A programming language that runs in Haskell's type system.
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README.markdown

Typo

Typo is a programming language that runs in Haskell's type system. A Typo program is compiled to a Haskell module that's then typechecked to compute the result. All computation happens in Haskell's type system.

Installation

Clone the Typo repository and run the following commands to build and install it from source:

runhaskell Setup.lhs configure
runhaskell Setup.lhs build
runhaskell Setup.lhs install

This will install the compiler—typoc—on your system where the rest of your Cabal executables live. There is another executable—typo—that should be installed, but Cabal does not support installing non-Haskell executables. It's up to you to get the typo executable in your PATH. Or, just run it from the repository root every time you want to use it.

If you prefer not to install the typoc binary, you can skip the install step and run typo like so from the repository root:

PATH=./dist/build/typoc:$PATH typo

Language Features

Typo is a Scheme-like language. A program consists of zero or more function definitions and an expression, which is required. The result of a Typo program is the result of the final expression when evaluated in the context of the preceding definitions and the built-in integer and boolean operators.

Example

$ typo <<EOF
(define (fac n)
  (if (== n 0)
      1
      (* n (fac (- n 1)))))

(fac 5)
EOF

This program evaluates to 120. Note that you have to provide typo with its input program via /dev/stdin. You can use a here document like above to write one-off programs right on the command line. You can use the echo command for even shorter one-liners:

$ echo "(* 5 (* 4 (* 3 (* 2 1))))" | typo
120

You can use cat for larger programs you've been developing in a file:

$ cat examples/fac.typo | typo
120

And finally, you can mix and match them with command grouping. This is really useful if you want to organize your definitions in separate files and then combine them to produce a program:

$ { cat examples/fac-defines.typo; echo "(fac 5)" } | typo
120

Literals

Typo supports two data types: integers and booleans. You can specify any non-negative integer using its numeral in decimal form, e.g., 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, etc. You can specify true using #t and false using #f.

Syntactic Forms

There are four syntactic forms for expressions, and a separate form for definitions.

Expressions

  • (op e1 e2): binary operator application, where op must be one of the integer operators or binary operators, and e1 and e2 are expressions.
  • (fn e ...): function application, where fn is a function name followed by zero or more expressions.
  • (let (id b) e): let-binding, where id is an identifier and b is an expression whose result will be bound to id in the expression e.
  • (if c t f): conditional branching, where c, t, and f are expressions. If the expression c evaluates to #t, then the entire conditional evaluates to the result of the expression t. If c evaluates to #f, then the entire conditional evaluates to the result of the expresison f.

Definitions

(define (fn id...) e) defines a function whose name is fn, whose body is the expression e, and which takes zero or more arguments. A function application binds the formal arguments to the actual argument names and then evaluates the body e.

Integer Operators

Typo supports the following integer operations:

  • +: addition
  • -: subtraction
  • *: multiplication
  • \: integer division or quotient
  • %: integer remainder or modulus
  • <: less than
  • ==: equality

All integer operators are binary operators, so there is no negation operator. To mimic negation, use (- 0 n), where n is the number you wish to negate. Alternatively you can define your own integer negation function to use instead:

(define (negate n)
  (- 0 n))

Boolean Operators

Typo supports the following boolean operations:

  • &&: and
  • ||: or
  • ->: implication

All boolean operators are binary operators, so there is no negation operator. To mimic negation, use (-> b #f), where f is the boolean you wish to negate. Alternatively you can define your own boolean negation function use instead:

(define (not b)
  (-> b #f))

Historical Note

This is the first programming language to be publicly released from a plane flying over the Atlantic Ocean. I'm almost certain of that.

License

BSD3, see LICENSE file for its text.