An implementation of the Fowler–Noll–Vo hash function.
The FNV hash function is a custom
Hasher implementation that is more
efficient for smaller hash keys.
The Rust Standard Library documentation states that while the default
Hasher implementation, SipHash, is good in many cases, it is notably slower
than other algorithms with short keys, such as when you have a map of integers
to other values. In cases like these, FNV is demonstrably faster.
Its disadvantages are that it performs badly on larger inputs, and provides no protection against collision attacks, where a malicious user can craft specific keys designed to slow a hasher down. Thus, it is important to profile your program to ensure that you are using small hash keys, and be certain that your program could not be exposed to malicious inputs (including being a networked server).
The Rust compiler itself uses FNV, as it is not worried about denial-of-service attacks, and can assume that its inputs are going to be small—a perfect use case for FNV.
To include this crate in your program, add the following to your
[dependencies] fnv = "1.0.3"
Using FNV in a HashMap
FnvHashMap type alias is the easiest way to use the standard library’s
HashMap with FNV.
use fnv::FnvHashMap; let mut map = FnvHashMap::default(); map.insert(1, "one"); map.insert(2, "two"); map = FnvHashMap::with_capacity_and_hasher(10, Default::default()); map.insert(1, "one"); map.insert(2, "two");
Note, the standard library’s
are only implemented for the
RandomState hasher, so using
get the hasher is the next best option.
Using FNV in a HashSet
FnvHashSet is a type alias for the standard library’s
use fnv::FnvHashSet; let mut set = FnvHashSet::default(); set.insert(1); set.insert(2); set = FnvHashSet::with_capacity_and_hasher(10, Default::default()); set.insert(1); set.insert(2);