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Examining Gender Bias in Languages with Grammatical Gender

This repo contains the code and data used for our EMNLP-IJCNLP 2019 Paper: Examining Gender Bias in Languages with Grammatical Gender. We will make some updates in the near future. If you have any questions, please don't hesitate to email us!


Recent studies have shown that word embeddings exhibit gender bias inherited from the training corpora. However, most studies to date have focused on quantifying and mitigating such bias only in English. These analyses cannot be directly extended to languages that exhibit morphological agreement on gender, such as Spanish and French. In this paper, we propose new metrics for evaluating gender bias in word embeddings of these languages and further demonstrate evidence of gender bias in bilingual embeddings which align these languages with English. Finally, we extend an existing approach to mitigate gender bias in word embeddings under both monolingual and bilingual settings. Experiments on modified Word Embedding Association Test, word similarity, word translation, and word pair translation tasks show that the proposed approaches effectively reduce the gender bias while preserving the utility of the embeddings.

File Specification

All the code used in this paper is contained in the jupyter notebook, and the seed words used are contained in the other text files. Note that we do not put embeddings used here: for original embeddings, please check MUSE; for our mitigated embeddings, they can be produced following the sections in our notebook.

xx_definitional_pairs.json files contain the gender definitional pairs (female, male) in each language (EN=English, ES=Spanish, FR=French).

xx_occupation_words_with_EN_translations files contain the occupation triplets used for our experiments in the form of (feminine version, masculine version, English translations) for Spanish and French.

WordPair_adj_EN_ES_FR file contains the adjective triplets (EN, ES, FR) used for our word pair translation experiments.

bias_emnlp19.ipynb is the jupyter notebook file in Python 3.

feminine/masculine_nouns_xx files contain the 5000 collected grammatically feminine/masculine nouns in Spanish and French (some of them are repetitive and we remove them in our code).


This is a repo for the EMNLP 19 Paper on gender bias in gendered languages.



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