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// Copy-and-swap
// C++11
#include <utility>
class resource {
int x = 0;
class foo
: p{new resource{}}
{ }
foo(const foo& other)
: p{new resource{*(other.p)}}
{ }
foo(foo&& other)
: p{other.p}
other.p = nullptr;
foo& operator=(foo other)
swap(*this, other);
return *this;
delete p;
friend void swap(foo& first, foo& second)
using std::swap;
swap(first.p, second.p);
resource* p;
// Implement the assignment operator with strong exception safety.
// The copy-and-swap idiom identifies that we can implement a
// classes copy/move assignment operators in terms of its
// copy/move constructor and achieve strong exception safety.
// The class `foo`, on [10-48], has an implementation similar to the
// [rule of five](/patterns/rule-of-five.html), yet its copy and
// move assignment operators have been replaced with a single
// assignment operator on [27-32]. This assignment operator takes its
// argument by value, making use of the existing copy and move
// constructor implementations.
// To implement the assignment operator, we simply need to swap the
// contents of `*this` and the argument, `other`. When `other` goes
// out of scope at the end of the function, it will destroy any
// resources that were originally associated with the current object.
// To achieve this, we define a `swap` function for our class on
// [39-44], which itself calls `swap` on the class's members ([43]).
// We use a using-declaration on [41] to allow `swap` to be found
// via [argument-dependent lookup](
// before using `std::swap` &mdash; this is not strictly necessary
// in our case, because we are only swapping a pointer, but is good
// practice in general. Our assignment operator then simply swaps
// `*this` with `other` on [29].
// The copy-and-swap idiom has inherent strong exception safety
// because all allocations (if any) occur when copying into the
// `other` argument, before any changes have been made to `*this`.
// It is generally, however, less optimized than a more custom
// implementation of the assignment operators.
// **Note**: We can typically avoid manual memory management and
// having to write the copy/move constructors, assignment operators,
// and destructor entirely by using the
// [rule of zero](/patterns/rule-of-zero.html)
int main()
foo f1, f2, f3;
f2 = f1;
f3 = std::move(f1);
swap(f2, f3);