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a package of bash scripts to control selected IKEA Home smart (aka “TRÅDFRI”) devices via their network gateway
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README.md
ihsinfo
ihsinit
ihslist
ihsstatus
ihsswitch
ihstoggle

README.md

ihsctrl

ihsctrl - a package of bash scripts to control selected IKEA Home smart (aka “TRÅDFRI”) devices via their network gateway.

Limitations

The included scripts are intended to turn the following individual devices on or off:

No dimming or colour change is supported. Other lighting devices may work but are untried. Smart blinds and music control almost certainly won't.

ihsctrl also only supports one gateway per installation.

In order to keep the code simple and to avoid implementing a server model, commands sent simultaneously to the gateway have undefined results: one command may succeed, but more likely, all simultaneous commands may fail. This can be a confusing issue when using ihsctrl from cron, as jobs triggered from separate crontab lines may collide and fail.

Installation

This software was developed, (minimally) tested and deployed on current Debian-based Linux systems. They are essentially wrappers around libcoap2's coap-client-gnutls with JSON massaged using jq. These should be run as a regular user, and an ideal place for them to live is in the user's ~/bin folder.

Installation on Ubuntu / Raspbian

sudo apt install libcoap2-bin jq

If the ~/bin folder doesn't exist, make it and temporarily add it to your PATH:

mkdir ~/bin
PATH=${PATH}:~/bin

~/bin is automatically added to a user's path if it exists, so no modification of profiles is required.

Clone this repository and change to its directory:

git clone https://github.com/scruss/ihsctrl.git
cd ihsctrl

Now copy the wrapper scripts to ~/bin and ensure they are executable:

cp ihs* ~/bin
chmod +x ~/bin/ihs*

You can now set up the connection using ihsinit. To do this, you should have:

  1. the local IP address or host name of the IKEA TRÅDFRI Gateway 003.378.13 attached to your network. This might show up via nmap or your router's network map under a name like TRADFRI-Gateway-xxxxxxxxxxxx and can be reached at the corresponding mDNS .local address

  2. the 16-character Security Code printed on the back of your IKEA TRÅDFRI Gateway, just under the QR code. This code is never stored on your system by the ihsctrl scripts; instead, a shared key is returned by the gateway and this is used for all future communication

  3. a simple (but unique for this network) user name. The content isn't important, but attempting to register a name already in use from another computer on your network will fail

  4. (Optionally) a working gateway with at least one verified/paired device already on your network. This will give you something to test the ihsswitch command with.

Usage

ihsinit

ihsinit gateway_address security_code username

Example:

ihsinit 192.168.1.112 'xW406zAduzkXyq3k' fred

If the gateway is found at gateway_address, the two arguments security_code and username are hashed inside the gateway to produce a shared key. This shared key, along with the address and user details, are stored in ~/.config/ihsctrl/ihsconf.json.

Credentials are valid for some time (60 days?) and are refreshed every time you access the gateway. If they expire, you'll need to delete the configuration file and run ihsinit again.

If the configuration is successful, ihsinit attempts to run ihsinfo to list known devices. If it is unsuccessful, it suggests some issues to remedy the fault.

ihsinfo

ihsinfo

Takes no arguments, but lists devices known to the gateway. Mostly useful for choosing a device ID to use with ihsswitch

Sample output:

id     name                     type                             status
=====  =======================  ===============================  ======
65537  front light              TRADFRI control outlet           1     
65544  desk lamp                TRADFRI bulb E26 CWS opal 600lm  1     
65545  TRADFRI remote control   TRADFRI remote control           n/a   
65546  front rgb                TRADFRI control outlet           1     
65547  fish                     TRADFRI control outlet           1     
65548  TRADFRI signal repeater  TRADFRI signal repeater          n/a   
65549  ender3                   TRADFRI control outlet           0  

ihsswitch

ihsswitch id (0|1)

Example:

ihsswitch 65544 0

would turn the IKEA TRÅDFRI bulb (id 65544, named ‘desk lamp’ above) off. Replacing the last argument with 1 would turn it back on.

The (0|1) final argument is not checked, but using anything other than 0 or 1 will not do anything useful.

ihsstatus

ihsstatus id

Example:

ihsstatus 65544

Returns 0 or 1, depending on whether the device is on or off. If the device has no on or off status, returns nothing.

ihstoggle

ihstoggle id

Example:

ihstoggle 65544

Toggles the power state of a device, or does nothing if the device returns no status. If you think this script feeds the inverted output of ihsstatus into ihsswitch, you're darn right it does!

ihslist

The least useful of the tools, it is used internally by ihsinfo and ihsswitch to list known devices. It takes no arguments:

ihslist

Sample output:

65537
65544
65545
65546
65547
65548
65549

Use with cron

This suite is intended for use in user cron jobs for simple daily lighting tasks. A sample crontab -l listing is as follows, with all times local:

PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/home/pi/bin
# m h  dom mon dow   command
# front light: 65537
 30 6   *   *   1-5   ihsswitch 65537 1
 30 7   *   *   6,7   ihsswitch 65537 1
 15 8	*   *   1-5   ihsswitch 65537 0
 15 9   *   *   6,7   ihsswitch 65537 0
 10 10  *   *   *     sunwait sun down -1:00:00 43.7N 79.3W; ihsswitch 65537 1
 45 22  *   *   *     ihsswitch 65537 0
  • cron runs under a very simple shell (typically /bin/sh) with a very limited command search path (initially /bin:/usr/bin), so the path to the ihsctrl programs must be stated (line 1). Note that cron does not expand variable definitions such as $HOME/bin.

  • at 06:30 on weekdays and 07:30 on weekends, turn on the front light (ID 65537) - lines 4 & 5.

  • at 08:15 on weekdays and 09:15 on weekends, turn off the front light - lines 6 & 7.

  • at 10:10 every morning, launch sunwait to wait and turn on the front light an hour before sunset at a location in the east end of Toronto - line 8.

  • at 22:45 every day, turn the front light off - line 9.

NB: The author uses an older version of sunwait (sunwait-20041208.tar.gz) and the current version may have different calling syntax.

IMPORTANT ihsctrl does not support simultaneous switching of multiple devices, as noted in Limitations. Please check your crontab for jobs that might trigger at exactly the same time: they are highly unlikely to work as expected. Workarounds for this include:

  • combining command fields into the one crontab line: * * * * * ihsswitch … ; ihsswitch … , etc.

  • delaying commands by a small amount: if one job triggers at 07:30, say, make the competing job run at 07:31.

This may be an insurmountable problem for some use cases.

Files

~/.config/ihsctrl/ihsconf.json stores the access credentials for the gateway.

Observations

  • On first connecting a gateway and devices, there can be a considerable delay (up to a day) before they all have updated firmware. If you have problems getting devices to appear as they should in the IKEA Home smart app, let them sit connected until they all show current firmware, then remove them, then re-add them all via the app. The app is not required to control devices via ihsctrl, and a new device can be added by pairing through a remote without the app. This won't allow the device to be renamed or added to a room, though.

  • Control outlets briefly turn off and on again when their firmware updates. They do this relatively seldom, but can do it at any time. Consequently, these outlets may not be ideal for controlling devices such as 3D printers.

  • The USB port on the signal repeater seems to provide adequate current to drive a Raspberry Pi Zero W. The author uses this as his (tiny, adequate, cheap) lighting control computer.

Rationale

  1. These scripts are intended to replace the author's very old X10 lighting control system that has been running on a Raspberry Pi since 2012. The mechanical switches in the (old, surplus) X10 outlets I used were becoming unreliable. Replacing these would have been as expensive as buying a whole new system.

  2. The private security code printed on the back of the IKEA TRÅDFRI gateway is never stored: only the derived shared key is kept, and it's useless on its own.

  3. IKEA TRÅDFRI devices cannot be accessed over the Internet and do not seem to share any information over the Internet. The gateway does check for firmware updates for attached devices, and will download those and do OTA updates (slowly) via ZigBee.

  4. ihsctrl scripts remember all the authentication details: you should never have to remember the LAN address of your gateway, the shared key or the user ID.

  5. The scripts run with standard user privileges from the ~/bin folder, and are intended for use in cron jobs and other low-complexity tasks.

  6. Scripts and howtos on the web from when this hardware was launched (2017-2018) rely on building a custom version of the libcoap2 tools. Those instructions no longer work.

Author

Stewart Russell — scruss.com — 2020-01

Licence

Copyright © 2020 Stewart Russell scruss@scruss.com This work is free. You can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the Do What The Fuck You Want To Public Licence, Version 2, as published by Sam Hocevar. See the COPYING file for more details.

/* This program is free software. It comes without any warranty, to
 * the extent permitted by applicable law. You can redistribute it
 * and/or modify it under the terms of the Do What The Fuck You Want
 * To Public Licence, Version 2, as published by Sam Hocevar. See
 * http://www.wtfpl.net/ for more details. */

Acknowledgements

  • This is not an officially endorsed product. Use it entirely at your own risk.

  • “IKEA”, and all related names, logos, product and service names, designs and slogans are trademarks of Inter IKEA Systems B.V.

  • IKEA has noted to developers that the method of access used here may go away at any time.

  • Details of the protocol used was learned from glenndehaan / ikea-tradfri-coap-docs

  • Details of how to turn devices on and off was learned from Pimoroni's tutorial “Controlling IKEA Trådfri Lights from your Pi

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