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NAME
Net::Twitter - A perl interface to the Twitter API
VERSION
This document describes Net::Twitter version 3.18000_00
SYNOPSIS
use Net::Twitter;
use Scalar::Util 'blessed';
# When no authentication is required:
my $nt = Net::Twitter->new(legacy => 0);
# As of 13-Aug-2010, Twitter requires OAuth for authenticated requests
my $nt = Net::Twitter->new(
traits => [qw/OAuth API::REST/],
consumer_key => $consumer_key,
consumer_secret => $consumer_secret,
access_token => $token,
access_token_secret => $token_secret,
);
my $result = $nt->update('Hello, world!');
eval {
my $statuses = $nt->friends_timeline({ since_id => $high_water, count => 100 });
for my $status ( @$statuses ) {
print "$status->{created_at} <$status->{user}{screen_name}> $status->{text}\n";
}
};
if ( my $err = $@ ) {
die $@ unless blessed $err && $err->isa('Net::Twitter::Error');
warn "HTTP Response Code: ", $err->code, "\n",
"HTTP Message......: ", $err->message, "\n",
"Twitter error.....: ", $err->error, "\n";
}
DESCRIPTION
This module provides a perl interface to the Twitter APIs. See
<http://dev.twitter.com/doc> for a full description of the Twitter APIs.
NOTICE! BASIC AUTHENTICATION IS DEAD
As of 31-Aug-2010, Twitter no longer supports Basic Authentication.
OAuth is now required for authenticated requests. For more information,
please see
<http://github.com/semifor/Net-Twitter/wiki/Net::Twitter-and-the-death-o
f-Basic-Authentication>.
Other Twitter compatible services may still accept Basic Authentication,
so support for it remains in "Net::Twitter".
OMG! THE MOOSE!
Net::Twitter is Moose based. Moose provides some advantages, including
the ability for the maintainer of this module to respond quickly to
Twitter API changes.
See Net::Twitter::Lite if you need an alternative without Moose and its
dependencies.
Net::Twitter::Lite's API method definitions and documentation are
generated from Net::Twitter. It is a related module, but does not depend
on Net::Twitter or Moose for installation.
RETURN VALUES
Net::Twitter decodes the data structures returned by the Twitter API
into native perl data structures (HASH references and ARRAY references).
The full layout of those data structures are not documented, here. They
change often, usually with the addition of new elements, and documenting
all of those changes would be a significant challenge.
Instead, rely on the online Twitter API documentation and inspection of
the returned data.
The Twitter API online documentation is located at
<http://dev.twitter.com/doc>.
To inspect the data, use Data::Dumper or similar module of your choice.
Here's a simple example using Data::Dumper:
use Data::Dumper;
my $r = $nt->search($search_term);
print Dumper $r;
For more information on perl data structures, see perlreftut, perldsc,
and perllol.
METHODS AND ARGUMENTS
new This constructs a "Net::Twitter" object. It takes several named
parameters, all of them optional:
traits
An ARRAY ref of traits used to control which APIs the
constructed "Net::Twitter" object will support and how it
handles errors. Possible values are:
API::REST
Provides support for the Twitter REST API methods.
API::Search
Provides support for the Twitter Search API methods.
API::TwitterVision
Provides support for the TwitterVision API. See
<http://twittervision.com/api.html>.
AutoCursor
"AutoCursor" is a parameterized trait that provides an
automatic loop for cursored calls, returning an ARRAY
reference to the combined results. By default, it handles
"friends_ids" and "followers_ids". See
Net::Twitter::Role::AutoCursor for details.
InflateObjects
When this optional trait is included, Net::Twitter inflates
HASH refs returned by Twitter into objects with read
accessors for each element. In addition, it inflates dates
to DateTime objects and URLs to URI objects. Objects that
include a "created_at" attribute also have a
"relative_created_at" method.
For example, with "InflateObjects" applied, the
<friends_timeline> method returns an array of status
objects:
$r = $nt->friends_timeline;
for my $status ( @$r ) {
$r->user->screen_name; # same as $r->{user}{screen_name}
# $created_at is a DateTime; $age is a DateTime::Duration
my $age = DateTime->now - $r->created_at;
# print an age in a similar style to the Twitter web site, e.g.:
# less than a minute ago
# about a minute ago
# 6 minutes ago
# 1 day ago
# etc.
print $r->relative_created_at;
Legacy
This trait provides backwards compatibility to
"Net::Twitter" versions prior to 3.00. It implies the traits
"API::REST", "API::Search", "API::TwitterVision", and
"API::WrapError". It also provides additional functionality
to ensure consistent behavior for applications written for
use with legacy versions of "Net::Twitter".
In the current version, this trait is automatically included
if the "traits" option is not specified. This ensures
backwards compatibility for existing applications using
"Net::Twitter" versions prior to 3.00. See section "LEGACY
COMPATIBILITY" for more details.
OAuth
The "OAuth" trait provides OAuth authentication rather than
the default Basic Authentication for Twitter API method
calls. See the "Authentication" section and
Net::Twitter::Role::OAuth for full documentation.
RateLimit
The "RateLimit" trait adds utility methods that return
information about the current rate limit status. See
Net::Twitter::Role::RateLimit for details.
RetryOnError
The "RetryOnError" trait automatically retries Twitter API
calls with temporary failures. See
Net::Twitter::Role::RetryOnError for details.
WrapError
"Net::Twitter" normally throws exceptions on error. When
this trait is included, "Net::Twitter" returns undef when a
method fails and makes the error available through method
"get_error". This is the way all errors were handled in
Net::Twitter versions prior to version 3.00.
Some examples of using the "traits" parameter in "new":
# provide support for *only* the REST API; throw exceptions on error
$nt = Net::Twitter->new(traits => ['API::REST']);
# provide support for both the REST and Search APIs; wrap errors
$nt = Net::Twitter->new(traits => [qw/API::REST API::Search WrapError/]);
# ensure full legacy support
$nt = Net::Twitter->new(traits => ['Legacy']);
# currently, these 2 calls to new are equivalent:
$nt = Net::Twitter->new();
$nt = Net::Twitter->new(traits => ['Legacy']);
legacy
A boolean. If set to 0, "new" constructs a "Net::Twitter" object
implementing the REST API and throws exceptions on API method
errors.
Net::Twitter->new(legacy => 0);
is a shortcut for:
Net::Twitter->new(traits => ['API::REST']);
If set to 1, "new" constructs a "Net::Twitter" object with the
"Legacy" trait.
Net::Twitter->new(legacy => 1);
is a shortcut for:
Net::Twitter->new(traits => ['Legacy']);
username
This is the username for Basic Authentication. NOTE: as of
31-Aug-2010, Twitter no longer supports Basic Authentication.
Use OAuth instead. Other Twitter compatible services may,
however, accept Basic Authentication, so support for it remains
in "Net::Twitter".
password
This is the password used for Basic Authentication.
clientname
The value for the "X-Twitter-Client-Name" HTTP header. It
defaults to "Perl Net::Twitter". Note: This option has nothing
to do with the "via" application byline.
clientver
The value for the "X-Twitter-Client-Version" HTTP header. It
defaults to current version of the "Net::Twitter" module.
clienturl
The value for the "X-Twitter-Client-URL" HTTP header. It
defaults to the search.cpan.org page for the "Net::Twitter"
distribution.
useragent_class
The "LWP::UserAgent" compatible class used internally by
"Net::Twitter". It defaults to "LWP::UserAgent". For POE based
applications, consider using "LWP::UserAgent::POE".
useragent_args
An HASH ref of arguments to pass to constructor of the class
specified with "useragent_class", above. It defaults to {} (an
empty HASH ref).
useragent
The value for "User-Agent" HTTP header. It defaults to
"Net::Twitter/$VERSION (Perl)", where $VERSION is the current
version of "Net::Twitter".
source
Twitter on longer uses the "source" parameter. Support for it
remains in "Net::Twitter" for any compatible services that may
use it. It was originally used by Twitter to provide an "via"
application byline.
apiurl
The URL for the Twitter API. This defaults to
"http://api.twitter.com/1". This option is available when the
"API::REST" trait is included.
apihost
DEPRECATED - Setting the "apiurl" is sufficient.
apirealm
A string containing the Twitter API realm used for Basic
Authentication. It defaults to "Twitter API". This option is
available when the "API::REST" trait is included.
identica
If set to 1, "Net::Twitter" overrides the defaults for "apiurl",
"apihost", and "apirealm" to "http://identi.ca/api",
"identi.ca:80", and "Laconica API" respectively. It defaults to
0. This option is available when the "API::REST" trait is
included.
consumer_key
A string containing the OAuth consumer key provided by Twitter
when an application is registered. This option is available when
the "OAuth" trait is included.
consumer_secret
A string containing the OAuth consumer secret. This option is
available when the "OAuth" trait is included.
ssl If set to 1, an SSL connection will be used for all API calls.
Defaults to 0.
netrc
(Optional) Sets the *machine* key to look up in ".netrc" to
obtain credentials. If set to 1, Net::Twitter will use the value
of the "netrc_machine" option (below).
# in .netrc
machine api.twitter.com
login YOUR_TWITTER_USER_NAME
password YOUR_TWITTER_PASSWORD
machine semifor.twitter.com
login semifor
password SUPERSECRET
# in your perl program
$nt = Net::Twitter->new(netrc => 1);
$nt = Net::Twitter->new(netrc => 'semifor.twitter.com');
netrc_machine
(Optional) Sets the "machine" entry to look up in ".netrc" when
"<netrc =" 1>> is used. Defaults to "api.twitter.com".
decode_html_entities
Twitter encodes HTML entities in the "text" field of statuses.
Set this option to 1 to have them automatically decoded. Default
0.
credentials($username, $password)
Set the credentials for Basic Authentication. This is helpful for
managing multiple accounts.
ua Provides access to the constructed user agent object used internally
by "Net::Twitter". Use it with caution.
AUTHENTICATION
As of 31-Aug-2010, Twitter requires OAuth for authenticated requests.
Other Twitter compatible services, like Identi.ca, accept Basic
Authentication. So, "Net::Twitter" provides support for both.
To set up OAuth, include the "OAuth" trait and include the
"consumer_key" and "consumer_secret" options to "new". See
Net::Twitter::Role::OAuth for more information on using OAuth, including
examples.
To set up Basic Authentication in "Net::Twitter", provide the "username"
and "password" options to "new" or call the "credentials" method.
In addition to the arguments specified for each API method described
below, an additional "authenticate" parameter can be passed. To request
an "Authorization" header, pass "authenticated => 1"; to suppress an
authentication header, pass "authentication => 0". Even if requested, an
Authorization header will not be added if there are no user credentials
(username and password for Basic Authentication; access tokens for
OAuth).
This is probably only useful for the "rate_limit_status" method in the
REST API, since it returns different values for an authenticated and a
non-authenticated call.
API METHODS AND ARGUMENTS
Most Twitter API methods take parameters. All Net::Twitter API methods
will accept a HASH ref of named parameters as specified in the Twitter
API documentation. For convenience, many Net::Twitter methods accept
simple positional arguments. The positional parameter passing style is
optional; you can always use the named parameters in a HASH reference if
you prefer.
You may pass any number of required parameters as positional parameters.
You must pass them in the order specified in the documentation for each
method. Optional parameters must be passed as named parameters in a HASH
reference. The HASH reference containing the named parameters must be
the final parameter to the method call. Any required parameters not
passed as positional parameters, must be included in the named parameter
HASH reference.
For example, the REST API method "update" has one required parameter,
"status". You can call "update" with a HASH ref argument:
$nt->update({ status => 'Hello world!' });
Or, you can use the convenient, positional parameter form:
$nt->update('Hello world!');
The "update" method also has an optional parameter,
"in_reply_to_status_id". To use it, you must use the HASH ref form:
$nt->update({ status => 'Hello world!', in_reply_to_status_id => $reply_to });
You may use the convenient positional form for the required "status"
parameter with the optional parameters specified in the named parameter
HASH reference:
$nt->update('Hello world!', { in_reply_to_status_id => $reply_to });
Convenience form is provided for the required parameters of all API
methods. So, these two calls are equivalent:
$nt->friendship_exists({ user_a => $fred, user_b => $barney });
$nt->friendship_exists($fred, $barney);
Many API methods have aliases. You can use the API method name, or any
of its aliases, as you prefer. For example, these calls are all
equivalent:
$nt->friendship_exists($fred, $barney);
$nt->relationship_exists($fred, $barney);
$nt->follows($fred, $barney);
Aliases support both the HASH ref and convenient forms:
$nt->follows({ user_a => $fred, user_b => $barney });
Cursors and Paging
Some methods return partial results a page at a time. Originally,
methods that returned partial results used a "page" parameter. A more
recent addition to the Twitter API for retrieving multiple pages uses
the "cursor" parameter. Usually, a method uses either the "page"
parameter or the "cursor" parameter, but not both. There have been
exceptions to this rule when Twitter deprecates the use of "page" for a
method in favor of "cursor". In that case, both methods may work during
a transition period. So, if a method supports both, you should always
use the "cursor" parameter.
Paging
For methods that support paging, the first page is returned by passing
"page => 1", the second page by passing "page => 2", etc. If no "page"
parameter is passed, the first page is returned.
Here's an example that demonstrates how to obtain all favorites in a
loop:
my @favs;
for ( my $page = 1; ; ++$page ) {
my $r = $nt->favorites({ page => $page });
last unless @$r;
push @favs, @$r;
}
Cursors
Cursoring employs a different strategy. To obtain the first page of
results, pass "cursor => -1". Twitter returns a reference to a hash that
includes entries "next_cursor", "previous_cursor", and an entry with a
reference to an array containing a page of the requested items. The key
for the array reference will be named "users", "ids", or something
similar depending upon the type of returned items. For example, when
"cursor" parameter is used with the "followers_ids" method, the returned
in hash entry "ids".
The "next_cursor" value can be used in a subsequent call to obtain the
next page of results. When you have obtained the last page of results,
"next_cursor" will be 0. Likewise, you can use the value for
"previous_cursor" to obtain the previous page of results. When you have
obtained the first page, "previous_cursor" will be 0.
Here's an example that demonstrates how to obtain all follower IDs in a
loop using the "cursor" parameter:
my @ids;
for ( my $cursor = -1, my $r; $cursor; $cursor = $r->{next_cursor} ) {
$r = $nt->followers_ids({ cursor => $cursor });
push @ids, @{ $r->{ids} };
}
Synthetic Arguments
In addition to the arguments described in the Twitter API Documentation
for each API method, Net::Twitter supports additional *synthetic*
arguments.
authenticate
When set to 1, Net::Twitter will provide an Authorization header for
the API call; when set to 0, it will suppress the Authentication
header. This argument overrides the defined authentication behavior
for the API method. It is probably only useful for the
"rate_limit_satus" method which returns different values for
authenticated and unauthenticated calls. See "AUTHENTICATION" for
more details.
since
API methods that accept the "since_id" argument will also accept the
synthetic "since" argument, instead. "since" may be a "Date::Time"
object, an epoch time (the number of seconds since the system
epoch), or a string in the same format returned by Twitter for the
"created_at" attribute. Only statuses with a "created_at" time
greater than "since" will be returned by the API call.
REST API Methods
These methods are provided when trait "API::REST" is included in the
"traits" option to "new".
Common Parameters
id Several of these methods accept a user ID as the "id" parameter. The
user ID can be either a screen name, or the users numeric ID. To
disambiguate, use the "screen_name" or "user_id" parameters,
instead.
For example, These calls are equivalent:
$nt->create_friend('perl_api'); # screen name
$nt->create_friend(1564061); # numeric ID
$nt->create_friend({ id => 'perl_api' });
$nt->create_friend({ screen_name => 'perl_api' });
$nt->create_friend({ user_id => 1564061 });
However user_id 911 and screen_name 911 are separate Twitter
accounts. These calls are NOT equivalent:
$nt->create_friend(911); # interpreted as screen name
$nt->create_friend({ user_id => 911 }); # screen name: richellis
Whenever the "id" parameter is required and "user_id" and
"screen_name" are also parameters, using any one of them satisfies
the requirement.
skip_user
The timeline methods all accept an optional "skip_user" parameter.
When set to a true value, the statuses returned in a timeline will
not contain an entire embedded user HASH. Instead, the user node
will contain only an "id" element to indicate the numerical ID of
the Twitter user that sent the status.
Methods
account_settings
Parameters: *none*
Required: *none*
Returns the current trend, geo and sleep time information for the
authenticating user.
Returns: HashRef
account_totals
Parameters: *none*
Required: *none*
Returns the current count of friends, followers, updates (statuses)
and favorites of the authenticating user.
Returns: HashRef
add_list_member
Parameters: list_id, slug, user_id, screen_name, owner_screen_name,
owner_id
Required: *none*
Add a member to a list. The authenticated user must own the list to
be able to add members to it. Note that lists can't have more than
500 members.
Returns: User
add_place
add_place(name, contained_within, token, lat, long)
Parameters: name, contained_within, token, lat, long,
attribute:street_address, callback
Required: name, contained_within, token, lat, long
Creates a new place object at the given latitude and longitude.
Before creating a place you need to query "similar_places" with the
latitude, longitude and name of the place you wish to create. The
query will return an array of places which are similar to the one
you wish to create, and a token. If the place you wish to create
isn't in the returned array you can use the token with this method
to create a new one.
Returns: Place
all_lists
all_lists(id)
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name
Required: id
Returns all lists the authenticating or specified user subscribes
to, including their own. The user is specified using the "user_id"
or "screen_name parameters". If no user is given, the authenticating
user is used. Requires authentication unless requesting for another
user.
Returns: ArrayRef[List]
block_exists
block_exists(id)
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name, include_entities
Required: id
Returns if the authenticating user is blocking a target user. Will
return the blocked user's object if a block exists, and error with
HTTP 404 response code otherwise.
Returns: BasicUser
blocking
Parameters: page, include_entities
Required: *none*
Returns an array of user objects that the authenticating user is
blocking.
Returns: ArrayRef[BasicUser]
blocking_ids
Parameters: *none*
Required: *none*
Returns an array of numeric user ids the authenticating user is
blocking.
Returns: ArrayRef[Int]
contributees
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, include_entities, skip_satus
Required: *none*
Returns an array of users that the specified user can contribute to.
Returns: ArrayRef[User]
contributors
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, include_entities, skip_satus
Required: *none*
Returns an array of users who can contribute to the specified
account.
Returns: ArrayRef[User]
create_block
create_block(id)
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name, include_entities
Required: id
Blocks the user specified in the ID parameter as the authenticating
user. Returns the blocked user when successful. You can find out
more about blocking in the Twitter Support Knowledge Base.
Returns: BasicUser
create_favorite
create_favorite(id)
Parameters: id, include_entities
Required: id
Favorites the status specified in the ID parameter as the
authenticating user. Returns the favorite status when successful.
Returns: Status
create_friend
create_friend(id)
alias: follow_new
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name, follow, include_entities
Required: id
Befriends the user specified in the ID parameter as the
authenticating user. Returns the befriended user when successful.
Returns a string describing the failure condition when unsuccessful.
Returns: BasicUser
create_list
Parameters: list_id, slug, name, mode, description,
owner_screen_name, owner_id
Required: *none*
Creates a new list for the authenticated user. Note that you can't
create more than 20 lists per account.
Returns: List
create_saved_search
create_saved_search(query)
Parameters: query
Required: query
Creates a saved search for the authenticated user.
Returns: SavedSearch
delete_list
Parameters: owner_screen_name, owner_id, list_id, slug
Required: *none*
Deletes the specified list. The authenticated user must own the list
to be able to destroy it.
Returns: List
delete_list_member
alias: remove_list_member
Parameters: list_id, slug, user_id, screen_name, owner_screen_name,
owner_id
Required: *none*
Removes the specified member from the list. The authenticated user
must be the list's owner to remove members from the list.
Returns: User
destroy_block
destroy_block(id)
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name
Required: id
Un-blocks the user specified in the ID parameter as the
authenticating user. Returns the un-blocked user when successful.
Returns: BasicUser
destroy_direct_message
destroy_direct_message(id)
Parameters: id, include_entities
Required: id
Destroys the direct message specified in the required ID parameter.
The authenticating user must be the recipient of the specified
direct message.
Returns: DirectMessage
destroy_favorite
destroy_favorite(id)
Parameters: id, include_entities
Required: id
Un-favorites the status specified in the ID parameter as the
authenticating user. Returns the un-favorited status.
Returns: Status
destroy_friend
destroy_friend(id)
alias: unfollow
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name, include_entities
Required: id
Discontinues friendship with the user specified in the ID parameter
as the authenticating user. Returns the un-friended user when
successful. Returns a string describing the failure condition when
unsuccessful.
Returns: BasicUser
destroy_saved_search
destroy_saved_search(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id
Destroys a saved search. The search, specified by "id", must be
owned by the authenticating user.
Returns: SavedSearch
destroy_status
destroy_status(id)
Parameters: id, trim_user, include_entities
Required: id
Destroys the status specified by the required ID parameter. The
authenticating user must be the author of the specified status.
Returns: Status
direct_messages
direct_messages(include_entities)
Parameters: since_id, max_id, count, page, include_entities
Required: include_entities
Returns a list of the 20 most recent direct messages sent to the
authenticating user including detailed information about the sending
and recipient users.
Returns: ArrayRef[DirectMessage]
disable_notifications
disable_notifications(id)
Parameters: id, screen_name, include_entities
Required: id
Disables notifications for updates from the specified user to the
authenticating user. Returns the specified user when successful.
Returns: BasicUser
enable_notifications
enable_notifications(id)
Parameters: id, screen_name, include_entities
Required: id
Enables notifications for updates from the specified user to the
authenticating user. Returns the specified user when successful.
Returns: BasicUser
end_session
Parameters: *none*
Required: *none*
Ends the session of the authenticating user, returning a null
cookie. Use this method to sign users out of client-facing
applications like widgets.
Returns: Error
favorites
Parameters: id, page, include_entities
Required: *none*
Returns the 20 most recent favorite statuses for the authenticating
user or user specified by the ID parameter.
Returns: ArrayRef[Status]
followers_ids
followers_ids(id)
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name, cursor
Required: id
Returns a reference to an array of numeric IDs for every user
following the specified user.
Use the optional "cursor" parameter to retrieve IDs in pages of
5000. When the "cursor" parameter is used, the return value is a
reference to a hash with keys "previous_cursor", "next_cursor", and
"ids". The value of "ids" is a reference to an array of IDS of the
user's followers. Set the optional "cursor" parameter to -1 to get
the first page of IDs. Set it to the prior return's value of
"previous_cursor" or "next_cursor" to page forward or backwards.
When there are no prior pages, the value of "previous_cursor" will
be 0. When there are no subsequent pages, the value of "next_cursor"
will be 0.
Returns: HashRef|ArrayRef[Int]
friends
alias: following
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name, cursor, include_entities
Required: *none*
Returns a reference to an array of the user's friends. If "id",
"user_id", or "screen_name" is not specified, the friends of the
authenticating user are returned. The returned users are ordered
from most recently followed to least recently followed.
Use the optional "cursor" parameter to retrieve users in pages of
100. When the "cursor" parameter is used, the return value is a
reference to a hash with keys "previous_cursor", "next_cursor", and
"users". The value of "users" is a reference to an array of the
user's friends. The result set isn't guaranteed to be 100 every time
as suspended users will be filtered out. Set the optional "cursor"
parameter to -1 to get the first page of users. Set it to the prior
return's value of "previous_cursor" or "next_cursor" to page forward
or backwards. When there are no prior pages, the value of
"previous_cursor" will be 0. When there are no subsequent pages, the
value of "next_cursor" will be 0.
Returns: Hashref|ArrayRef[User]
friends_ids
friends_ids(id)
alias: following_ids
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name, cursor
Required: id
Returns a reference to an array of numeric IDs for every user
followed the specified user.
Use the optional "cursor" parameter to retrieve IDs in pages of
5000. When the "cursor" parameter is used, the return value is a
reference to a hash with keys "previous_cursor", "next_cursor", and
"ids". The value of "ids" is a reference to an array of IDS of the
user's friends. Set the optional "cursor" parameter to -1 to get the
first page of IDs. Set it to the prior return's value of
"previous_cursor" or "next_cursor" to page forward or backwards.
When there are no prior pages, the value of "previous_cursor" will
be 0. When there are no subsequent pages, the value of "next_cursor"
will be 0.
Returns: HashRef|ArrayRef[Int]
friendship_exists
friendship_exists(user_a, user_b)
alias: relationship_exists
alias: follows
Parameters: user_a, user_b
Required: user_a, user_b
Tests for the existence of friendship between two users. Will return
true if user_a follows user_b, otherwise will return false.
Returns: Bool
friendships_incoming
friendships_incoming(cursor)
Parameters: cursor
Required: cursor
Returns an HASH ref with an array of numeric IDs in the "ids"
element for every user who has a pending request to follow the
authenticating user.
Returns: HashRef
friendships_outgoing
friendships_outgoing(cursor)
Parameters: cursor
Required: cursor
Returns an HASH ref with an array of numeric IDs in the "ids"
element for every protected user for whom the authenticating user
has a pending follow request.
Returns: HashRef
geo_id
geo_id(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id
Returns details of a place returned from the "reverse_geocode"
method.
Returns: HashRef
geo_search
Parameters: lat, long, query, ip, granularity, accuracy,
max_results, contained_within, attribute:street_address, callback
Required: *none*
Search for places that can be attached to a statuses/update. Given a
latitude and a longitude pair, an IP address, or a name, this
request will return a list of all the valid places that can be used
as the place_id when updating a status.
Conceptually, a query can be made from the user's location, retrieve
a list of places, have the user validate the location he or she is
at, and then send the ID of this location with a call to
statuses/update.
This is the recommended method to use find places that can be
attached to statuses/update. Unlike geo/reverse_geocode which
provides raw data access, this endpoint can potentially re-order
places with regards to the user who is authenticated. This approach
is also preferred for interactive place matching with the user.
Returns: HashRef
get_configuration
Parameters: *none*
Required: *none*
Returns the current configuration used by Twitter including
twitter.com slugs which are not usernames, maximum photo
resolutions, and t.co URL lengths.
It is recommended applications request this endpoint when they are
loaded, but no more than once a day.
Returns: HashRef
get_languages
Parameters: *none*
Required: *none*
Returns the list of languages supported by Twitter along with their
ISO 639-1 code. The ISO 639-1 code is the two letter value to use if
you include lang with any of your requests.
Returns: ArrayRef[Lanugage]
get_list
Parameters: list_id, slug, owner_screen_name, owner_id
Required: *none*
Returns the specified list. Private lists will only be shown if the
authenticated user owns the specified list.
Returns: List
get_lists
alias: list_lists
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, cursor
Required: *none*
Returns the lists of the specified (or authenticated) user. Private
lists will be included if the authenticated user is the same as the
user whose lists are being returned.
Returns: Hashref
get_privacy_policy
Parameters: *none*
Required: *none*
Returns Twitter's privacy policy.
Returns: HashRef
get_tos
Parameters: *none*
Required: *none*
Returns the Twitter Terms of Service. These are not the same as the
Developer Rules of the Road.
Returns: HashRef
home_timeline
Parameters: since_id, max_id, count, page, skip_user,
exclude_replies, contributor_details, include_rts, include_entities,
trim_user, include_my_retweet
Required: *none*
Returns the 20 most recent statuses, including retweets, posted by
the authenticating user and that user's friends. This is the
equivalent of /timeline/home on the Web.
Returns: ArrayRef[Status]
is_list_member
Parameters: owner_screen_name, owner_id, list_id, slug, user_id,
screen_name, include_entities, skip_status
Required: *none*
Check if the specified user is a member of the specified list.
Returns the user or undef.
Returns: Maybe[User]
is_list_subscriber
alias: is_subscribed_list
Parameters: owner_screen_name, owner_id, list_id, slug, user_id,
screen_name, include_entities, skip_status
Required: *none*
Check if the specified user is a subscriber of the specified list.
Returns the user or undef.
Returns: Maybe[User]
list_members
Parameters: list_id, slug, owner_screen_name, owner_id, cursor,
include_entities, skip_status
Required: *none*
Returns the members of the specified list. Private list members will
only be shown if the authenticated user owns the specified list.
Returns: Hashref
list_memberships
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, cursor, filter_to_owned_lists
Required: *none*
Returns the lists the specified user has been added to. If user_id
or screen_name are not provided the memberships for the
authenticating user are returned.
Returns: Hashref
list_statuses
Parameters: list_id, slug, owner_screen_name, owner_id, since_id,
max_id, per_page, page, include_entities, include_rts
Required: *none*
Returns tweet timeline for members of the specified list.
Historically, retweets were not available in list timeline responses
but you can now use the include_rts=true parameter to additionally
receive retweet objects.
Returns: ArrayRef[Status]
list_subscribers
Parameters: list_id, slug, owner_screen_name, owner_id, cursor,
include_entities, skip_status
Required: *none*
Returns the subscribers of the specified list. Private list
subscribers will only be shown if the authenticated user owns the
specified list.
Returns: Hashref
list_subscriptions
Parameters: user_id, screen_name
Required: *none*
Returns all lists the authenticating or specified user subscribes
to, including their own. The user is specified using the user_id or
screen_name parameters. If no user is given, the authenticating user
is used.
Returns: ArrayRef[List]
lookup_friendships
Parameters: user_id, screen_name
Required: *none*
Returns the relationship of the authenticating user to the comma
separated list or ARRAY ref of up to 100 screen_names or user_ids
provided. Values for connections can be: following,
following_requested, followed_by, none. Requires authentication.
Returns: ArrayRef
lookup_users
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, include_entities
Required: *none*
Return up to 20 users worth of extended information, specified by
either ID, screen name, or combination of the two. The author's most
recent status (if the authenticating user has permission) will be
returned inline. This method is rate limited to 1000 calls per hour.
This method will accept user IDs or screen names as either a comma
delimited string, or as an ARRAY ref. It will also accept arguments
in the normal HASHREF form or as a simple list of named arguments.
I.e., any of the following forms are acceptable:
$nt->lookup_users({ user_id => '1234,6543,3333' });
$nt->lookup_users(user_id => '1234,6543,3333');
$nt->lookup_users({ user_id => [ 1234, 6543, 3333 ] });
$nt->lookup_users({ screen_name => 'fred,barney,wilma' });
$nt->lookup_users(screen_name => ['fred', 'barney', 'wilma']);
$nt->lookup_users(
screen_name => ['fred', 'barney' ],
user_id => '4321,6789',
);
Returns: ArrayRef[User]
members_create_all
alias: add_list_members
Parameters: list_id, slug, owner_screen_name, owner_id
Required: *none*
Adds multiple members to a list, by specifying a reference to an
array or a comma-separated list of member ids or screen names. The
authenticated user must own the list to be able to add members to
it. Note that lists can't have more than 500 members, and you are
limited to adding up to 100 members to a list at a time with this
method.
Returns: List
mentions
alias: replies
Parameters: since_id, max_id, count, page, trim_user, include_rts,
include_entities
Required: *none*
Returns the 20 most recent mentions (statuses containing @username)
for the authenticating user.
Returns: ArrayRef[Status]
new_direct_message
new_direct_message(user, text)
Parameters: user, text, screen_name, user_id, include_entities
Required: user, text
Sends a new direct message to the specified user from the
authenticating user. Requires both the user and text parameters.
Returns the sent message when successful. In order to support
numeric screen names, the "screen_name" or "user_id" parameters may
be used instead of "user".
Returns: DirectMessage
no_retweet_ids
Parameters: *none*
Required: *none*
Returns an ARRAY ref of user IDs for which the authenticating user
does not want to receive retweets.
Returns: ArrayRef[UserIDs]
public_timeline
Parameters: skip_user, trim_user, include_entities
Required: *none*
Returns the 20 most recent statuses from non-protected users who
have set a custom user icon. Does not require authentication. Note
that the public timeline is cached for 60 seconds so requesting it
more often than that is a waste of resources.
If user credentials are provided, "public_timeline" calls are
authenticated, so they count against the authenticated user's rate
limit. Use "->public_timeline({ authenticate => 0 })" to make an
unauthenticated call which will count against the calling IP
address' rate limit, instead.
Returns: ArrayRef[Status]
rate_limit_status
Parameters: *none*
Required: *none*
Returns the remaining number of API requests available to the
authenticated user before the API limit is reached for the current
hour.
Use "->rate_limit_status({ authenticate => 0 })" to force an
unauthenticated call, which will return the status for the IP
address rather than the authenticated user. (Note: for a web
application, this is the server's IP address.)
Returns: RateLimitStatus
related_results
related_results(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id
If available, returns an array of replies and mentions related to
the specified status. There is no guarantee there will be any
replies or mentions in the response. This method is only available
to users who have access to #newtwitter. Requires authentication.
Returns: ArrayRef[Status]
report_spam
report_spam(id)
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name, include_entities
Required: id
The user specified in the id is blocked by the authenticated user
and reported as a spammer.
Returns: User
retweet
retweet(id)
Parameters: id, include_entities, trim_user
Required: id
Retweets a tweet. Requires the id parameter of the tweet you are
retweeting. Returns the original tweet with retweet details
embedded.
Returns: Status
retweeted_by
retweeted_by(id)
Parameters: id, count, page, trim_user, include_entities
Required: id
Returns up to 100 users who retweeted the status identified by "id".
Returns: ArrayRef[User]
retweeted_by_ids
retweeted_by_ids(id)
Parameters: id, count, page, trim_user, include_entities
Required: id
Returns the IDs of up to 100 users who retweeted the status
identified by "id".
Returns: ArrayRef[User]
retweeted_by_me
Parameters: since_id, max_id, count, page, trim_user,
include_entities
Required: *none*
Returns the 20 most recent retweets posted by the authenticating
user.
Returns: ArrayRef[Status]
retweeted_by_user
retweeted_by_user(id)
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name
Required: id
Returns the 20 most recent retweets posted by the specified user.
The user is specified using the user_id or screen_name parameters.
This method is identical to "retweeted_by_me" except you can choose
the user to view. Does not require authentication, unless the user
is protected.
Returns: ArrayRef
retweeted_to_me
Parameters: since_id, max_id, count, page
Required: *none*
Returns the 20 most recent retweets posted by the authenticating
user's friends.
Returns: ArrayRef[Status]
retweeted_to_user
retweeted_to_user(id)
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name
Required: id
Returns the 20 most recent retweets posted by users the specified
user follows. The user is specified using the user_id or screen_name
parameters. This method is identical to "retweeted_to_me" except you
can choose the user to view. Does not require authentication, unless
the user is protected.
Returns: ArrayRef
retweets
retweets(id)
Parameters: id, count, trim_user, include_entities
Required: id
Returns up to 100 of the first retweets of a given tweet.
Returns: Arrayref[Status]
retweets_of_me
alias: retweeted_of_me
Parameters: since_id, max_id, count, page, trim_user,
include_entities
Required: *none*
Returns the 20 most recent tweets of the authenticated user that
have been retweeted by others.
Returns: ArrayRef[Status]
reverse_geocode
reverse_geocode(lat, long)
Parameters: lat, long, accuracy, granularity, max_results
Required: lat, long
Search for places (cities and neighborhoods) that can be attached to
a statuses/update. Given a latitude and a longitude, return a list
of all the valid places that can be used as a place_id when updating
a status. Conceptually, a query can be made from the user's
location, retrieve a list of places, have the user validate the
location he or she is at, and then send the ID of this location up
with a call to statuses/update.
There are multiple granularities of places that can be returned --
"neighborhoods", "cities", etc. At this time, only United States
data is available through this method.
lat Required. The latitude to query about. Valid ranges are -90.0 to
+90.0 (North is positive) inclusive.
long
Required. The longitude to query about. Valid ranges are -180.0
to +180.0 (East is positive) inclusive.
accuracy
Optional. A hint on the "region" in which to search. If a
number, then this is a radius in meters, but it can also take a
string that is suffixed with ft to specify feet. If this is not
passed in, then it is assumed to be 0m. If coming from a device,
in practice, this value is whatever accuracy the device has
measuring its location (whether it be coming from a GPS, WiFi
triangulation, etc.).
granularity
Optional. The minimal granularity of data to return. If this is
not passed in, then "neighborhood" is assumed. "city" can also
be passed.
max_results
Optional. A hint as to the number of results to return. This
does not guarantee that the number of results returned will
equal max_results, but instead informs how many "nearby" results
to return. Ideally, only pass in the number of places you intend
to display to the user here.
Returns: HashRef
saved_searches
Parameters: *none*
Required: *none*
Returns the authenticated user's saved search queries.
Returns: ArrayRef[SavedSearch]
sent_direct_messages
Parameters: since_id, max_id, page, count, include_entities
Required: *none*
Returns a list of the 20 most recent direct messages sent by the
authenticating user including detailed information about the sending
and recipient users.
Returns: ArrayRef[DirectMessage]
show_direct_message
show_direct_message(id)
Parameters: id, include_entities
Required: id
Returns a single direct message, specified by an id parameter. Like
the "direct_messages" request, this method will include the user
objects of the sender and recipient. Requires authentication.
Returns: HashRef
show_friendship
show_friendship(id)
alias: show_relationship
Parameters: source_id, source_screen_name, target_id, target_id_name
Required: id
Returns detailed information about the relationship between two
users.
Returns: Relationship
show_saved_search
show_saved_search(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id
Retrieve the data for a saved search, by "id", owned by the
authenticating user.
Returns: SavedSearch
show_status
show_status(id)
Parameters: id, trim_user, include_entities
Required: id
Returns a single status, specified by the id parameter. The status's
author will be returned inline.
Returns: Status
show_user
show_user(id)
Parameters: id, screen_name, include_entities
Required: id
Returns extended information of a given user, specified by ID or
screen name as per the required id parameter. This information
includes design settings, so third party developers can theme their
widgets according to a given user's preferences. You must be
properly authenticated to request the page of a protected user.
Returns: ExtendedUser
similar_places
similar_places(lat, long, name)
Parameters: lat, long, name, contained_within,
attribute:street_address, callback
Required: lat, long, name
Locates places near the given coordinates which are similar in name.
Conceptually you would use this method to get a list of known places
to choose from first. Then, if the desired place doesn't exist, make
a request to "add_place" to create a new one.
The token contained in the response is the token needed to be able
to create a new place.
Returns: HashRef
subscribe_list
Parameters: owner_screen_name, owner_id, list_id, slug
Required: *none*
Subscribes the authenticated user to the specified list.
Returns: List
suggestion_categories
Parameters: *none*
Required: *none*
Returns the list of suggested user categories. The category slug can
be used in the "user_suggestions" API method get the users in that
category . Does not require authentication.
Returns: ArrayRef
test
Parameters: *none*
Required: *none*
Returns the string "ok" status code.
Returns: Str
trends
Parameters: *none*
Required: *none*
Returns the top ten queries that are currently trending on Twitter.
The response includes the time of the request, the name of each
trending topic, and the url to the Twitter Search results page for
that topic.
Returns: ArrayRef[Query]
trends_available
Parameters: lat, long
Required: *none*
Returns the locations with trending topic information. The response
is an array of "locations" that encode the location's WOEID (a
Yahoo! Where On Earth ID
<http://developer.yahoo.com/geo/geoplanet/>) and some other
human-readable information such as a the location's canonical name
and country.
When the optional "lat" and "long" parameters are passed, the
available trend locations are sorted by distance from that location,
nearest to farthest.
Use the WOEID returned in the location object to query trends for a
specific location.
Returns: ArrayRef[Location]
trends_current
trends_current(exclude)
Parameters: exclude
Required: *none*
Returns the current top ten trending topics on Twitter. The response
includes the time of the request, the name of each trending topic,
and query used on Twitter Search results page for that topic.
Returns: HashRef
trends_daily
Parameters: date, exclude
Required: *none*
Returns the top 20 trending topics for each hour in a given day.
Returns: HashRef
trends_location
trends_location(woeid)
Parameters: woeid
Required: woeid
Returns the top 10 trending topics for a specific location. The
response is an array of "trend" objects that encode the name of the
trending topic, the query parameter that can be used to search for
the topic on Search, and the direct URL that can be issued against
Search. This information is cached for five minutes, and therefore
users are discouraged from querying these endpoints faster than once
every five minutes. Global trends information is also available from
this API by using a WOEID of 1.
Returns: ArrayRef[Trend]
trends_weekly
Parameters: date, exclude
Required: *none*
Returns the top 30 trending topics for each day in a given week.
Returns: HashRef
unsubscribe_list
Parameters: list_id, slug, owner_screen_name, owner_id
Required: *none*
Unsubscribes the authenticated user from the specified list.
Returns: List
update
update(status)
Parameters: status, lat, long, place_id, display_coordinates,
in_reply_to_status_id, trim_user, include_entities
Required: status
Updates the authenticating user's status. Requires the status
parameter specified. A status update with text identical to the
authenticating user's current status will be ignored.
status
Required. The text of your status update. URL encode as
necessary. Statuses over 140 characters will cause a 403 error
to be returned from the API.
in_reply_to_status_id
Optional. The ID of an existing status that the update is in
reply to. o Note: This parameter will be ignored unless the
author of the tweet this parameter references is mentioned
within the status text. Therefore, you must include @username,
where username is the author of the referenced tweet, within the
update.
lat Optional. The location's latitude that this tweet refers to. The
valid ranges for latitude is -90.0 to +90.0 (North is positive)
inclusive. This parameter will be ignored if outside that range,
if it is not a number, if geo_enabled is disabled, or if there
not a corresponding long parameter with this tweet.
long
Optional. The location's longitude that this tweet refers to.
The valid ranges for longitude is -180.0 to +180.0 (East is
positive) inclusive. This parameter will be ignored if outside
that range, if it is not a number, if geo_enabled is disabled,
or if there not a corresponding lat parameter with this tweet.
place_id
Optional. The place to attach to this status update. Valid
place_ids can be found by querying "reverse_geocode".
display_coordinates
Optional. By default, geo-tweets will have their coordinates
exposed in the status object (to remain backwards compatible
with existing API applications). To turn off the display of the
precise latitude and longitude (but keep the contextual location
information), pass "display_coordinates =" 0> on the status
update.
Returns: Status
update_delivery_device
update_delivery_device(device)
Parameters: device
Required: device
Sets which device Twitter delivers updates to for the authenticating
user. Sending none as the device parameter will disable IM or SMS
updates.
Returns: BasicUser
update_friendship
update_friendship(id)
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name, device, retweets
Required: id
Allows you enable or disable retweets and device notifications from
the specified user. All other values are assumed to be false.
Requires authentication.
Returns: HashRef
update_list
Parameters: list_id, slug, name, mode, description,
owner_screen_name, owner_id
Required: *none*
Updates the specified list. The authenticated user must own the list
to be able to update it.
Returns: List
update_profile
Parameters: name, email, url, location, description,
include_entities
Required: *none*
Sets values that users are able to set under the "Account" tab of
their settings page. Only the parameters specified will be updated;
to only update the "name" attribute, for example, only include that
parameter in your request.
Returns: ExtendedUser
update_profile_background_image
update_profile_background_image(image)
Parameters: image, use
Required: image
Updates the authenticating user's profile background image. The
"image" parameter must be an arrayref with the same interpretation
as the "image" parameter in the "update_profile_image" method. The
"use" parameter allows you to specify whether to use the uploaded
profile background or not. See that method's documentation for
details.
Returns: ExtendedUser
update_profile_colors
Parameters: profile_background_color, profile_text_color,
profile_link_color, profile_sidebar_fill_color,
profile_sidebar_border_color
Required: *none*
Sets one or more hex values that control the color scheme of the
authenticating user's profile page on twitter.com. These values are
also returned in the /users/show API method.
Returns: ExtendedUser
update_profile_image
update_profile_image(image)
Parameters: image
Required: image
Updates the authenticating user's profile image. The "image"
parameter is an arrayref with the following interpretation:
[ $file ]
[ $file, $filename ]
[ $file, $filename, Content_Type => $mime_type ]
[ undef, $filename, Content_Type => $mime_type, Content => $raw_image_data ]
The first value of the array ($file) is the name of a file to open.
The second value ($filename) is the name given to Twitter for the
file. If $filename is not provided, the basename portion of $file is
used. If $mime_type is not provided, it will be provided
automatically using LWP::MediaTypes::guess_media_type().
$raw_image_data can be provided, rather than opening a file, by
passing "undef" as the first array value.
Returns: ExtendedUser
update_with_media
update_with_media(status, media)
Parameters: status, media[], possibly_sensitive,
in_reply_to_status_id, lat, long, place_id, display_coordinates
Required: status, media
Updates the authenticating user's status and attaches media for
upload.
The "media[]" parameter is an arrayref with the following
interpretation:
[ $file ]
[ $file, $filename ]
[ $file, $filename, Content_Type => $mime_type ]
[ undef, $filename, Content_Type => $mime_type, Content => $raw_image_data ]
The first value of the array ($file) is the name of a file to open.
The second value ($filename) is the name given to Twitter for the
file. If $filename is not provided, the basename portion of $file is
used. If $mime_type is not provided, it will be provided
automatically using LWP::MediaTypes::guess_media_type().
$raw_image_data can be provided, rather than opening a file, by
passing "undef" as the first array value.
The Tweet text will be rewritten to include the media URL(s), which
will reduce the number of characters allowed in the Tweet text. If
the URL(s) cannot be appended without text truncation, the tweet
will be rejected and this method will return an HTTP 403 error.
Returns: Status
user_suggestions
user_suggestions(category)
alias: follow_suggestions
Parameters: category, lang
Required: category
Access the users in a given category of the Twitter suggested user
list and return their most recent status if they are not a protected
user. Currently supported values for optional parameter "lang" are
"en", "fr", "de", "es", "it". Does not require authentication.
Returns: ArrayRef
user_timeline
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name, since_id, max_id, count, page,
skip_user, trim_user, include_entities, include_rts
Required: *none*
Returns the 20 most recent statuses posted from the authenticating
user. It's also possible to request another user's timeline via the
id parameter. This is the equivalent of the Web /archive page for
your own user, or the profile page for a third party.
Returns: ArrayRef[Status]
users_search
users_search(q)
alias: find_people
alias: search_users
Parameters: q, per_page, page, include_entities
Required: q
Run a search for users similar to Find People button on Twitter.com;
the same results returned by people search on Twitter.com will be
returned by using this API (about being listed in the People
Search). It is only possible to retrieve the first 1000 matches from
this API.
Returns: ArrayRef[Users]
verify_credentials
verify_credentials(include_entities)
Parameters: include_entities
Required: *none*
Returns an HTTP 200 OK response code and a representation of the
requesting user if authentication was successful; returns a 401
status code and an error message if not. Use this method to test if
supplied user credentials are valid.
Returns: ExtendedUser
update_with_media
update_with_media(status, media)
Parameters: status, media[], possibly_sensitive,
in_reply_to_status_id, lat, long, place_id, display_coordinates
Required: status, media
Updates the authenticating user's status and attaches media for
upload.
The "media[]" parameter is an arrayref with the following
interpretation:
[ $file ]
[ $file, $filename ]
[ $file, $filename, Content_Type => $mime_type ]
[ undef, $filename, Content_Type => $mime_type, Content => $raw_image_data ]
The first value of the array ($file) is the name of a file to open.
The second value ($filename) is the name given to Twitter for the
file. If $filename is not provided, the basename portion of $file is
used. If $mime_type is not provided, it will be provided
automatically using LWP::MediaTypes::guess_media_type().
$raw_image_data can be provided, rather than opening a file, by
passing "undef" as the first array value.
The Tweet text will be rewritten to include the media URL(s), which
will reduce the number of characters allowed in the Tweet text. If
the URL(s) cannot be appended without text truncation, the tweet
will be rejected and this method will return an HTTP 403 error.
Returns: Status
Search API Methods
These methods are provided when trait "API::Search" is included in the
"traits" option to "new".
search
search(q)
Parameters: q, callback, lang, locale, rpp, page, since_id, until,
geocode, show_user, result_type
Required: q
Returns a HASH reference with some meta-data about the query
including the "next_page", "refresh_url", and "max_id". The statuses
are returned in "results". To iterate over the results, use
something similar to:
my $r = $nt->search($searh_term);
for my $status ( @{$r->{results}} ) {
print "$status->{text}\n";
}
Returns: HashRef
Lists API Methods
The original Lists API methods have been deprecated.
Net::Twitter::Role::API::Lists provides backwards compatibility for code
written using those deprecated methods. If you're not already using the
"API::Lists" trait, don't! Use the lists methods described above.
If you are using the "API::Lists" trait, you should remove it from your
code and change the arguments in your list API method calls to match
those described above.
TwitterVision API Methods
These methods are provided when trait "API::TwitterVision" is included
in the "traits" option to "new".
current_status
current_status(id)
Parameters: id, callback
Required: id
Get the current location and status of a user.
Returns: HashRef
update_twittervision
update_twittervision(location)
Parameters: location
Required: location
Updates the location for the authenticated user.
Returns: HashRef
LEGACY COMPATIBILITY
This version of "Net::Twitter" automatically includes the "Legacy" trait
if no "traits" option is provided to "new". Therefore, these 2 calls are
currently equivalent:
$nt = Net::Twitter->new(username => $user, password => $passwd);
$nt = Net::Twitter->new(
username => $user,
password => $passwd,
traits => ['Legacy'],
);
Thus, existing applications written for a prior version of
"Net::Twitter" should continue to run, without modification, with this
version.
In a future release, the default traits may change. Prior to that
change, however, a nearer future version will add a warning if no
"traits" option is provided to "new". To avoid this warning, add an
appropriate "traits" option to your existing application code.
ERROR HANDLING
There are currently two strategies for handling errors: throwing
exceptions and wrapping errors. Exception handling is the newer,
recommended strategy.
Wrapping Errors
When trait "WrapError" is specified (or "Legacy", which includes trait
"WrapError"), "Net::Twitter" returns undef on error. To retrieve
information about the error, use methods "http_code", "http_message",
and "get_error". These methods are described in the
Net::Twitter::Role::WrapError.
if ( my $followers = $nt->followers ) {
for my $follower ( @$followers ) {
#...
}
}
else {
warn "HTTP message: ", $nt->http_message, "\n";
}
Since an error is stored in the object instance, this error handling
strategy is problematic when using a user agent like
"LWP::UserAgent::POE" that provides concurrent requests. The error for
one request can be overwritten by a concurrent request before you have
an opportunity to access it.
Exception Handling
When "Net::Twitter" encounters a Twitter API error or a network error,
it throws a "Net::Twitter::Error" object. You can catch and process
these exceptions by using "eval" blocks and testing $@:
eval {
my $statuses = $nt->friends_timeline(); # this might die!
for my $status ( @$statuses ) {
#...
}
};
if ( $@ ) {
# friends_timeline encountered an error
if ( blessed $@ && $@->isa('Net::Twitter::Error') ) {
#... use the thrown error obj
warn $@->error;
}
else {
# something bad happened!
die $@;
}
}
"Net::Twitter::Error" stringifies to something reasonable, so if you
don't need detailed error information, you can simply treat $@ as a
string:
eval { $nt->update($status) };
if ( $@ ) {
warn "update failed because: $@\n";
}
FAQ
Why does "->followers({ screen_name => $friend })" return *my* followers
instead of $friends's?
First, check carefully to make sure you've spelled "screen_name"
correctly. Twitter sometimes discards parameters it doesn't
recognize. In this case, the result is a list of your own
followers---the same thing that would happen if you called
"followers" without the "screen_name" parameter.
How do I use the "geocode" parameter in the Search API?
The "geocode" parameter value includes a latitude, longitude, and
radius separated with commas.
$r = $nt->search({ geocode => "45.511795,-122.675629,25mi" });
How do I get Twitter to display something other than "from Perl
Net::Twitter"?
If you set the source parameter to "api", twitter will display "from
API", and if you set it to the empty string, twitter will display,
"from web".
$nt = Net::Twitter->new(netrc => 1,legacy => 0,ssl => 1,source => 'api');
$nt->update('A post with the source parameter overridden.');
# result: http://twitter.com/semifor_test/status/6541105458
$nt = Net::Twitter->new(netrc => 1,legacy => 0,ssl => 1,source => '');
$nt->update('A post with the source parameter overridden.');
# result: http://twitter.com/semifor_test/status/6541257224
If you want something other than "Net::Twitter", "API", or "web",
you need to register an application and use OAuth authentication. If
you do that, you can have any name you choose for the application
printed as the source. Since rolling out OAuth, Twitter has stopped
issuing new registered source parameters, only existing register
source parameters are valid.
SEE ALSO
Net::Twitter::Error
The "Net::Twitter" exception object.
<http://dev.twitter.com/doc>
This is the official Twitter API documentation. It describes the
methods and their parameters in more detail and may be more current
than the documentation provided with this module.
LWP::UserAgent::POE
This LWP::UserAgent compatible class can be used in POE based
application along with Net::Twitter to provide concurrent,
non-blocking requests.
Catalyst::Authentication::Credential::Twitter
This module, by Jesse Stay, provides Twitter OAuth authentication
support for the popular Catalyst web application framework.
SUPPORT
Please report bugs to "bug-net-twitter@rt.cpan.org", or through the web
interface at <https://rt.cpan.org/Dist/Display.html?Queue=Net-Twitter>.
Join the Net::Twitter IRC channel at <irc://irc.perl.org/net-twitter>.
Follow perl_api: <http://twitter.com/perl_api>.
Track Net::Twitter development at
<http://github.com/semifor/Net-Twitter>.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Many thanks to Chris Thompson <cpan@cthompson.com>, the original author
of "Net::Twitter" and all versions prior to 3.00.
Also, thanks to Chris Prather (perigrin) for answering many design and
implementation questions, especially with regards to Moose.
AUTHOR
Marc Mims <marc@questright.com> (@semifor on Twitter)
CONTRIBUTORS
Roberto Etcheverry <retcheverry@gmail.com> (@retcheverry on Twitter)
Allen Haim
KATOU Akira
Francisco Pecorella
Doug Bell <doug@plainblack.com>
Justin Hunter <justin.d.hunter@gmail.com>
LICENSE
Copyright (c) 2009 Marc Mims
The Twitter API itself, and the description text used in this module is:
Copyright (c) 2009 Twitter
This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
under the same terms as Perl itself.
DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY
BECAUSE THIS SOFTWARE IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
FOR THE SOFTWARE, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN
OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
PROVIDE THE SOFTWARE "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER
EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE
ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE SOFTWARE IS WITH
YOU. SHOULD THE SOFTWARE PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL
NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR, OR CORRECTION.
IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
REDISTRIBUTE THE SOFTWARE AS PERMITTED BY THE ABOVE LICENSE, BE LIABLE
TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE
SOFTWARE (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING
RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A
FAILURE OF THE SOFTWARE TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER SOFTWARE), EVEN IF
SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
DAMAGES.
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