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SUBROUTINE sla_AOPQK (RAP, DAP, AOPRMS, AOB, ZOB, HOB, DOB, ROB)
*+
* - - - - - -
* A O P Q K
* - - - - - -
*
* Quick apparent to observed place (but see note 8, below, for
* remarks about speed).
*
* Given:
* RAP d geocentric apparent right ascension
* DAP d geocentric apparent declination
* AOPRMS d(14) star-independent apparent-to-observed parameters:
*
* (1) geodetic latitude (radians)
* (2,3) sine and cosine of geodetic latitude
* (4) magnitude of diurnal aberration vector
* (5) height (HM)
* (6) ambient temperature (T)
* (7) pressure (P)
* (8) relative humidity (RH)
* (9) wavelength (WL)
* (10) lapse rate (TLR)
* (11,12) refraction constants A and B (radians)
* (13) longitude + eqn of equinoxes + sidereal DUT (radians)
* (14) local apparent sidereal time (radians)
*
* Returned:
* AOB d observed azimuth (radians: N=0,E=90)
* ZOB d observed zenith distance (radians)
* HOB d observed Hour Angle (radians)
* DOB d observed Declination (radians)
* ROB d observed Right Ascension (radians)
*
* Notes:
*
* 1) This routine returns zenith distance rather than elevation
* in order to reflect the fact that no allowance is made for
* depression of the horizon.
*
* 2) The accuracy of the result is limited by the corrections for
* refraction. Providing the meteorological parameters are
* known accurately and there are no gross local effects, the
* observed RA,Dec predicted by this routine should be within
* about 0.1 arcsec for a zenith distance of less than 70 degrees.
* Even at a topocentric zenith distance of 90 degrees, the
* accuracy in elevation should be better than 1 arcmin; useful
* results are available for a further 3 degrees, beyond which
* the sla_REFRO routine returns a fixed value of the refraction.
* The complementary routines sla_AOP (or sla_AOPQK) and sla_OaAP
* (or sla_OAPQK) are self-consistent to better than 1 micro-
* arcsecond all over the celestial sphere.
*
* 3) It is advisable to take great care with units, as even
* unlikely values of the input parameters are accepted and
* processed in accordance with the models used.
*
* 4) "Apparent" place means the geocentric apparent right ascension
* and declination, which is obtained from a catalogue mean place
* by allowing for space motion, parallax, precession, nutation,
* annual aberration, and the Sun's gravitational lens effect. For
* star positions in the FK5 system (i.e. J2000), these effects can
* be applied by means of the sla_MAP etc routines. Starting from
* other mean place systems, additional transformations will be
* needed; for example, FK4 (i.e. B1950) mean places would first
* have to be converted to FK5, which can be done with the
* sla_FK425 etc routines.
*
* 5) "Observed" Az,El means the position that would be seen by a
* perfect theodolite located at the observer. This is obtained
* from the geocentric apparent RA,Dec by allowing for Earth
* orientation and diurnal aberration, rotating from equator
* to horizon coordinates, and then adjusting for refraction.
* The HA,Dec is obtained by rotating back into equatorial
* coordinates, using the geodetic latitude corrected for polar
* motion, and is the position that would be seen by a perfect
* equatorial located at the observer and with its polar axis
* aligned to the Earth's axis of rotation (n.b. not to the
* refracted pole). Finally, the RA is obtained by subtracting
* the HA from the local apparent ST.
*
* 6) To predict the required setting of a real telescope, the
* observed place produced by this routine would have to be
* adjusted for the tilt of the azimuth or polar axis of the
* mounting (with appropriate corrections for mount flexures),
* for non-perpendicularity between the mounting axes, for the
* position of the rotator axis and the pointing axis relative
* to it, for tube flexure, for gear and encoder errors, and
* finally for encoder zero points. Some telescopes would, of
* course, exhibit other properties which would need to be
* accounted for at the appropriate point in the sequence.
*
* 7) The star-independent apparent-to-observed-place parameters
* in AOPRMS may be computed by means of the sla_AOPPA routine.
* If nothing has changed significantly except the time, the
* sla_AOPPAT routine may be used to perform the requisite
* partial recomputation of AOPRMS.
*
* 8) At zenith distances beyond about 76 degrees, the need for
* special care with the corrections for refraction causes a
* marked increase in execution time. Moreover, the effect
* gets worse with increasing zenith distance. Adroit
* programming in the calling application may allow the
* problem to be reduced. Prepare an alternative AOPRMS array,
* computed for zero air-pressure; this will disable the
* refraction corrections and cause rapid execution. Using
* this AOPRMS array, a preliminary call to the present routine
* will, depending on the application, produce a rough position
* which may be enough to establish whether the full, slow
* calculation (using the real AOPRMS array) is worthwhile.
* For example, there would be no need for the full calculation
* if the preliminary call had already established that the
* source was well below the elevation limits for a particular
* telescope.
*
* 9) The azimuths etc produced by the present routine are with
* respect to the celestial pole. Corrections to the terrestrial
* pole can be computed using sla_POLMO.
*
* Called: sla_DCS2C, sla_REFZ, sla_REFRO, sla_DCC2S, sla_DRANRM
*
* P.T.Wallace Starlink 24 October 2003
*
* Copyright (C) 2003 Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
*
* License:
* This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
* it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
* the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
* (at your option) any later version.
*
* This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
* but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
* MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
* GNU General Public License for more details.
*
* You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
* along with this program (see SLA_CONDITIONS); if not, write to the
* Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330,
* Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
*
*-
IMPLICIT NONE
DOUBLE PRECISION RAP,DAP,AOPRMS(14),AOB,ZOB,HOB,DOB,ROB
* Breakpoint for fast/slow refraction algorithm:
* ZD greater than arctan(4), (see sla_REFCO routine)
* or vector Z less than cosine(arctan(Z)) = 1/sqrt(17)
DOUBLE PRECISION ZBREAK
PARAMETER (ZBREAK=0.242535625D0)
INTEGER I
DOUBLE PRECISION SPHI,CPHI,ST,V(3),XHD,YHD,ZHD,DIURAB,F,
: XHDT,YHDT,ZHDT,XAET,YAET,ZAET,AZOBS,
: ZDT,REFA,REFB,ZDOBS,DZD,DREF,CE,
: XAEO,YAEO,ZAEO,HMOBS,DCOBS,RAOBS
DOUBLE PRECISION sla_DRANRM
* Sin, cos of latitude
SPHI = AOPRMS(2)
CPHI = AOPRMS(3)
* Local apparent sidereal time
ST = AOPRMS(14)
* Apparent RA,Dec to Cartesian -HA,Dec
CALL sla_DCS2C(RAP-ST,DAP,V)
XHD = V(1)
YHD = V(2)
ZHD = V(3)
* Diurnal aberration
DIURAB = AOPRMS(4)
F = (1D0-DIURAB*YHD)
XHDT = F*XHD
YHDT = F*(YHD+DIURAB)
ZHDT = F*ZHD
* Cartesian -HA,Dec to Cartesian Az,El (S=0,E=90)
XAET = SPHI*XHDT-CPHI*ZHDT
YAET = YHDT
ZAET = CPHI*XHDT+SPHI*ZHDT
* Azimuth (N=0,E=90)
IF (XAET.EQ.0D0.AND.YAET.EQ.0D0) THEN
AZOBS = 0D0
ELSE
AZOBS = ATAN2(YAET,-XAET)
END IF
* Topocentric zenith distance
ZDT = ATAN2(SQRT(XAET*XAET+YAET*YAET),ZAET)
*
* Refraction
* ----------
* Fast algorithm using two constant model
REFA = AOPRMS(11)
REFB = AOPRMS(12)
CALL sla_REFZ(ZDT,REFA,REFB,ZDOBS)
* Large zenith distance?
IF (COS(ZDOBS).LT.ZBREAK) THEN
* Yes: use rigorous algorithm
* Initialize loop (maximum of 10 iterations)
I = 1
DZD = 1D1
DO WHILE (ABS(DZD).GT.1D-10.AND.I.LE.10)
* Compute refraction using current estimate of observed ZD
CALL sla_REFRO(ZDOBS,AOPRMS(5),AOPRMS(6),AOPRMS(7),
: AOPRMS(8),AOPRMS(9),AOPRMS(1),
: AOPRMS(10),1D-8,DREF)
* Remaining discrepancy
DZD = ZDOBS+DREF-ZDT
* Update the estimate
ZDOBS = ZDOBS-DZD
* Increment the iteration counter
I = I+1
END DO
END IF
* To Cartesian Az/ZD
CE = SIN(ZDOBS)
XAEO = -COS(AZOBS)*CE
YAEO = SIN(AZOBS)*CE
ZAEO = COS(ZDOBS)
* Cartesian Az/ZD to Cartesian -HA,Dec
V(1) = SPHI*XAEO+CPHI*ZAEO
V(2) = YAEO
V(3) = -CPHI*XAEO+SPHI*ZAEO
* To spherical -HA,Dec
CALL sla_DCC2S(V,HMOBS,DCOBS)
* Right Ascension
RAOBS = sla_DRANRM(ST+HMOBS)
* Return the results
AOB = AZOBS
ZOB = ZDOBS
HOB = -HMOBS
DOB = DCOBS
ROB = RAOBS
END
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