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Rhizome REST API

Serval Project, October 2017

Introduction

Rhizome is a service in the Serval Mesh network that provides secure, distributed store and forward content distribution without a central storage, using intermittent and ad-hoc network links between nodes to disseminate copies of its content.

The Serval DNA daemon that runs on every node gives applications access to the Rhizome service via the Rhizome REST API described in this document.

Basic concepts

Rhizome store

Unlike conventional Internet cloud storage services like Dropbox, Rhizome has no central storage server. Instead, Rhizome stores its content on every device in the Serval mesh network, which provides a high degree of redundance and resilience.

Every Rhizome node has its own Rhizome store, sometimes called the Rhizome database, which keeps a copy of all recently received and inserted content.

The Rhizome REST API provides its client applications with access to the contents of the local Rhizome store. The internal format of the store, expiry of bundles from the store, and synchronisation with other Rhizome nodes are outside the scope of the API. An application wishing to share a file via Rhizome simply inserts the file into Rhizome using this API, and lets Rhizome take care of the rest.

Rhizome synchronisation

Whenever two Rhizome nodes are in direct network contact with each other (eg, as immediate peers, or neighbours, in an ad hoc wireless network), they spontaneously perform Rhizome synchronisation, during which each provides a list of its own content to the other, and then chooses which of the other's content to fetch.

Every Rhizome store is limited in size, so during synchronisation, Rhizome expires older items of content to make way for newer items. Rhizome gives priority to smaller items, and can be made to prioritise on other criteria such as geographical proximity to a location, sender, recipient, or content type.

Rhizome Secret

Every identity in the Serval mesh network has its own Rhizome Secret, which is a cryptographic secret key generated at random when the identity is first created, and stored in the Keyring.

Bundle

Rhizome content is organised into bundles. Every bundle is an indivisible item of content, analogous to a single file on a hard disk. A bundle may have any size.

A Rhizome bundle consists of a single manifest and an optional payload.

Every Rhizome bundle is uniquely identified by its Bundle ID and version.

Bundle ID

Every Bundle in Rhizome is identified by its Bundle ID (abbreviated to BID, sometimes known as “Manifest ID”), which is a unique 256-bit public key in the Curve25519 key space, generated from the random Bundle Secret when the the bundle is first created.

Bundle version

A Bundle's version is a 64-bit unsigned integer chosen by the bundle's author.

When presented with two or more bundles that have the same Bundle ID, Rhizome always prefers the one with the highest version number and discards the others. This allows bundles to be updated by publishing a new one with a larger version number than before. As an updated bundle spreads through the Rhizome network, it replaces all prior versions of itself.

Bundle Secret

A Bundle Secret is the Curve25519 cryptographic secret key that produces a Bundle ID public key, and is generated randomly when the bundle is first created.

Every bundle is cryptographically signed by its own Bundle Secret, and the signature is distributed along with the bundle's content. This allows all recipients to verify whether the bundle was in fact produced by the owner of the Bundle Secret. Bundles that do not verify are not stored or synchronised.

There is no restriction on the random generation of Bundle Secrets, so any party may create, sign and publish as many bundles as desired. However, only the possessor of a Bundle Secret may publish an update to a bundle (same Bundle ID, higher version). The signature therefore prevents forgery of updates to existing bundles.

Rhizome API operations that operate on a single bundle accept the Bundle Secret as an optional parameter. This allows applications to store the secrets for the bundles they create, if desired. However, a far easier way to remember of a bundle's secret is to add a Bundle Key to each bundle by specifying a bundle author.

Bundle Key

The Bundle Key is an optional item of meta-data that may be included in a bundle (as the manifest BK field). It encodes the Bundle Secret in a form that only the possessor of the original Rhizome Secret can decode. This avoids every application having to store the secret of every bundle it may wish to update in future; instead, it can add a BK field to each manifest it creates, and only the Rhizome Secret need be stored (in the keyring).

If a bundle contains a Bundle Key, then the Bundle Secret can be recovered as long as an unlocked keyring identity contains the originating Rhizome Secret. See bundle author for further information.

A bundle with no Bundle Key is truly anonymous. If an application stores the Bundle Secret itself (eg, in a local database indexed by Bundle ID), then it may use that secret to update (modify) the bundle, but if the Bundle Secret is lost, then the bundle becomes immutable.

Manifest

A Rhizome bundle's manifest consists of two parts: a meta-data section and a signature section, separated by a NUL (zero) byte:

MANIFEST = METADATA NUL SIGNATURE

If the NUL byte is missing, then the manifest is unsigned.

The meta-data section consists of a set of key-value fields in arbitrary order, conforming to the following grammar:

METADATA = ( KEY "=" VALUE LF ){0..*}
KEY = ALPHA ( ALPHANUM ){0..79}
VALUE = ( VALUECHAR ){0..*}
ALPHA = octet in set ASCII A..F or a..f
ALPHANUM = ALPHA or octet in set ASCII 0..9
VALUECHAR = any ASCII octet except NUL CR or LF
ASCII = any octet in range 0..127
NUL = octet with value 0
LF = octet with value 10
CR = octet with value 13

The signature section uses a binary format, and consists of one or more concatenated signature blocks. Each block begins with a single type byte, followed by the bytes of the signature itself. The length of the signature is computed as type × 4 + 4, not counting the type byte:

SIGNATURE = ( BLOCK ){1..*}
BLOCK = TYPE ( ANY ){TYPE * 4 + 4}
TYPE = octet with value 23
ANY = any octet in range 0..255

The only supported signature type is 23 (hex 17), which is a 96-byte signature that is verified using Curve25519.

Every manifest must contain the following core fields, or it is partial:

  • id - the Bundle ID; 64 uppercase hexadecimal digits.

  • version - the version; ASCII decimal.

  • filesize - the number of bytes in the payload; ASCII decimal.

  • service - the name of the service (application) that created the bundle.

  • date - the date the bundle was created; an integral number of milliseconds since the Unix time epoch, in ASCII decimal. This field is set by the bundle's creator and could have any value, due either to inaccuracies in the system clock used to make the time stamp, or deliberate falsification. This field can have values up to 2^64 − 1, so it is immune to the Y2038 problem.

If the filesize is non-zero, then the following field must also be present:

  • filehash - the 512-bit cryptographic SHA-512 digest of the payload's content; 128 uppercase hexadecimal digits.

The presence of the following field indicates that the bundle is a journal:

  • tail - the byte offset within the journal at which the payload starts; ASCII decimal. The bundle's creator can advance the tail whenever it updates the bundle, to indicate that the preceding bytes are no longer needed, so they can be deleted from Rhizome stores to reclaim space and need not be synchronised, to save network load.

The following fields are all optional:

  • sender - the SID of the bundle's sender; 64 uppercase hexadecimal digits. Used mainly with the MeshMS service, for which it is mandatory, but can also be used by any application to suggest the bundle's author.

  • recipient - the SID of the bundle's recipient; 64 uppercase hexadecimal digits. Used mainly with the MeshMS service, for which it is mandatory, but can also be used by any application to identify the bundle's intended destination.

  • name - a label that identifies the bundle to human users, and also serves as a file name for the file service.

  • crypt - if 1 then the payload is encrypted, so only its intended recipient (who may or may not be identified by the recipient field) can decrypt and read it. If 0 or absent then the payload is clear text.

  • BK - the Bundle Key; 64 uppercase hexadecimal digits.

Any other field may be included in any manifest, but only those mentioned above are given special meaning by Rhizome.

The manifest's signature section is a sequence of one or more concatenated Curve25519 signature blocks. At present, every bundle carries exactly one signature, made using its Bundle Secret, although the manifest format allows for the possibility of multi-signed bundles in future.

Valid manifest

A manifest is valid if:

  • the id field is present and valid
  • the version field is present and valid
  • the filesize field is present and valid
  • the service field is present and valid
  • the date field is present and valid
  • if filesize is zero then there is no filehash field, otherwise the filehash field is present and valid
  • if service is file then a name field is present
  • if service is MeshMS1 or MeshMS2 then the sender and recipient fields are both present and valid

Note that validity does not require that the manifest's signature be verified. A manifest with an unverified or missing signature may still be valid.

Bundle author

A bundle's author is the identity whose Rhizome Secret was used to set the manifest's BK field (Bundle Key).

Manifests do not store the author SID explicitly. Rhizome does not support a manifest field called author. Instead, the bundle author is deduced from the BK field, if present. The BK field relieves authors from having to retain and protect all their Bundle Secrets, and it does so without revealing the identity of the author.

If a bundle contains a BK (Bundle Key) field, then the author's identity can only be deduced if it is an unlocked identity in the local keyring. Serval DNA tries the Rhizome Secret of every unlocked identity until it finds one that, when used to decode the Bundle Key, yields a Bundle Secret that correctly generates the manifest's signature. If no unlocked identity is found, then the author is unknown.

Rhizome nodes that do not possess the unlocked author identity cannot derive the SID of the author, even if the SID is already known to them through other means, since they do not possess the author's Rhizome Secret. Thus, the identity of the author is hidden even if a BK field is present.

If a bundle has no BK field, then its author can never be deduced, so the bundle is anonymous. An anonymous bundle is immutable if the Bundle Secret is lost; without the Bundle Secret, it is impossible to sign any change to the manifest, so no updates can be made.

The nearest thing to an “author” field is the optional sender field, to which a bundle's creator can assign any SID it wishes, so it carries no guarantee of validity. As an optimisation, when deducing the author, Serval DNA tries the sender identity first (if present and unlocked) before trying any others. In many cases (eg, MeshMS conversations), the sender turns out to be the author.

Payload

A Rhizome bundle's payload is a contiguous sequence of one or more bytes.

A zero-length payload is represented as "no payload" (filesize=0).

The interpretation of a payload's contents depends on the service that created the bundle (and can therefore also deal with it), whether or not the payload is encrypted (crypt=1), and other optional fields (eg, name) that the creator added to the manifest.

Journal

A journal is a special kind of bundle whose payload can only be altered by appending new content to the end or discarding old content from the beginning, never by changing existing content.

The presence of a tail field in the manifest indicates that a bundle is a journal. The tail of a journal is set to zero (0) when the journal is first created, and advanced in subsequent updates to indicate how much of the payload has been discarded since the beginning.

The filesize field of a journal gives the number of bytes currently in the payload, not counting those that have been discarded. In other words, the “logical length” of a journal's payload is tail + filesize, of which only the most recently appended filesize bytes are actually stored and transported.

The filehash field of a journal is the digest of the filesize bytes currently being stored and transported. This allows Rhizome synchronisation and storage to apply exactly the same manifest-payload consistency checks to journals and non-journals alike.

Journal updates obey the following rules:

  • must alter one or both of the tail and filesize fields
  • do not decrease the value of the tail field
  • do not decrease the sum of the tail and filesize fields
  • do not modify any bytes of an existing payload except to remove bytes from the start when increasing the tail field or add bytes to the end when increasing the filesize field

The Rhizome insert operation enforces these rules if it has access to a prior version of the journal, but this cannot provide a guarantee, since an update could be performed in the absence of a prior version, in which case the rules cannot be checked.

The Rhizome transport takes advantage of the append-only property of journals by only transferring the newly-appended end of a payload (the “head”) during synchronisation. The Rhizome store reclaims space from the stored payloads of journals by discarding bytes over which the tail has advanced.

Rhizome REST API common features

Rhizome HTTP content types

rhizome/manifest

Serval DNA POST requests that take Rhizome manifest parameters use the non-standard rhizome/manifest content type in the parameter's form part. See the insert request for an example.

Serval DNA also uses this content type when it returns a manifest in an HTTP response. See the get manifest request for an example.

Currently only one format is supported, denoted text+binarysig, which must be explicitly specified, so the correct Content-Type header is:

Content-Type: rhizome/manifest; format=text+binarysig

This format is described in detail in the manifest section.

In future, other formats may be supported, for example, all-binary or all-text.

rhizome/bid

Serval DNA POST requests that take Bundle ID parameters use the non-standard rhizome/bid content type in the parameter's form part. See the insert request for an example.

At present only the hex format is supported, and must be explicitly specified. A missing or different format will cause a 415 Unsupported Media Type response. The correct Content-Type header is:

Content-Type: rhizome/bid; format=hex

Hex format parameter values may only contain ASCII characters from the set 0123456789ABCDEFabcdef; any other character (such as a trailing newline) will cause a 400 Bad Request response.

In future other formats may be supported, such as Base-64, 7-bit binary, or 8-bit binary.

rhizome/bundlesecret

Serval DNA POST requests that take bundle secret parameters use the non-standard rhizome/bundlesecret; format=hex content type in the parameter's form part. See the insert request for an example.

At present only the hex format is supported, and must be explicitly specified. A missing or different format will cause a 415 Unsupported Media Type response. The correct Content-Type header is:

Content-Type: rhizome/bundlesecret; format=hex

Hex format parameter values may only contain ASCII characters from the set 0123456789ABCDEFabcdef; any other character (such as a trailing newline) will cause a 400 Bad Request response.

In future other formats may be supported, such as Base-64, 7-bit binary, or 8-bit binary.

Rhizome HTTP response headers

All Rhizome requests that fetch or insert a single bundle, whatever the outcome, contain the following HTTP headers in the response:

Serval-Rhizome-Result-Bundle-Status-Code: <integer>
Serval-Rhizome-Result-Bundle-Status-Message: <text>
Serval-Rhizome-Result-Payload-Status-Code: <integer>
Serval-Rhizome-Result-Payload-Status-Message: <text>

Rhizome HTTP response bundle headers

All Rhizome requests that successfully fetch or insert a single bundle contain the following HTTP headers in the response, which convey the core manifest fields:

Serval-Rhizome-Bundle-Id: <hex64bid>
Serval-Rhizome-Bundle-Version: <integer>
Serval-Rhizome-Bundle-Filesize: <integer>

If filesize is not zero, then the following HTTP header is present:

Serval-Rhizome-Bundle-Filehash: <hex128>

If the bundle is a journal, then the following HTTP header is present:

Serval-Rhizome-Bundle-Tail: <integer>

In addition, none, some or all of the following HTTP headers may be present, to convey optional fields that are present in the bundle's manifest:

Serval-Rhizome-Bundle-Sender: <hex64sid>
Serval-Rhizome-Bundle-Recipient: <hex64sid>
Serval-Rhizome-Bundle-BK: <hex64>
Serval-Rhizome-Bundle-Crypt: 0 or 1
Serval-Rhizome-Bundle-Service: <token>
Serval-Rhizome-Bundle-Name: <quotedstring>
Serval-Rhizome-Bundle-Date: <integer>

All single-bundle operations, unless otherwise specified, attempt to deduce the bundle's author by finding whether the manifest's signature could be re-created using a Rhizome Secret from a currently unlocked identity in the keyring. If the manifest sender field is present or the author has been cached in the Rhizome database, then only that identity is tried, otherwise every single identity in the keyring is tested. If a signing identity is found, then the following HTTP header is present:

Serval-Rhizome-Bundle-Author: <hex64sid>

(In future, Serval DNA may cache the authors it discovers, to avoid redundant re-testing of all keyring identities, but cached authors will not be automatically treated as verified when read from the Rhizome database, because the database could be altered by external means.)

If the bundle's secret is known, either because it was supplied in the request or was deduced from the manifest's Bundle Key field and the author's Rhizome Secret, then the following HTTP header is present:

Serval-Rhizome-Bundle-Secret: <hex64>

The following HTTP headers might be present at the sole discretion of the server, but they are not guaranteed, and future upgrades of Serval DNA may remove them. They reveal internal details of the storage of the bundle:

Serval-Rhizome-Bundle-Rowid: <integer>
Serval-Rhizome-Bundle-Inserttime: <integer>

Rhizome JSON result

All Rhizome requests to fetch or insert a single bundle that do not produce a special response content for the outcome, return the following augmented JSON result object as the HTTP response content:

{
    "http_status_code": ...,
    "http_status_message": "...",
    "rhizome_bundle_status_code": ...,
    "rhizome_bundle_status_message": "...",
    "rhizome_payload_status_code": ...,
    "rhizome_payload_status_message": "..."
}

Bundle status code

All Rhizome operations that involve fetching and/or inserting a single manifest into the Rhizome store return a bundle status code, which describes the outcome of the operation. Some codes have different meanings in the context of a fetch or an insertion, and some codes can only be produced by insertions. The bundle status code determines the HTTP response code.

code HTTP meaning
-1 500 internal error
0 201 “new”; (fetch) bundle not found; (insert) bundle added to store
1 200 “same”; (fetch) bundle found; (insert) bundle already in store
2 200 “duplicate”; (insert only) duplicate bundle already in store
3 202 “old”; (insert only) newer version of bundle already in store
4 422 “invalid”; (insert only) manifest is malformed or invalid
5 419 “fake”; (insert only) manifest signature is invalid
6 422 “inconsistent”; (insert only) manifest filesize/filehash does not match payload
7 202 “no room”; (insert only) doesn't fit; store may contain more important bundles
8 419 “readonly”; (insert only) cannot modify manifest because secret is unknown
9 423 “busy”; Rhizome store database is currently busy (re-try)
10 422 “manifest too big”; (insert only) manifest size exceeds limit

Bundle status message

The bundle status message is a short English text that explains the meaning of its accompanying bundle status code, to assist with diagnosis. The message for a code may differ across requests and may change when Serval DNA is upgraded, so it cannot be relied upon as a means to programmatically detect the outcome of an operation.

Payload status code

All Rhizome operations that involve fetching and/or inserting a single payload into the Rhizome store return a payload status code, which describes the outcome of the payload operation, and elaborates on the the reason for the accompanying bundle status code. Some codes have different meanings in the context of a fetch or an insertion, and some codes can only be produced by insertions. The payload status code overrides the HTTP response code derived from the bundle status code if it is numerically higher.

code HTTP meaning
-1 500 internal error
0 201 "empty"; zero length payload
1 201 "new"; (fetch) payload not found; (insert) payload added to store
2 200 "found"; (fetch) payload found; (insert) payload already in store
3 422 "wrong size"; payload size does not match manifest filesize field
4 422 "wrong hash"; payload hash does not match manifest filehash field
5 419 "key unknown"; (fetch) cannot decrypt; (insert) cannot encrypt
6 202 "too big"; (insert only) payload is too big to fit in store
7 202 "evicted"; (insert only) payload evicted; other payloads are ranked higher
8 423 "busy"; Rhizome store database is currently busy (re-try)

Payload status message

The payload status message is short English text that explains the meaning of its accompanying payload status code, to assist diagnosis. The message for a code may differ across requests and may change when Serval DNA is upgraded, so it cannot be relied upon as a means to programmatically detect the outcome of an operation.

Rhizome REST API operations

GET /restful/rhizome/bundlelist.json

This request allows a client to discover all the bundles currently held in the local Rhizome store.

Fetches a list of all bundles currently in Serval DNA's Rhizome store, in order of descending insertion time starting with the most recently inserted. The list is returned in the body of the response in JSON table format with the following columns:

  • .token - either null or a string value that can be used as the token in a newsince request.

  • _id - the Rhizome database row identifier; a unique integer per bundle with no guarantees of sequence or re-use after deletion.

  • service - the string value of the manifest's service field, or null if the manifest has no service field.

  • id - the Bundle ID; a string containing 64 hexadecimal digits.

  • version - the bundle version; a positive integer with a maximum value of 2^64 − 1.

  • date - the bundle publication time; an integral number of milliseconds since the Unix time epoch, or null if the manifest has no date field.

  • .inserttime - the time that the bundle was inserted into the local Rhizome store. This field is created using the local system clock, so comparisons with the date field cannot be relied upon as having any meaning.

  • .author - the SID of the local (unlocked) identity that created the bundle; either a string containing 64 hexadecimal digits, or null if the bundle author cannot be deduced. In the case of null, the .fromhere field will be 0 (“not authored here”). In the case of a SID, the .fromhere indicates whether authorship was absent, likely or certain.

  • .fromhere - an integer flag that indicates whether the bundle was authored on the local device:

    • 0 (“absent”) means that the bundle was not authored by any unlocked identity on this device.

    • 1 (“likely”) means that the author whose SID is given in the .author field is present in the local keyring but authorship (the manifest's signature) has not been cryptographically verified, so attempting to update this bundle may yet fail. This is the usual value because cryptographic verification is not performed while listing bundles, since it is slow and costly in CPU and battery.

    • 2 (“certain”) means that the author whose SID is given in the .author field is present in the local keyring and has been cryptographically verified as the true author of the bundle, ie, yields a correct Bundle Secret. This value will usually only be returned for locally-authored bundles that have recently been examined individually (eg, GET /restful/rhizome/BID.rhm), if Serval DNA has cached the result of the verification in memory.

  • filesize - the number of bytes in the bundle's payload; an integer zero or positive with a maximum value of 2^64 − 1.

  • filehash - if the bundle has a non-empty payload, then the SHA-512 hash of the payload content; a string containing 128 hexadecimal digits, otherwise null if the payload is empty (filesize = 0).

  • sender - the SID of the bundle's sender; either a string containing 64 hexadecimal digits, or null if the manifest has no sender field.

  • recipient - the SID of the bundle's recipient; either a string containing 64 hexadecimal digits, or null if the manifest has no recipient field.

  • name - the string value of the manifest's name field, or null if the manifest has no name field.

GET /restful/rhizome/newsince[/TOKEN]/bundlelist.json

This request allows a client to receive near-real-time notification of newly-arriving Rhizome bundles.

Fetches a list of all bundles currently in Serval DNA's Rhizome store, in order of ascending insertion time, since (but not including) the bundle identified by TOKEN. If present, TOKEN must be a value taken from the non-null .token field of any previous bundlelist.json request.

The list is returned in the body of the response in JSON table format, exactly the same as GET /restful/rhizome/bundlelist.json, but with the following differences:

  • Bundles are listed in order of ascending, not descending, insertion time, ie, the most recent last.

  • Once all bundles have been listed, the response does not finish immediately, but blocks for approximately 60 seconds while waiting for new bundles to appear (get added to the Rhizome store).

  • The final “]}” of the JSON table “rows” array and top-level object are not sent until the response finishes, so in order to make proper use of this request, the client must be able to incrementally parse partial JSON as it arrives.

GET /restful/rhizome/BID.rhm

Fetches the manifest for the bundle whose id is BID (64 hex digits), eg:

/restful/rhizome/1702BD647D614DB72C36BD634B6870CA31040C2EEC5069AEC0C0841D0CC671BE.rhm

If the manifest is found in the local Rhizome store, then the response will be 200 OK and:

  • the bundle status code for "same"
  • the payload status code, if present in the response, is not relevant, so must be ignored
  • the bundle headers give information about the found bundle, some of which is duplicated from the manifest
  • the response's Content-Type is rhizome/manifest
  • the response's Content-Length is the size, in bytes, of the entire manifest, including its binary signature
  • the response's content is the Rhizome manifest

If the manifest is not found in the local Rhizome store, then the response will be 404 Not Found and:

GET /restful/rhizome/BID/raw.bin

Fetches the "raw" (encrypted) payload for the bundle whose id is BID (64 hex digits), eg:

/restful/rhizome/1702BD647D614DB72C36BD634B6870CA31040C2EEC5069AEC0C0841D0CC671BE/raw.bin

If the manifest and the payload are both found in the local Rhizome store, then the response will be 200 OK and:

  • the bundle status code for "same"
  • the payload status code for "empty" if the payload has zero length, otherwise "found"
  • the bundle headers give information about the found bundle, some of which is duplicated from the manifest
  • the response's Content-Type is application/octet-stream
  • the response's Content-Length is the size, in bytes, of the raw payload
  • the response's content is the bundle's payload exactly as stored in Rhizome; if the payload is encrypted (the manifest's crypt field is 1) then the payload is not decrypted

If the manifest is not found in the local Rhizome store, then the response will be 404 Not Found and:

If the manifest is found in the local Rhizome store but the payload is not found, then the response will be 404 Not Found and:

GET /restful/rhizome/BID/decrypted.bin

Fetches the decrypted payload for the bundle whose id is BID (64 hex digits), eg:

/restful/rhizome/1702BD647D614DB72C36BD634B6870CA31040C2EEC5069AEC0C0841D0CC671BE/decrypted.bin

If the manifest and payload are both found and the payload is encrypted (the manifest's crypt field is 1), then the payload secret is determined as follows:

  • if the manifest has both sender and recipient SIDs:

    • if the recipient's identity is found (unlocked) in the keyring, then the secret is derived from the recipient's Serval ID secret; otherwise
    • if the recipient's identity is not found in the keyring (locked or missing) but the sender's identity is found (unlocked) in the keyring, then the secret is derived from the sender's Serval ID secret; otherwise
    • if neither identity is found in the keyring (both are locked or missing), then the the payload secret is unknown.
  • otherwise, the payload secret is derived directly from the Bundle Secret, which in turn is deduced from the BK Bundle Key field in the manifest, if present, as long as the bundle's author can be found (unlocked) in the keyring. If there is no BK field, or if no unlocked identity in the keyring can provide the necessary Rhizome Secret, then the payload secret is unknown.

The responses are identical to GET /restful/rhizome/BID/raw.bin, with the following variations:

If the payload is encrypted and the payload secret is known, then the response will be 200 OK and:

  • the bundle status code for "same"
  • the payload status code for "empty" if the decrypted payload has zero length, otherwise "found"
  • the bundle headers give information about the found bundle, some of which is duplicated from the manifest
  • the response's Content-Type is application/octet-stream
  • the response's Content-Length is the size, in bytes, of the decrypted payload
  • the response's content is the bundle's decrypted payload

If the payload is encrypted and the payload secret is not known then:

POST /restful/rhizome/insert

The Rhizome insert POST request allows a client to add a new bundle to the Rhizome store, or update an existing bundle in the store. This request cannot be used to create or update journals; use the append request instead.

This request does not accept any query parameters in the path, but does accept parameters using a Content-Type of multipart/form-data, in which each parameter has its own content type. For example:

    POST /restful/rhizome/insert HTTP/1.0
    Content-Type: multipart/form-data;boundary=OoOoOoOo
    
    --OoOoOoOo
    Content-Disposition: form-data; name=bundle-author
    Content-Type: serval/sid;format=hex
    
    3DA7BA5E97DF4918DB5528450875EC9F788F0C37BC2603FD1BA7FF276C575018
    --OoOoOoOo
    Content-Disposition: form-data; name=manifest
    Content-Type: rhizome/manifest;format=text+binarysig
    
    service=file
    name=helloworld.txt
    
    --OoOoOoOo
    Content-Disposition: form-data; name=payload; filename="helloworld.txt"
    Content-Type: application/octet-stream
    
    Hello world!
    
    --OoOoOoOo--

The parameters are all optional under various conditions:

  • bundle-id = the Bundle ID of an existing bundle to update:

    • 64 hexadecimal digits
    • Content-Type must be rhizome/bid
    • if the bundle currently exists in the Rhizome store then a copy of its manifest is used as the basis of the new bundle, omitting its version, filesize, filehash fields (which must be supplied or inferred anew).
  • bundle-author = the SID of the bundle's author:

    • 64 hexadecimal digits;
    • Content-Type must be serval/sid
    • the bundle author sets (or removes) the bundle's BK field, overriding any BK field in the partial manifest supplied in the manifest parameter or in the existing bundle nominated by the bundle-id parameter;
    • if there is no unlocked identity in the keyring with the given SID, then the new bundle will be an anonymous bundle with no BK field;
    • this parameter must come before the manifest parameter, otherwise the request fails with status 400 Bad Request and the message ‘Spurious "bundle-id" form part’.
  • bundle-secret = the Bundle Secret:

    • 64 hexadecimal digits
    • Content-Type must be rhizome/bundlesecret
    • is needed in order to create a bundle with a specific Bundle ID (supplied in the manifest parameter), or to update an existing bundle that is anonymous or the author is not a currently unlocked identity in the keyring.
  • manifest = a partial, unsigned manifest:

    • Content-Type must be rhizome/manifest
    • the fields in this manifest are used to form the new bundle's manifest, overwriting the fields of any existing manifest specified by the bundle-id parameter, if given.
  • payload = the content of the new bundle's payload:

    • Content-Type is currently ignored, but in future it may be used to determine the default values of some manifest fields;
    • this parameter must come after the manifest parameter, otherwise the request fails with status 400 Bad Request and the message ‘Missing "manifest" form part’;
    • the payload parameter must not be supplied if the filesize field in the manifest parameter is zero.

The response body is always a Rhizome JSON result object, and the bundle headers give information about the manifest.

The insertion logic proceeds in the following steps:

  1. If a bundle-id parameter was supplied and the given bundle exists in the Rhizome store, then the new bundle's manifest is initialised by copying all the fields from the existing manifest.

  2. If a partial manifest was supplied in the manifest parameter, then its fields are copied into the new manifest, overwriting any that were copied in step 1. If the partial manifest is malformed (syntax error) or contains a core field with an invalid value, then the request fails with status 422 Unprocessable Entity and the bundle status code for “invalid”.

  3. If the tail field is present in the new manifest then the new bundle is a journal, so the request fails with status 422 Unprocessable Entity and the bundle status code for “invalid”. Journals can only be created and updated using the append request.

  4. If the bundle-secret parameter was supplied, then a public key (Bundle ID) is derived from the Bundle Secret, and:

    • if the new manifest has no id field, then the id field is set to the derived public key;

    • otherwise, if the new manifest's id field is not equal to the derived public key, then the supplied secret is wrong, so the request fails with status 419 Authentication Timeout and the bundle status code for “readonly”;

    Otherwise, if no bundle-secret parameter was supplied:

    • if the new manifest has no id field, then a new Bundle Secret is generated randomly, the Bundle ID is derived from the new Bundle Secret, and the id field set to that Bundle ID;

    • if the new manifest already has an id field but no BK field (Bundle Key) (ie, the bundle is anonymous), then the Bundle Secret cannot be discovered, so the request fails with status 419 Authentication Timeout and the bundle status code for “readonly”.

    • otherwise, if the bundle-author parameter was given, then that SID is looked up in the keyring. If the identity is found, then the Bundle Secret is derived from the combination of the BK field (Bundle Key) with the identity's Rhizome Secret, and the Bundle ID is derived from the Bundle Secret. If the identity was not found or the derived Bundle ID does not equal the id field then the request fails with status 419 Authentication Timeout and the bundle status code for “readonly”.

    • otherwise, if no bundle-author parameter was given but the manifest has a BK field, then the keyring is searched for an identity whose Rhizome Secret combined with the BK field (Bundle Key) produces a Bundle Secret whose derived Bundle ID matches the id field. The search starts with the identity given by the sender field, if present. If none is found, then the request fails with status 419 Authentication Timeout and the bundle status code for “readonly”, otherwise the author is deduced to be the found identity.

    • otherwise, if no bundle-author parameter was given and the manifest has no BK field, then an anonymous bundle is produced, ie, with no BK key.

  5. If the bundle-author parameter was given and step 4 set the id field (either derived from the bundle-secret parameter or randomly generated), then the bundle-author SID is looked up in the keyring. If not found, then the request fails with status 419 Authentication Timeout and the bundle status code for “readonly”. If found, then the author's Rhizome Secret is used to calculate the Bundle Key and set the BK field.

  6. The following fields are initialised if they are missing:

    • service to the value file
    • version to the current Unix time in milliseconds since the epoch
    • date to the current Unix time in milliseconds since the epoch
    • crypt to 1 if the sender and recipient fields are both set
  7. If the payload parameter is given and is non-empty, then its value is stored in the store, and its size and SHA-512 digest computed. If the manifest is missing either or both of the filesize and filehash fields, then the missing ones are filled in from the computed values. If the manifest filesize or filehash fields do not match the computed values, then the request fails with status 422 Unprocessable Entity and the bundle status code for “inconsistent”.

  8. If the manifest is not valid then the request fails with status 422 Unprocessable Entity and the bundle status code for “invalid”.

  9. If step 4 set the id field (either derived from the bundle-secret parameter or randomly generated) and the bundle is a duplicate of a bundle that is already in the store, then the request finishes with status 200 OK and the bundle status code for “duplicate”. Bundles are considered duplicates if they have:

    • an identical payload (identical filesize and filehash fields), and
    • the same service field, and
    • the same name field, and
    • the same sender field, and
    • the same recipient field.
  10. The manifest is signed using the Bundle Secret, and the signature appended to the manifest after a single ASCII NUL (0) separator byte. If the result exceeds the maximum manifest size (8 KiB) then the request fails with status 422 Unprocessable Entity and the bundle status code for “manifest too big”.

  11. If the Rhizome store already contains a manifest with the same Bundle ID, then its version is compared with the new manifest's version.

    • If they have the same version, then the new manifest is not stored, and the request returns status 200 OK and the bundle status code for “same”.

    • If the new manifest's version is less than the stored manifest's, then the new manifest is not stored, and the request returns status 202 Accepted and the bundle status code for “old”.

  12. Otherwise, the new manifest is stored in the Rhizome store, replacing any existing manifest with the same Bundle ID. The request returns status 201 Created and the bundle status code for “new”.

POST /restful/rhizome/append

This request allows a client to add a new journal bundle to the Rhizome store, or update an existing one. It takes exactly the same parameters as the insert operation, to which it is identical in all respects except as follows:

The steps of the insertion logic have these variations:

  1. If the bundle-id parameter specifies an existing manifest, then the version, filesize and filehash fields are not copied from the existing manifest to the new manifest.

  2. The validity checks on any partial manifest given in the manifest parameter will also fail if the partial manifest contains a version, filesize or filehash field. After the partial manifest has been copied into the new manifest, if the bundle-id parameter was not given or specified a bundle that was not found in the store (step 1), then the filesize and tail fields are initialised to zero (0) if they are missing.

  3. If the tail field is missing from the new manifest then the bundle is not a journal, so the request fails with status 422 Unprocessable Entity and the bundle status code for “invalid”.

  4. No change.

  5. No change.

  6. No change.

  7. After the payload has been stored, the filesize and filehash fields are always set, overriding any that were already present. Also, the version is always set to tail + filesize.

  8. No change.

  9. No change.

  10. No change.

  11. No change.

  12. No change.

POST /restful/rhizome/import

The import POST request allows the client to store a valid bundle (manifest and payload) in the store that may have been obtained through some other means, such as exporting from another store using the manifest request and the raw payload request.

The response body is always a Rhizome JSON result object, and the bundle headers give information about the imported manifest, whether or not it was already present in the store.

This request accepts the following optional query parameters in the path:

  • id = the ID of the bundle
  • version = the version of the bundle

Both query parameters must be supplied together, or neither. If only one is supplied, or has an invalid value, then then the request fails with status 400 Bad request and a message like ‘Missing "id" parameter’ or ‘Invalid "version" parameter’.

This request also accepts the following parameters using a Content-Type of multipart/form-data, in which each parameter has its own content type:

  • manifest (required) = a signed manifest:

    • Content-Type must be rhizome/manifest;
    • if the id and version query parameters were supplied, then their values must match the corresponding manifest fields.
  • payload = the content of the bundle's payload:

    • the payload parameter must be supplied if the filesize field in the manifest parameter is non-zero, otherwise it must not be supplied;
    • this parameter must come after the manifest parameter, otherwise the request fails with status 400 Bad Request and the message ‘Missing "manifest" form part’;
    • Content-Type is currently ignored, but in future it may be used to determine the default values of some manifest fields;
    • if the bundle is encrypted (the manifest crypt field is 1) then the payload must be in encrypted form, not plain text.

The import logic proceeds in the following steps:

  1. If the id and version query parameters were given, then check if the store already contains a bundle with that Bundle ID and Bundle version. If so, then the request succeeds with status 200 OK and:

    • the remaining body of the request will not be read
    • the bundle status code is "same"
    • the payload status code is "empty" if the payload has zero length, otherwise "found"
    • the only bundle headers in the response are:
      • Serval-Rhizome-Bundle-Id
      • Serval-Rhizome-Bundle-Version
      • Serval-Rhizome-Bundle-Filesize
  2. As soon as the manifest form part is received, if the manifest is not valid or if the id and version query parameters were supplied but do not match the id and version fields of the manifest, then the request fails with status 422 Unprocessable Entity and the bundle status code for “invalid”.

  3. If the manifest's signature does not verify, then the request fails with status 419 Authentication Timeout and the bundle status code for “fake”.

  4. If the payload form part is provided and is non-empty, then its content is stored in the store, and its size and SHA-512 digest computed. If the manifest filesize and filehash fields do not match the computed values, then the request fails with status 422 Unprocessable Entity and the bundle status code for “inconsistent”.

  5. If the Rhizome store already contains a manifest with the same Bundle ID, then its version is compared with the new manifest's version.

    • If they have the same version, then the new manifest is not stored, and the request returns status 200 OK and the bundle status code for “same”.

    • If the new manifest's version is less than the stored manifest's, then the new manifest is not stored, and the request returns status 202 Accepted and the bundle status code for “old”.

  6. Otherwise, the new manifest is stored in the Rhizome store, replacing any existing manifest with the same Bundle ID. The request returns status 201 Created and the bundle status code for “new”.


Copyright 2015-2017 Serval Project Inc.
CC-BY-4.0 Available under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International licence.

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