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R2DBC First Example in Scala

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This repository demonstrates how to use R2DBC - Reactive Relational Database Connectivity in Scala.

As of Dec 2018, R2DBC is still under the development. Thus, there are still many limitations:

  • Supported RDBMS: PostgreSQL, H2, and MS SQL Server
  • CLOB/BLOB unsupported
  • No connection pooling

In this example, I use r2dbc-client which is the reference implementation of r2dbc-spi, the service provider interface. r2dbc-client heavily depends on Reactor, whereas the R2DBC SPI doesn't have any relatiojns with Reactor. The SPI relies on only Reactive Streams. Thanks to the thin SPI interface, it should be much easier to implement your own R2DBC clients than toilsome JDBC drivers.

While working with r2dbc-client, you will see lots of Flux/Mono objects. As far as I know, Reactor is not so popular in the Scala world (The Scala community already has many other options to achieve the same goal). You may feel like "What's Flux/Mono...? Do I need to learn ways to use it?" Don't worry, be happy. You don't need to learn the details of it. They are just enriched Publisher objects in the context of Reactive Streams. So, if you're familiar with the Publisher, you can simply handle Flux/Mono as Publisher. Otherwise, I recommend transforming those types to your favorites such as Observable in monix-reactive, Stream in fs2, etc.

Getting Started


r2dbc-client is always mandatory. In addition to that, you must have the necessary dialect, any of r2dbc-h2, r2dbc-postgresql, and r2dbc-mssql. Don't forget to have the spring-milestone resolver. R2DBC libraries are not available on the Maven Central yet.

// Minimum settings for R2DBC
lazy val root = (project in file("."))
    scalaVersion := "2.12.8",
    resolvers += "spring-milestone" at "",
    libraryDependencies ++= Seq(
      "io.r2dbc" % "r2dbc-client"     % "1.0.0.M6"  % Compile,
      "io.r2dbc" % "r2dbc-h2"         % "1.0.0.M6"  % Compile,
      "io.r2dbc" % "r2dbc-postgresql" % "1.0.0.M6"  % Compile

// You can build Monix's Observable from Flux/Mono instantly
libraryDependencies += "io.monix" %% "monix-reactive" % "3.0.0-RC2" % Compile

// If you need the ways to convert Flux/Mono to Scala Future
libraryDependencies += "org.scala-lang.modules" %% "scala-java8-compat" % "0.9.0" % Compile

Code Example

Here is a simple code example to run queries on H2 in-memory database. Apart from the part to build io.r2dbc.client.R2dbc, the exactly same code works for PostgreSQL.

To make the example simple, the code intentionally does blocking operations. Needless to say, you must NOT do the same in real application code. Follow the best practices to leverage the benefits of reactive / non-blocking model.

val config = io.r2dbc.h2.H2ConnectionConfiguration.builder().url("mem:sample1").build()
val r2dbc  = new io.r2dbc.client.R2dbc(new io.r2dbc.h2.H2ConnectionFactory(config))

// Create the table beforehand
  // Don't use text type, R2DBC doesn't work with it as of Dec 2018
  .withHandle(_.execute("create table sample (id bigint primary key, name varchar(100))"))
  .blockFirst() // Flux#blockFirst()

val result: reactor.core.publisher.Flux[Sample] = {
  // Insert three rows
  val insertions: reactor.core.publisher.Flux[Integer] = r2dbc.inTransaction { handle =>
    val updates = handle.createUpdate("insert into sample (id, name) values ($1, $2)")
    updates.bind("$1", 1).bind("$2", "Alice").add()
    updates.bind("$1", 2).bind("$2", "Bob").add()
    updates.bind("$1", 3).bindNull("$2", classOf[String]).add()
  // Select all the rows descending order
  val fetchingAll: reactor.core.publisher.Flux[Sample] = r2dbc.withHandle { handle =>"select id, name from sample order by id desc").mapRow { row =>
        id = Long.unbox(row.get("id", classOf[java.lang.Long])),
        name = Option(row.get("name", classOf[String]))
  // 'fetchingAll' will be executed after the completion of 'insertions'

To work with Publisher more easily, you can use Observable from monix-reactive. Refer to the Monix document for details.

// simple example to run with monix-reactive
import monix.reactive.Observable
val observable: Observable[Sample] = Observable.fromReactivePublisher(result)

// Just for demonstration, intentionally does the blocking ops here
val samples: Seq[Sample] = observable.toListL.runSyncUnsafe() should equal(Seq(3, 2, 1))



Demonstrates how to use R2DBC - Reactive Relational Database Connectivity in Scala




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