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Basic Excel R Toolkit (BERT)

The most up-to-date documentation for BERT is on the website (https://bert-toolkit.com):

To install BERT, download the latest release.

For more, visit the website. Additional documentation is on the wiki, which is a little older but still accurate. This page will contain some more technical information for anyone interested in building or forking.


BERT is a connector for Excel and R. Put some R functions in a file; open Excel, and use those functions in your spreadsheets. Essentially anything you can do in R, you can call from an Excel spreadsheet cell. There's also a console for talking to Excel from R, and (if you want) you can run R functions from VBA as well.

The Console

The BERT console, which includes an integrated R shell and a code editor, has grown into its own project. The console is separate from BERT by design; you can run BERT entirely without using the console.

The Ribbon Menu

The BERT ribbon menu is an Excel COM add-in which contains the ribbon menu/toolbar, but more importantly the ribbon menu is used to load the rest of BERT into Excel. If you don't want to use the ribbon menu, there's a separate Excel add-in (BERTMGR) which can load it. In general we recommend using the ribbon menu. Note: you can run BERT without the console and without the ribbon menu, but you can't run the console without the ribbon menu.


BERT is an XLL (Excel extension library). On startup, it reads the given source file and looks for functions. It uses its own R installation, so it won't affect any other workspaces you have on your machine.

By default it picks out functions from the global environment (via lsf.str); you can use a different environment if you want, but that environment must be exposed from the global environment (we will locate it with get). For each function, it creates an Excel function with the same arguments (which we determine via formals). When you type in the function, or recalculate, the Add-in executes the function using do.call.

BERT uses the Excel C API, so it's fast. It also exposes that API to you, the developer, so it's powerful (but can be dangerous).

Arguments and Return Types

Single-value arguments are passed to functions as basic types (Real, Integer, String or Boolean) depending on what Excel types they are. If you pass a range of cells as an argument, that will get passed to the R function as a matrix or a list.

If all cells in the range are numeric, the range will be passed as a Real matrix. If any cell is not numeric (including Nil and Boolean) it will be passed as a list of lists; you may need to do some validation or normalization before using the range.

Return values work the same way; single values are mapped directly to types, and any result with length > 1 is returned as an Excel Array (see below).

Workspace and R Installation

BERT uses its own R installation and its own workspace. It's designed to not affect or interact with any other R installation on your machine. That does mean you will need to separately install any modules you need, although you only have to do that once.

Can I use my existing R installation?

It is possible, although we don't recommend it. Have a look at the sources and figure out how to do that. Also if you use a different version of R than the one used to build it (currently 3.3.1), it will break.

If you just want to reuse existing R code, you can source it from the BERT startup file.


There is some overhead in Excel -> R calls, in part because there are several layers of abstraction, and in part because there's a dynamic element to the call. However performance is still pretty good.

Mapping the simplest possible function NOOP <- function(a, b){ 0 } we find that over 1,000,000 function calls the average time for one call is 42.2 µs. The Excel native function SUM over 1,000,000 calls takes on average 5.445 µs/call. So R functions are an order of magintude slower.

However this is fixed overhead, and beyond this the calculation time is entirely dependent on R performance. For complex functions, 42 µs is effectively noise. (If you actually have 1 million function calls in an Excel spreadsheet, you may be doing it wrong. Also that still only takes 42 seconds).

More importantly for performance, BERT is not threaded (see below).

Excel Arrays

If a function returns a vector of length > 1 (or a matrix, data frame, list, or anything other than a single scalar), the return value will be the Excel Array type. Excel Arrays can be entered into a spreadsheet directly, although you need to know the size of the Array beforehand.

  1. Select a 4x4 matrix in the spreadsheet

  2. Type the function =R.Identity(4) in the function bar

  3. Press Ctrl+Shift+Return

This will enter the Array into the selected cells. You can spot Arrays by looking at the function bar; here you'll see {=R.Identity(4)}. You can change the shape of the array.

The other thing you can do with Excel Arrays is pass them into functions which can handle them. For example, the function =SUM( R.Identity(4)).

Data frames are returned as Excel Arrays including their row and column headers. That makes them better for building spreadsheet reports, but less useful when passing into functions. If you intend to pass a data frame into a function, your R code should convert the data (less headers) into a matrix.

Limitations / Issues

(Not) Threading

BERT is single-threaded, which means it can't take advantage of Excel's multithreaded calculation. Depending on the particular spreadsheet, this can be a real drawback. We may address this in the future.

No Side-Effects

BERT is designed for atomic functions. You should not use global variables or rely on data outside of your function itself (although theoretically, static data outside of the function should be OK).

The workspace may be destroyed and re-created at any time. There is no guarantee of ordering of function calls. And in particular if we implement threading, then there may be multiple workspaces at any one time.

On a related note, the workspace is not saved when Excel closes. Any data or libraries you need should be explicitly loaded in your startup file.


R is case-sensitive, but Excel is not. If you have two functions with the same name with different casing, one will get overwritten.

Function Limit

Currently BERT is limited to 2048 functions. This is essentially arbitrary, and can be increased. (This might sound like a lot. It used to be 100, so this note used to be more important).

Argument Limit

Currently BERT functions have a maximum of 16 arguments. This is arbitrary, but there is a hard Excel limit of 32 (?) arguments. If you need more inputs you can usually accomplish this using ranges (matrices).


BERT is compatible with Windows Excel 2007, 2010, 2013 and 2016 (including Office 365), in both 32- and 64-bit flavors. There is no support for Excel 2003 or Macintosh. The console now only supports 64-bit Windows (32-bit Excel is fine, as long as it's running on 64-bit Windows).

Building From Source

BERT was built with Visual Studio 2013. We have not tested other compilers, although there is no magic in here. We do use some (non-standard) Microsoft string functions.

Build Dependencies

The project expects the files XLCALL.h and XLCALL.cpp in the ExcelLib directory; these are not included in our source distribution for license reasons.

  • Standard R binary install ("base"). R sources are not required.

The project include directories should point to the include/ directory in the R base distribution. Either the bin/i386 or bin/x64 directory should be in the user PATH, depending on your Excel bitness (not Windows bitness).

Running / Debugging

BERT needs a binary R base directory, as well as a home directory, and a startup script (in that home directory). Defaults are %APPDATA%\BERT and can be changed via the registry (see BERT.h).

There's an additional registry value, bitness, which controls which DLL gets loaded at runtime. This should be either 32 or 64 and match the bitness of your Excel installation (not your Windows installation).

Default values:

Home directory:  %APPDATA%\BERT
R Bin directory: %APPDATA%\BERT\R-3.1.0
Startup file:    Functions.R
Bitness:         32

The console has some additional registry requirements; see that project for more information.