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README.md

Hermes

Hermes is an environment for Ruby and JavaScript developers in Darwin using Tmux, Vim and iTerm 2 that focuses on speed and ease of use.

Hermes is opinionated where having an opinion is important, but does not prevent you from customizing your tools.

Hermes gives you a lot of things for free:

  • Sensible defaults for developers.
  • Integration of Vim into tmux and tmux into iTerm 2.
  • Mouse and window integration, allowing selections within tmux and Vim panes, not across them.
  • Vim packages that provide git integration, command- and block-completion, fuzzy file search and ease of testing.

We feel that good documentation is a key part of using any new technology with lots of moving parts, so we will be improving Hermes' documentation in the days and weeks to come.

Hermes screenshot

Preliminary Thanks

Hermes combines plugins, settings, snippets, gists, and ideas from countless developers around the world. We would like to thank:

Installation

Warning! Hermes is still early in development, so just to be careful, we strongly encourage you to install it in a separate user account, not your main one. That said, we have tested it on our own user accounts, where it worked just fine.

You can check to see which files will be overwritten in manifests/dotfile_manifest, or follow this link to view it on Github.

Prerequisites

Hermes relies on Homebrew and RVM to work properly. While Homebrew is a de facto standard developers using OS X, there are a good number of people that use RBenv, so support for that is in the pipeline. We are happy to look at any pull requests.

If these two tools are not available, the installer script will halt. Please refer to these tools' excellent documentation for installation instructions.

Fork first!

As the very first step, you should fork the Hermes on Github since this will make it easier for you to customize your installation. After you're done, you can run:

mkdir -p ~/.hermes
git clone https://github.com/<your_github_username>/Hermes.git ~/.hermes
cd ~/.hermes
./install.bash

This will perform the following actions:

  • Check that you have all the needed Homebrew dependencies
  • Back up any file or folder that would be overwritten by the installer process
  • Install all dotfiles and plugins available in the hermes directory and symlink them to the right locations in your home folder

You may also want to add Hermes's repository as an upstream repository, so you can pull in the changes done on the main trunk whenever you need to.

Hermes installation

What's included in the installer

The installer will:

  • check for dependencies
  • backup any existing dotfile that would be overwritten in a timestamped tar file that you can use to restore your previous configuration
  • install a number of required Homebrew packages
  • create a ~/hermes directory and symlink its content to your home folder where every piece of software expects to find its main configuration file(s)

Hermes includes:

  • configuration and plugins for Vim
  • configuration for Tmux
  • configuration for git
  • configuration and additional functionality for two shells: Bash and Fish.
  • settings for gem, ack, pow, pry and irb

In addition, Hermes glues all components together so they play nicely with each other and the OS. Two examples of this integration are are Hermes' support for the system clipboard in OS X and window/pane aware mouse integration.

Updates

Being a git-based project, you can update Hermes by simply pulling from the remote. If you forked the project, please remember to add the original repo as an upstream repository to make getting new project updates easier.

How it's built

Hermes' goal is to provide a solid structure for you to build on top of without having to deal with any intermediate configuration layers. For example, Vim's entire configuration is managed canonically through the ~/.vimrc file and the ~/.vim folder. The only significant difference is that under the hood, those files are actually symlinks to your hermes folder.

Knowing how Hermes ties everything together is useful when it comes time to configure it.

Vim

A stock vim installation with a basic configuration can go a long way and can be really beneficial when it comes to editing files on a server.

There is however a very simple problem with the default Vim installation that OS X provides: it cannot access the system clipboard. That means if you copy anything from outside the editor, it's not available in any of Vim's registers. Worse yet, if you copy anything in Vim using its internal commands, it won't be available to the rest of the system

To sort this out, Hermes installs Homebrew's version of Vim, which is available through the MacVim package:

brew install macvim --override-system-vim

This has some additional benefits, like having support for Ruby in plugins.

Let's now go with some defaults for a basic .vimrc file:

set nocompatible    "don't need Vi compatibility
set nobackup        "don't create backup files
set nowritebackup
set notimeout
set ttimeout
set ttimeoutlen=10
set noswapfile      "don't create swap files
set history=50      "keep a small history
set ruler           "always show position
set showcmd
set incsearch
set laststatus=2    "full status bar
set t_Co=256        "256 colors - requires a properly configured terminal emulator
syntax on           "turn syntax highlight on

filetype plugin indent on "let plugins manage indentation

" Send more characters for redraws
set ttyfast
" Enable mouse use in all modes
set mouse=a
set ttymouse=xterm2

" Fix backspace
set backspace=indent,eol,start
fixdel

" Softtabs, 2 spaces
set tabstop=2
set shiftwidth=2
set expandtab

" Display extra whitespace at the end of the line
set list listchars=tab:»·,trail:·
" Clipboard fix for OsX
set clipboard=unnamed

" Numbers
set number
set numberwidth=2

"Folding
set foldmethod=indent
set foldlevelstart=99

" Autocompletion options
set wildmode=list:longest,list:full
set complete=.,w,b"

These settings will allow you to efficiently edit any file whose type is supported by default, so Javascript and Ruby are already covered. The settings enable standard features like line numbering and syntax highlighting and also turn on features like mouse support and clipboard sharing that are useful in integrating Vim into iTerm and OS X.

Plugins

Plugins are a powerful way to extend Vim's capabilities. The implementation may change, but we feel you should be able to expect the following from a modern text editor:

  • Support for fuzzy search inside a directory tree. You should be able to easily open a file by name without navigating the tree.
  • Full text search inside a directory tree.
  • Snippet support with expansion, tab stops and completion. Like Textmate.
  • Integration with testing frameworks. You should be able to run tests without leaving the editor.
  • Tabs and split windows. You should be able to see tests and the corresponding code at the same time and be able to easily switch from one to the other.
  • Language specific features, like syntax-aware indentation and navigation.

Needless to say, a number of other text editors support these features. Vim, however, combines this with its extremely efficient modal editing approach.

Hermes provides a good number of plugins, aiming to strike a balance between features and speed. You can see the complete list under hermes/vim/bundle, but here are some highlights:

  • Ctrlp: a tool for fuzzy searching by file and tag.
  • Snipmate: unashamedly borrowing from Textmate, Snipmate provides tab completion based on snippet files.
  • The silver searcher: ag is a faster alternative to Ack.
  • TComment: toggles comments in nearly any language.
  • Rails.vim: provides shortcuts, generators and settings for working with Ruby on Rails projects. Absolutely killer.
  • Vimux: forms a bridge with Tmux to send text and commands to a Tmux pane. Vimux is essential for Hermes' testing support.

However, we encourage you to be wary of plugins for several reasons:

  • Vim has many conventional ways to accomplish certain tasks, and while it's possible to do things in many ways, it's important to try to understand the Vim way of doing things and play to its strengths.
  • One of Vim's benefits is speed and low memory footprint, making it responsive even when opening huge files. Increasing Vim's footprint through excessive numbers of plugins can eliminate this benefit.
  • Sometimes a plugin is not necessary. Similar or identical effects can often be achieved with smaller, well thought-out changes in your .vimrc.
  • Although powerful, Vim is a text editor and should do just this one job well.

Vim's approach to plugin management is a little counterintuitive: by default, Vim looks for additional scripts to load in ~/.vim, which has subfolders that determine when the configuration is loaded. For example, a script can be split across the plugin and the autoload directories, the former for the bulk, load-once functionality while the latter for anything that requires constant recalculation. This means that a manual installation may be spread across multiple directories, resulting in a structure that is difficult to maintain and update.

Enter Pathogen, a package manager that makes this process painless and that inverts the usual installation pattern, as it lets you organize plugins based on their name. With Pathogen, you can simply clone a repository into your ~/.vim folder and you're done. This is the first stepping stone to efficient dotfile management through a git repository where you can add all your plugins as git submodules and update all of them with a single command.

Hermes uses git submodules extensively: since Pathogen allows us to keep each plugin in a separate folder, we can include all of our plugins as submodules in the hermes/vim/bundle folder. This makes it dead easy to add other plugins and keep them up-to-date:

cd ~/.hermes
git submodule add <github-url> hermes/vim/bundle/<plugin-name>

And you're done! Updating plugins is similarly straightforward:

cd ~/.hermes
git submodule foreach git pull origin master

As in every other Github-based project, it's advisable to fork a plugin if you need to make changes that go beyond simple configuration (which we usually add to ~/.hermes/vim/plugins.vim). In that case, you would need to remove the original submodule completely and add it back again using your fork as the source.

Pathogen loads the contents of ~/.vim/bundle by default. including itself. This is controlled by the first two lines in the ~/.vimrc file:

" loading pathogen at runtime as it's bundled
runtime bundle/vim-pathogen/autoload/pathogen.vim
call pathogen#infect()

Managing configuration

If you keep extending your .vimrc, it comes to a point where it's simply too long, so it makes sense to split it into separate chunks of related configuration. Here's an example from the bottom of a .vimrc:

source $HOME/.vim/autocommands.vim
source $HOME/.vim/plugins.vim
source $HOME/.vim/shortcuts.vim

Tip: Pressing gf in Vim's normal mode will open the file under the cursor.

We recommend that when working with new plugins, you add one at a time and pay close attention to their documentation. Plugins are often extremely configurable, as you can see in Hermes' plugins.vim file. Taking the time to develop a feel for how each plugin works and configuring them for your specific needs can go a long way in optimising your workflow.

Documentation is usually available by typing :help <term-to-search>. However, Hermes has a custom shortcut you can use: by pressing <leader>h with the cursor over a word, you can search for that word in Vim's help.

As an example, let's look at the configuration Hermes supplies for Ctrl-p (in ~/.hermes/hermes/vim/plugins.vim):

set wildignore+=*/.hg/*,*/.svn/*,*/vendor/cache/*,*/public/system/*,*/tmp/*,*/log/*,*/.git/*,*/.jhw-cache/*,*/solr/data/*,*/node_modules/*,*/.DS_Store

The wildignore flag is not Ctrl-p specific, as it's used by Vim or many autocompletion and expansion functions: the more unlikely targets we remove, the better Vim's performance will be. Since Ctrl-p uses this pattern to determine a baseline for excluding files when creating its index, this simple addition will help keep it snappy.

Daily use cases

Here are a few examples of what you can do with Vim, bearing in mind that this is not meant to be an exhaustive guide. Instead, we will focus on frequent everyday tasks:

Shelling out

Having the shell at your disposal can speed up your workflow many times over, but to really take advantage of this it's important to learn how to alternate between Vim and the command line.

Sometimes you just need to run a simple shell command, like creating a file or directory (i.e. folder). In that situation, press : in normal mode to enter the command mode. Then type ! to tell Vim to shell out and perform the command in the shell. So, if you want to create a sample directory, you can type:

:!mkdir sample

The command will be performed from within the current working directory, you can verify that with :pwd.

When you need to step out of the file you're editing, perform a few tasks and then go back, your best option is to suspend Vim using the shell via ctrl-z and then resume it with by typing the command fg (foreground) when you're done. This is a very straightforward approach and widely used in the Unix world. It works out of the box.

Alternatively, you can use a different window or pane with Tmux, as we shall explain later on.

As always, you can associate a shortcut for a shell command you want to run: a good example is creating a leader command to run the current file as a spec.

noremap <leader>s :!bundle exec rspec %<cr>

We use noremap to tell Vim to create a key map for normal mode, assign it to <leader>s and then specify the command, a simple bundle exec rspec where we include the current file as an argument and then press enter (carriage return).

Search and replace

Search and replace in Vim is a kind of regular expression usage. Vim expects you to provide a range and then a substitution command to perform.

So if you type:

:%s/foo/bar

It will search in the whole buffer % and substitute the first occurence of foo with bar. As you can imagine, you can pass flags to the command, like:

:%s/foo/bar/gi

The g flag predictably tells Vim to perform a global search and replace, with multiple replacements, while the i (interactive) flag will allow you to confirm each substitution individually.

If you need to act on a specific number of lines, you have two options:

  • You can pass a range of lines, like :12,15s/foo/bar
  • You can select a visual block, press : followed by the substitution command (s/foo/bar). Note that the command bar will be prepopulated with the expression indicating the currently selected visual range ('<,'>)

A common complaint by many people who switch from a graphical editor to Vim is that there's no facility to execute a substitution command across files. Vim provides such tools by following a simple pattern:

  • Add all the files to the arguments list
  • Perform a search and replace on each file contained in such list

This can be tricky: the argument list is the files of all currently open files and can be completely different from the buffer list. So if we wanted to perform a search and replace on all *.rb files in the current working directory we would do:

:args ./**.rb
:argdo %s/foo/bar/gi

Note the i flag, which is a lifesaver. The argdo command iterates over the argument list and performs the sspecified command (we still need the % to act on the whole file).

(If you use Vim's tabs feature, see also tabdo for a way of doing operations across all your tabs.)

A different approach, and what we suggest, is not using Vim altogether but a shell based substitution.

First of all, you should make sure that you're working with some sort of VCS, because what we're about to do is not easily reversible.

We will be using Perl, as it's fast, powerful and simple.

The aforementioned substitution can be achieved with:

perl -i.bak -pe's/foo/bar/g' ./**.rb

A VERY IMPORTANT NOTE: the above pattern is usually safe in the context of a Rails application, but if the pattern you used finds files inside .git, it will perform the substitution on them as well, potentially damaging your Git index. This can happen if your glob pattern is too loose or if you have submodules written in the same language.

However, the -i.bak argument does create a backup of the original file, so you'll need to delete the .bak files after the substitution. If you really know what you're doing, you can just use the -i by itself.

A safer approach, and one which makes also the search and replace command easier to manage, is to move into subfolders and perform it in different steps. This will also make it easier to check, test and manage.

Visual mode

You can access Vim's "visual" model by pressing v (character selection) or V (line selection). When in visual mode, any movement will modify the selection. You can also click-drag a screen selection with the mouse, which will automatically put you in visual mode. Working in visual mode can be powerful, but in general it's advisable not to use it too often, since the actions you take in visual mode are not recorded in a way that can easily be repeated, e.g. . in normal mode.

There are, however, situations where visual mode has a clear advantage. One technique, making use of a "visual block", is great for doing the same thing to several lines at once.

Imagine this text in Vim:

a = 1
b = 2
c = 3

If we wanted to prepend the keyword var to every line shown above, we could to the following:

  • With the cursor on a, create a visual block by pressing ctrl-v.
  • Hit jj to move down two lines.
  • Press I, type var (with a space at the end) and then press Esc to return to normal mode.

The var keyword should be prepended to each of the lines.

Note that this is not the only way to do this. For example, a macro or a normal mode command would have worked equally well. This latter approach is in fact usually more effective:

  • With the cursor on a, press V and jj to highlight all 3 lines
  • Enter : and :norm Ivar
  • Press Enter

When a visual range is selected, pressing : opens the command prompt with the range prefilled. By typing :norm, Vim temporarily switches to normal mode, executing the subsequent command for each line in the visual range. We just used I to jump before the first letter in normal mode and type var.

This approach is good when the change we're making doesn't need to be repeated. In other situations, a macro is more effective.

License

This code is free to use under the terms of the MIT license.

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

Copyright

Copyright ©2012 New Bamboo Web Development Limited