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README.md

Server Farmer backup architecture

Overview

Distributed backup is one of the key functionalities of Server Farmer.

All hosts with installed Server Farmer, unless explicitly disabled, are doing their own backup (to specified directory on local drive), which is then pulled using scp by special host named backup collector (which is responsible for long-term backup storage).

This part of backup documentation describes only local aspects. See sm-backup-collector repository for details about backup transfer, central storage etc.

Backup sources

There are several types of backup sources:

local directories

fs/ directory contains scripts responsible for detection, which directories should be backed up, and which not. The general idea is that system directories should be skipped as useless and just wasting space.

There are 5 conditions, under which particular directory will be backed up:

  • is not a backup target (sub)directory (to avoid backup loops)
  • was listed by fs/detect.sh script
  • is not empty
  • doesn't contain .nobackup file
  • is a physical directory, not a directory symlink
local MySQL databases

db-utils extension is responsible for detecting MySQL configurations, that allow automatic backup. Right now, there are 2 supported configuration styles:

  • Debian (used also on Ubuntu and several other Debian clones) - where /etc/mysql/debian.cnf file contains database login and password
  • DirectAdmin panel - where /usr/local/directadmin/conf/mysql.conf file contains database login and password

MySQL backup logic is written is reusable way, so you can easily write your own backup scripts, backing up eg. databases in Docker containers, or running on other hosts, by using backup_mysql function from /opt/farm/ext/backup/functions script.

All databases are dumped into separate mysql-*.sql files, as well as grants list, which is dumped to mysql-grants.sql file (mysql prefix can be changed in your custom scripts).

Important note: by default, MySQL backup is done in FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK mode. This is perfectly fine, if you have small or medium databases, that dump in seconds or less. However, if you have really big database(s), it's better to disable cron entry /opt/farm/ext/backup/cron/mysql.sh (comment it out, not delete!) and write custom backup script (backup_mysql function takes 8th argument, that can disable table locking).

local Postgres databases

Postgres backup requires that peer authentication for postgres user is enabled. Similar to MySQL, all databases are dumped into separate files.

local MongoDB databases

MongoDB backup supports 2 configuration styles, with /etc/mongodb.conf and /etc/mongod.conf configuration files, with either bind_ip or bindIp configuration directives - so it covers all MongoDB versions since 2.x to the current one.

Other requirements:

  • /usr/bin/mongodump file is present (in some Linux distributions, it's a part of separate package, eg. mongodb-clients or mongo-tools)
  • MongoDB daemon is properly configured to listen either on 0.0.0.0, 127.0.0.1 or one of local IP addresses (primary for each network interface device)
  • on port 27017, or other explicitly set in config file
  • MongoDB doesn't require authentication (which is the default mode)

Empty databases are skipped, and all other ones are exported in BSON format, then packed into .tar archives.

remote Postgres databases (eg. Amazon RDS)

Remote Postgres databases can be backed up using backup_postgres_remotedb function from /opt/farm/ext/backup/functions script (one logical database at a time, as opposed to backup_mysql function). You just need to write your backup script, that will pass proper connection parameters to this function.

Important note: this backup method uses /root/.pgpass file, which is overwritten and removed each time. So it is incompatible with storing static passwords in this file.

other databases

Direct support for other database types is not planned, since their data directories are detected and backed up just like other local directories. In some edge cases, you may need to adjust some settings related to saving data to disk.

Backup ranges

daily

Is the primary backup range. Most directories, and all databases, work in daily mode.

weekly

These directories are backed up just once a week (on Sundays):

  • /home subdirectories
  • /boot directory
  • directories with .weekly file inside

custom

This mode is not executed automatically by default. It is a way for you to implement custom backup schemes, eg. to backup huge databases, mailboxes or other problematic data sources, when the whole backup process is divided into several days/phases.

Backup target directory

All backups are first created in local directory, by default in /backup (it can be configured using get-local-backup-directory.sh script inside Server Farmer main repository.

This directory acts as a temporary directory, and also contains 3 subdirectories: daily, weekly and custom. Temporary archive is created in /backup, and when finished, moved to eg. /backup/daily.

Magic files

There are 3 "magic" files, that are recognized by Server Farmer:

  • .weekly causes backup scripts to skip this directory in daily mode (backup is done only on Sundays)
  • .nobackup completely removes parent directory from backup
  • .subdirectories - works only inside /var/www directory, causes backing up each /var/www subdirectory separately, instead of just /var/www as a whole

Backup encryption

Created backup archives are compressed and possibly encrypted on-the-fly (during creation), so nobody can see their contents. GPG encryption is used for that.

To enable encryption, you need to make the following changes in your sf-keys repository fork:

  • generate new GPG RSA key pair (manually) and store the private key in a safe place
  • add your key ID to get-gpg-backup-key.sh script
  • add your key to gpg/ directory (filename must match key ID with .pub extension)
  • commit and push changes
  • re-execute /opt/farm/setup.sh on all your farm

This will install sf-gpg extension, and execute GPG key setup, so it will require your attention and manual help (only once per host).

If get-gpg-backup-key.sh script returns nothing, backups are not encrypted - just compressed with gzip -c9.

Disabling backup

You can completely disable backup on current host by creating /etc/local/.config/backup.disable file. It will prevent sf-backup extensions from continuing setup, however if this file is created after setup, it's not enough, and you have to disable cron scripts using by running /opt/farm/ext/backup/uninstall.sh script.

Backup of LXC and other container types

There are multiple types of paravirtualization mechanisms: Docker, LXC, OpenVZ, Xen PV, nspawn, linux-vserver etc.

This is how Server Farmer treats them:

  1. LXC is a normal, active platform, on which Server Farmer can be installed and used, similar to any other virtual/physical machine - however:
  • backup of local directories on LXC is skipped
  • local databases are still backed up
  • parent host detects subdirectories of /var/lib/lxc directory as source directories to backup (each container is backed up to separate archive)
  • LXC hosts are not registered to backup collector - instead, backup collector pulls backups of the whole containers from parent host
  1. Docker containers are supported as passive containers (sf-execute command on farm manager can execute commands on them, but installing Server Farmer on them is unsupported. These types of containers are backed up as a whole /var/lib/docker directory (all containers in single archive).

  2. Other types of containers (OpenVZ, Xen PV, nspawn, linux-vserver etc.) are handled just like all other hosts.

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