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README.md

Google Datastore adapter for Nsql Cache

NPM Version

Installation | Usage | Advanced | API | Support

This is the nsql-cache database adapter for Google Datastore. See the Medium article for an in-depth overview of nsql-cache.

Installation

npm install nsql-cache nsql-cache-datastore --save
# or
yarn add nsql-cache nsql-cache-datastore

Info: nsql-cache-datastore is integrated in gstore-node. If you are not (yet) using gstore-node to model your Datastore entities, have a look at the library to see what you're missing!

Usage

Default (managed)

By default nsql-cache wraps the Googlge Datastore client to automatically manage the cache for you. If you prefer to manage the cache yourself, look at the advanced section below.

For our exampes we will create in a separate file the datastore and cache instances so that we can easily import them.

// datastore.js

const Datastore = require('@google-cloud/datastore');
const NsqlCache = require('nsql-cache');
const DatastoreAdapter = require('nsql-cache-datastore');

const datastore = new Datastore({ ...your config });
const db = DatastoreAdapter(datastore);
const cache = new NsqlCache({ db });

module.exports = { datastore, cache };

Great! You now have a LRU memory cache with the following configuration:

  • Maximum number of objects in cache: 100
  • TTL (time to live) for entities (Key fetch): 10 minutes
  • TTL for queries: 5 second

Refer to the NsqlCache API documentation to see how you can modify those settings.

Examples

Info: In all the examples below, the error handling has been omitted for brevity.

/**
 * Import the datastore instance from the file above
 */
constdatastore } = require('./datastore');

/**
 * getUser() method will
 * - check the cache to see if a User entity kind with the provided id is in the cache
 * - if not, it will get it from the Datastore
 * - then it will prime the cache with the entity data fetched
 */
const getUser = (id) => {
    const key = datastore.key(['User', id]);
    return datastore.get(key);
};

/**
 * saveUser() will
 * - save the entity in the Datastore
 * - prime the cache with the data
 *
 * Note: the same behaviour occurs with update(), insert() and upsert()
 */
const saveUser = (data) => {
    const key = datastore.key(['User']);
    return datastore.save({ key, data });
};

/**
 * The deleteUser() method will
 * - delete the entity from the Datastore
 * - remove it from the cache
 */
const deleteUser = (id) => {
    const key = datastore.key(['User', id]);
    return datastore.delete(key);
};

As you can see, once you have initialized the cache you don't need to worry too much about it. You use the @google-cloud/datastore API the exact same way.

One important feature to highlight is that when you do a batch fetch of entities keys, nsql-cache will first look into the cache for the keys and it will only fetch from the Datastore the keys not in the cache.

const key1 = datastore.key(['User1', 123]); // in cache
const key2 = datastore.key(['User1', 456]); // in cache
const key3 = datastore.key(['User1', 789]);

// The following will only ask the Datastore for the key3
const users = await datastore.get([key1, key2, key3]);

Disable the cache or change the TTL on a specific request

The examples below are using the datastore.get() method, but the same options applies for save(), update(), insert()

// Bypass the cache and go directly to the Datastore
const getUser = (id) => {
    const key = datastore.key(['User', id]);
    return datastore.get(key, { cache: false });
};

// Change the expiration of the cache
// Info: ttl of 0 === infinite cache
const getUser = (id) => {
    const key = datastore.key(['User', id]);
    return datastore.get(key, { cache: { ttl: 10 } });
};

Queries

Queries are automatically cached after each successful run().

const { datastore } = require('./datastore');

const query = datastore.createQuery('User')
                .filter('age', '>', 18)
                .limit(10);

/**
 * quer.run() will
 * - check the cache to see if the same query already exists
 * - if not, it will run it on the Datastore
 * - then it will prime the cache with the result of the query
 */
await query.run();

Again, there is no difference with what you are already doing with the @google-cloud/datastore API.

Disable the cache or change the TTL of a query

Just like with Keys, there is one additional configuration to the optional options argument to disable the cache or change the TTL.

await query.run({ cache: false });
await query.run({ cache: { ttl: 300 } });

As you might have noticed in the default configuration, queries have a very short TTL (5 seconds). This is because as soon as we create, update or delete an entity, any query that we have cached might have to be invalidated.
Depending on the usecase, 5 seconds might be acceptable or not. Remember that you can always disable the cache or lower the TTL on specific queries. You might also decide that you never want queries to be cached, in such case set the global TTL duration for queries to -1.

But there is a better way: provide a Redis database client. Have a look at the nsql documentation about multi store to see how you can do that.

Advanced usage (cache not managed)

If you don't want the datastore client to be wrapped, you can disable the behaviour.
You are then responsible to add and remove data to/from the cache.

// Instantiate the cache instance without wrapping the Google Datastore client
const cache = new NsqlCache({
    db,
    config: {
        wrapClient: false
    }
});

Now let's see how you can manage the cache.

Datastore <Key>

cache.keys.read()

/**
 * Import the Datstore client + the cache from our file above
 */
const { datastore, cache } = require('./datastore');
const key = datastore.key(['Company', 'Google']);

/**
 * cache.keys.read() will
 * - Look for the entity in the cache
 * - If not found, fetch it from the Datastore
 * - Prime the cache with the entity fetched from the Datastore.
 */
cache.keys.read(key).then(([entity]) => {
    console.log(entity);
    console.log(entity[datastore.KEY]); // the Key Symbol is added to the cached results
});

It looks very similar to the wrapped client. The difference is here we are using the cache.keys API.

/**
 * You can also pass several keys to the read() method
 * nsql-cache will first check the cache and only fetch from the Datastore
 * the keys that were *not* found in the cache.
 *
 * In the example below, only the "key3" would be passed to datastore.get() and
 * fetched from the Datastore
 */
const key1 = datastore.key(['Task', 123]); // this entity is in the cache
const key2 = datastore.key(['Task', 456]); // this entity is in the cache
const key3 = datastore.key(['Task', 789]);

cache.keys.read([key1, key2, key3]).then(([entities]) => {
    console.log(entities[0]);
    console.log(entities[1]);
    console.log(entities[2]);
});

The cache.keys.read() helper is syntactic sugar for the following:

...
const key = datastore.key(['Company', 'Google']);

cache.keys
    .get(key) // 1. check the cache
    .then(cacheEntity => {
        if (cacheEntity) {
            return cacheEntity; // Cache found... great!
        }
        // 2. Fetch from the Datastore
        return datastore.get(key).then(response => {
            // 3. Prime the cache
            return cache.keys.set(key, response).then(() => response);
        });
    });

Datastore <Query>

cache.queries.read()

const { datastore, cache } = require('./datastore');

const query = datastore
    .createQuery('Post')
    .filter('category', 'tech')
    .order('updatedOn')
    .limit(10);

/**
 * Just like with the Keys, the "queries.read()" helper will
 * - Look for the query in the cache
 * - If not found, run the query on the Datastore
 * - Prime the cache with the response from the query.
 */
cache.queries.read(query).then(response => {
    const [entities, meta] = response;

    console.log(entities);
    console.log(entities[0][datastore.KEY]); // KEY Symbol are saved in cache
    console.log(meta.moreResults);
});

The gstoreInstance.queries.read() helper is syntactic sugar for the following:

const { datastore, cache } = require('./datastore');

const query = datastore
    .createQuery('Post')
    .filter('category', 'tech')
    .order('updatedOn')
    .limit(10);

cache.queries
    .get(query) // 1. check the cache
    .then(cacheData => {
        if (cacheData) {
            // Cache found... great!
            return cacheData;
        }

        // 2. Run the query on the Datastore
        return query.run().then(response => {
            // 3. Prime the cache.
            return cache.queries.set(query, response);
        });
    });

With a Redis client

When you save a Query in the cache and you have provided a Redis client, nsql-cache will automatically save a reference to this query cache key in a Redis Set. This allows you to have a much longer TTL for queries and only invlidate the cache when you add/update or delete an entity of the same Kind.
So how do you invalidate the cache?

cache.queries.clearQueriesByKind(entityKinds)

You need to call clearQueriesByKind each time you add, update or delete an entity.

const { datastore, cache } = require('./datastore');

/**
 * Each time you save a new "Posts", you have to invalidate
 * the queries cache for "Posts" entity kind
 */

const key = datastore.key(['Posts']);
const data = { title: 'My Post' };

datastore.save({ key, data })
    .then(() => {
        // invalidate all the queries for "Posts" Entity Kind
        cache.queries.clearQueriesByKind(['Posts'])
            .then(() => {
                // All the Posts queries have been removed from the Redis cache
            });
    });

API

See the nsql-cache API documentation.

Meta

Sébastien Loix – @sebloix

Distributed under the MIT license. See LICENSE for more information.

https://github.com/sebelga

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