to more easily extract specific fields of works.

Note about searching:

You are using the Crossref search API described at When you search with query terms, on Crossref servers they are not searching full text, or even abstracts of articles, but only what is available in the data that is returned to you. That is, they search article titles, authors, etc. For some discussion on this, see

Rate limits

See the headers X-Rate-Limit-Limit and X-Rate-Limit-Interval for current rate limits.

The Polite Pool

To get in the polite pool it's a good idea now to include a mailto email address. See docs for more information.


Stable version

pip (or pip3) install habanero

Dev version

pip install git+

Or build it yourself locally

git clone
cd habanero
make install


Initialize a client

from habanero import Crossref
cr = Crossref()

Works route

# query
x = = "ecology")

# fetch data by DOI = '10.1371/journal.pone.0033693')

Members route

# ids here is the Crossref Member ID; 98 = Hindawi
cr.members(ids = 98, works = True)

Citation counts

from habanero import counts
counts.citation_count(doi = "10.1016/j.fbr.2012.01.001")

Content negotiation - get citations in many formats

from habanero import cn
cn.content_negotiation(ids = '10.1126/science.169.3946.635')
cn.content_negotiation(ids = '10.1126/science.169.3946.635', format = "citeproc-json")
cn.content_negotiation(ids = "10.1126/science.169.3946.635", format = "rdf-xml")
cn.content_negotiation(ids = "10.1126/science.169.3946.635", format = "text")
cn.content_negotiation(ids = "10.1126/science.169.3946.635", format = "text", style = "apa")
cn.content_negotiation(ids = "10.1126/science.169.3946.635", format = "bibentry")