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Write RSpec examples and generate coverage reports for Chef recipes!

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README.md

Built on Travis

Introduction

ChefSpec makes it easy to write examples for Opscode Chef cookbooks. Get fast feedback on cookbook changes before you spin up a node to do integration against.

ChefSpec runs your cookbook but without actually converging the node that your examples are being executed on. This has two benefits:

  • It's really fast!
  • You can write examples that vary node attributes, operating system or search results in order to test thoroughly that your cookbok works correctly.

ChefSpec aims to make Chef development more productive by giving you faster feedback on cookbook changes.

Start by watching Jim Hopp's excellent Test Driven Development for Chef Practitioners talk from ChefConf which contains lots of great examples of using ChefSpec.

Writing a cookbook example

This is an extremely basic Chef recipe that just installs an operating system package.

1  package "foo" do
2    action :install
3  end

This is a matching spec file that defines an example that checks that the package would be installed.

1  require "chefspec"
2
3  describe "example::default" do
4    let(:chef_run) { ChefSpec::ChefRunner.new.converge 'example::default' }
5    it "should install foo" do
6      chef_run.should install_package 'foo'
7    end
8  end

Let's step through this spec file to see what is happening:

  1. At the top of the spec file we require the chefspec gem.
  2. The describe keyword is part of RSpec and indicates that everything from this line up until line 8 is describing the example::default recipe. Normally the convention is that you would have a separate spec file per recipe.
  3. The let block on line 4 creates the ChefSpec runner and then does a fake Chef run with the run list of example::default. Any subsequent examples can then refer to chef_run in order to make assertions about the resources that were created during the mock converge.
  4. The it block on line 5 is an example that specifies that the foo package should have been installed. Normally you will have multiple it blocks per recipe, each making a single assertion.

Generating an example

Ideally you should be writing your specs in tandem with your recipes and practicising TDD. However if you have an existing cookbook and you are using Chef 0.10.0 or greater then ChefSpec can generate placeholder RSpec examples for you. Knife will automagically detect the ChefSpec Knife Plugin and provide you with the new create_specs subcommand.

You can choose to run this immediately after creating a new cookbook like so:

$ knife cookbook create -o . my_new_cookbook
$ knife cookbook create_specs -o . my_new_cookbook

The first command is a Knife built-in and will generate the standard Chef cookbook structure, including a default recipe. The second is provided by ChefSpec and will add a specs directory and a default_spec.rb placeholder.

You'll see the following output:

** Creating specs for cookbook: my_new_cookbook

If you look at the generated example you'll see that on line 6 there is a pending keyword indicating where you will later add your cookbook example:

$ cat -n my_new_cookbook/spec/default_spec.rb
1  require 'chefspec'
2
3  describe 'my_new_cookbook::default' do
4    let(:chef_run) { ChefSpec::ChefRunner.new.converge 'my_new_cookbook::default' }
5    it 'should do something' do
6      pending 'Your recipe examples go here.'
7    end
8  end

You can run the example using rspec:

$ rspec my_new_cookbook

And you'll see output similar to the following:

Pending:
  my_new_cookbook::default should do something
    # Your recipe examples go here.
    # ./my_new_cookbook/spec/default_spec.rb:5

Finished in 0.00051 seconds
1 example, 0 failures, 1 pending

Examples should do more than restate static resources

Being able to write examples for simple cases like this is of some use, but because you declare resources in Chef declaratively it can feel like you are merely repeating the same resources in example form.

However the recipes that you write using Chef will often declare different resources based on different inputs:

  1. The node attributes for the node converged.
  2. The automatically populated node attributes provided by Ohai (operating system and version are examples of these).
  3. Search results from search queries performed within the recipe.
  4. Lookup of values from within databags.

This is where ChefSpec really starts to shine. ChefSpec makes it possible to write examples for all of the variations of the different inputs above and make assertions about the created resources. Verifying correct behaviour for all of the variations with real converges can be incredibly time consuming. Doing this with real converges is prohibitively slow, but with ChefSpec you can identify regressions very quickly while developing your cookbook.

Setting node attributes

You can set node attributes within an individual example. In this example the value of the foo attribute will be set to bar on line 3. The example then asserts that a resource is created based on the attribute name. In this example the affected resource is a log resource, but it could just as easily be a template or package name derived from an attribute value.

1  it "should log the foo attribute" do
2    chef_run = ChefSpec::ChefRunner.new
3    chef_run.node.foo = 'bar'
4    chef_run.converge 'example::default'
5    chef_run.should log 'The value of node.foo is: bar'
6  end

A common mistake is to call #converge on the runner before setting the node attributes. If you do this then the attributes will not be set correctly.

1  # Don't do this
2  it "should log the foo attribute" do
3    chef_run = ChefSpec::ChefRunner.new.converge 'example::default'
4    chef_run.node.foo = 'bar'
5    chef_run.should log 'The value of node.foo is: bar'
6  end

To avoid this, you can make use of the alternative syntax for specifying node attributes. Using this approach you pass a block when creating the runner.

1  chef_run = ChefSpec::ChefRunner.new do |node|
2    node['my_attribute'] = 'bar'
3    node['my_other_attribute'] = 'bar2'
4  end
5  chef_run.converge 'example::default'

Ohai Attributes

When you converge a node using Chef a large number of attributes are pre-populated by Chef which runs Ohai to discover information about the node it is running on.

You can use these attributes within your cookbooks - the most common usage is to declare different resources based on the node platform (operating system) but Ohai ships with a large number of plugins that discover everything from hardware to installed language interpreters.

It's useful to be able to override these values from within your cookbook examples in order to assert the resources created on different platforms. In this way you can explore all of the code paths within your cookbook despite running the examples on a different platform altogether. Note that line 2 declares the platform underneath automatic_attrs.

1  chef_run = ChefSpec::ChefRunner.new
2  chef_run.node.automatic_attrs[:platform] = 'Commodore 64'
3  chef_run.converge('example::default').should log
4    'I am running on a Commodore 64.'

Missing attributes

Because Ohai runs a large number of plugins by default, many community cookbooks will assume that a node attribute will be present, and will fail unless a value is provided. Providing values for each of these attributes can detract from the readability of your examples.

Fauxhai from Seth Vargo is a promising solution to this problem because it enables you to re-use sanitized Ohai attribute profiles by name, rather than being required to provide each attribute individually. For more on Fauxhai check out this blog post from CustomInk.

Search Results

Chef cookbooks will often make use of search in order to locate other services within your infrastructure. An example would be a load balancer that searches for the webservers to add to its pool.

You can use the built-in features within RSpec to stub out responses to search queries. Given a recipe that searches for webservers:

1  search(:node, 'role:web') do |web_node|
2    log "Adding webserver to the pool: #{web_node['hostname']}"
3  end

A example that returned a pre-canned search result to the recipe and then asserted that it then logged each node added to the pool might look like this:

1  it "should log each node added to the load balancer pool" do
2    Chef::Recipe.any_instance.stub(:search).with(:node, 'role:web').and_yield(
3      {'hostname' => 'web1.example.com'})
4    chef_run = ChefSpec::ChefRunner.new
5    chef_run.converge 'my_new_cookbook::default'
6    chef_run.should log 'Adding webserver to the pool: web1.example.com'
7  end

Line 2 defines the search response for a search for all nodes with the web role. Line 6 then asserts that the hostname of the returned node is logged as expected.

Making Assertions

Now you have a clear understanding of how to modify the attributes available to your cookbook it's time to explore the support available in ChefSpec for expressing assertions.

Each example (within the it block) has to specify an assertion to be useful. An assertion is a statement about the resources created by your Chef run that the node will be converged against.

Files

A basic form of assertion is to check that a file is created by a cookbook recipe. Note that this won't work for files or directories that are not explicitly declared as resources in the recipe. For example directories created by the installation of a new package are not known to ChefSpec, it is only aware of resources that are defined within your cookbooks.

Assert that a directory would be created:

chef_run.should create_directory '/var/lib/foo'

Assert that a directory would be deleted:

chef_run.should delete_directory '/var/lib/foo'

Assert that a directory would have the correct ownership:

chef_run.directory('/var/lib/foo').should be_owned_by('user', 'group')

Assert that a file would be created:

chef_run.should create_file '/var/log/bar.log'

Assert that a file would be deleted:

chef_run.should delete_file '/var/log/bar.log'

Assert that a file would have the correct ownership:

chef_run.file('/var/log/bar.log').should be_owned_by('user', 'group')

Assert that a file would have the expected content:

chef_run.should create_file_with_content 'hello-world.txt', 'hello world'

Packages

Note that only packages explicitly declared in the cookbook will be matched by these assertions. For example, a package installed only as a dependency of another package would not be matched.

Assert that a package would be installed:

chef_run.should install_package 'foo'

Assert that a package would be installed at a fixed version:

chef_run.should install_package_at_version 'foo', '1.2.3'

Assert that a package would be removed:

chef_run.should remove_package 'foo'

Assert that a package would be purged:

chef_run.should purge_package 'foo'

Assert that a package would be upgraded:

chef_run.should upgrade_package 'foo'

All of the assertions above are also valid for use with RubyGems:

chef_run.should install_gem_package 'foo'

Execute

If you make use of the execute resource within your cookbook recipes it is important to guard for idempotent behaviour. ChefSpec is not smart enough at present to be used to verify that an only_if or not_if condition would be met however.

Assert that a command would be run:

chef_run.should execute_command 'whoami'

Assert that a command would not be run:

chef_run.should_not execute_command 'whoami'

Logging

You can assert that a log resource will be created. Note that this assertion will not match direct use of Chef::Log.

Assert that a log statement would be logged:

chef_run.should log 'A log message from my recipe'

If you want to be able to view the log output at the console you can control the logging level when creating an instance of ChefRunner as below:

let(:chef_run) { ChefSpec::ChefRunner.new(:log_level => :debug) }

Services

Assert that a daemon would be started:

chef_run.should start_service 'food'

Assert that a daemon would be started when the node boots:

chef_run.should set_service_to_start_on_boot 'food'

Assert that a daemon would be stopped:

chef_run.should stop_service 'food'

Assert that a daemon would be restarted:

chef_run.should restart_service 'food'

Assert that a daemon would be reloaded:

chef_run.should reload_service 'food'

Varying the cookbook path

By default chefspec will infer the cookbook_path from the location of the spec. However if you want to use a different path you can pass it in as an argument to the ChefRunner constructor like so:

 1 require 'chefspec'
 2
 3 describe 'foo::default' do
 4   let(:chef_run) {
 5     runner = ChefSpec::ChefRunner.new({:cookbook_path => '/some/path'})
 6     runner.converge 'foo::default'
 7     runner
 8   }
 9   it 'installs the foo package' do
10     chef_run.should install_package 'foo'
11   end
12 end

Writing examples for LWRP's

By default chefspec will override all resources to take no action. In order to allow your LWRP to be run, you have to explicitly tell ChefRunner to step into it:

 1 require 'chefspec'
 2
 3 describe 'foo::default' do
 4   let(:chef_run) {
 5     runner = ChefSpec::ChefRunner.new(:step_into => ['my_lwrp'])
 6     runner.converge 'foo::default'
 7   }
 8   it 'installs the foo package through my_lwrp' do
 9     chef_run.should install_package 'foo'
10   end
11 end

Building

$ bundle install
$ bundle exec rake

Continuous Integration

Chefspec on Travis CI

License

MIT - see the accompanying LICENSE file for details.

Changelog

To see what has changed in recent versions see the CHANGELOG. ChefSpec follows the Rubygems RationalVersioningPolicy.

Contributing

Additional matchers and bugfixes are welcome! Please fork and submit a pull request on an individual branch per change.

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