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README.md

shell-functools

Build Status

A collection of functional programming tools for the shell.

This project provides higher order functions like map, filter, foldl, sort_by and take_while as simple command-line tools. Following the UNIX philosophy, these commands are designed to be composed via pipes. A large collection of functions such as basename, replace, contains or is_dir are provided as arguments to these commands.

Contents

Demo

Quick start

If you want to try it out on your own, run:

pip install shell-functools

If you only want to try it out temporarily, you can also use:

git clone https://github.com/sharkdp/shell-functools /tmp/shell-functools
export PATH="$PATH:/tmp/shell-functools/ft"

Documentation and examples

Usage of map

The map command takes a function argument and applies it to every line of input:

> ls
document.txt
folder
image.jpg

> ls | map abspath
/tmp/demo/document.txt
/tmp/demo/folder
/tmp/demo/image.jpg

Usage of filter

The filter command takes a function argument with a Boolean return type. It applies that function to each input line and shows only those that returned true:

> find
.
./folder
./folder/me.jpg
./folder/subdirectory
./folder/subdirectory/song.mp3
./document.txt
./image.jpg

> find | filter is_file
./folder/me.jpg
./folder/subdirectory/song.mp3
./document.txt
./image.jpg

Usage of foldl

The foldl command takes a function argument and an initial value. The given function must be a binary function with two arguments, like add or append. The foldl command then applies this function iteratively by keeping an internal accumulator:

Add up the numbers from 0 to 100:

> seq 100 | foldl add 0
5050

Multiply the numbers from 1 to 10:

> seq 10 | foldl mul 1
3628800

Append the numbers from 1 to 10 in a string:

> seq 10 | map append " " | foldl append ""
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Usage of foldl1

The foldl1 command is a variant of foldl that uses the first input as the initial value. This can be used to shorten the example above to:

> seq 100 | foldl1 add
> seq 10 | foldl1 mul
> seq 10 | map append " " | foldl1 append

Usage of sort_by

The sort_by command also takes a function argument. In the background, it calls the function on each input line and uses the results to sort the original input. Consider the following scenario:

> ls
a.mp4  b.tar.gz  c.txt
> ls | map filesize
7674860
126138
2214

We can use the filesize function to sort the entries by size:

> ls | sort_by filesize
c.txt
b.tar.gz
a.mp4

Chaining commands

All of these commands can be composed by using standard UNIX pipes:

> find
.
./folder
./folder/me.jpg
./folder/subdirectory
./folder/subdirectory/song.mp3
./document.txt
./image.jpg

> find | filter is_file | map basename | map append ".bak"
me.jpg.bak
song.mp3.bak
document.txt.bak
image.jpg.bak

Lazy evaluation

All commands support lazy evaluation (i.e. they consume input in a streaming way) and never perform unnecessary work (they exit early if the output pipe is closed).

As an example, suppose we want to compute the sum of all odd squares lower than 10000. Assuming we have a command that prints the numbers from 1 to infinity (use alias infinity="seq 999999999" for an approximation), we can write:

> infinity | filter odd | map pow 2 | take_while less_than 10000 | foldl1 add
166650

Working with columns

The --column / -c option can be used to apply a given function to a certain column in the input line (columns are separated by tabs). Column arrays can be created by using functions such as duplicate, split sep or split_ext:

> ls | filter is_file | map split_ext
document	txt
image	jpg

> ls | filter is_file | map split_ext | map -c1 to_upper
DOCUMENT	txt
IMAGE	jpg

> ls | filter is_file | map split_ext | map -c1 to_upper | map join .
DOCUMENT.txt
IMAGE.jpg

Here is a more complicated example:

> find -name '*.jpg'
./folder/me.jpg
./image.jpg

> find -name '*.jpg' | map duplicate
./folder/me.jpg   ./folder/me.jpg
./image.jpg       ./image.jpg

> find -name '*.jpg' | map duplicate | map -c2 basename
./folder/me.jpg   me.jpg
./image.jpg       image.jpg

> find -name '*.jpg' | map duplicate | map -c2 basename | map -c2 prepend "thumb_"
./folder/me.jpg	  thumb_me.jpg
./image.jpg       thumb_image.jpg

> find -name '*.jpg' | map duplicate | map -c2 basename | map -c2 prepend "thumb_" | map run convert
Running 'convert' with arguments ['./folder/me.jpg', 'thumb_me.jpg']
Running 'convert' with arguments ['./image.jpg', 'thumb_image.jpg']

Get the login shell of user shark:

> cat /etc/passwd | map split : | filter -c1 equal shark | map index 6
/usr/bin/zsh

Available function arguments

You can call ft-functions, to get an overview of all available arguments to map, filter, etc.:

File and Directory operations

abspath             :: Path   → Path
dirname             :: Path   → Path
basename            :: Path   → Path
is_dir              :: Path   → Bool
is_file             :: Path   → Bool
is_link             :: Path   → Bool
is_executable       :: Path   → Bool
exists              :: Path   → Bool
has_ext ext         :: Path   → Bool
strip_ext           :: Path   → String
replace_ext new_ext :: Path   → Path
split_ext           :: Path   → Array

Logical operations

non_empty           :: *      → Bool
nonempty            :: *      → Bool

Arithmetic operations

add num             :: Int    → Int
sub num             :: Int    → Int
mul num             :: Int    → Int
even                :: Int    → Bool
odd                 :: Int    → Bool
pow num             :: Int    → Int

Comparison operations

eq other            :: *      → Bool
equal other         :: *      → Bool
equals other        :: *      → Bool
ne other            :: *      → Bool
not_equal other     :: *      → Bool
not_equals other    :: *      → Bool
ge i                :: Int    → Bool
greater_equal i     :: Int    → Bool
greater_equals i    :: Int    → Bool
gt i                :: Int    → Bool
greater i           :: Int    → Bool
greater_than i      :: Int    → Bool
le i                :: Int    → Bool
less_equal i        :: Int    → Bool
less_equals i       :: Int    → Bool
lt i                :: Int    → Bool
less i              :: Int    → Bool
less_than i         :: Int    → Bool

String operations

reverse             :: String → String
append suffix       :: String → String
strip               :: String → String
substr start end    :: String → String
take count          :: String → String
to_lower            :: String → String
to_upper            :: String → String
replace old new     :: String → String
prepend prefix      :: String → String
capitalize          :: String → String
drop count          :: String → String
duplicate           :: String → Array
contains substring  :: String → Bool
starts_with pattern :: String → Bool
startswith pattern  :: String → Bool
ends_with pattern   :: String → Bool
endswith pattern    :: String → Bool
len                 :: String → Int
length              :: String → Int
format format_str   :: *      → String

Array operations

at idx              :: Array  → String
index idx           :: Array  → String
join separator      :: Array  → String
split separator     :: String → Array
reverse             :: Array  → Array

Other operations

const value         :: *      → *
run command         :: Array  → !
id                  :: *      → *
identity            :: *      → *
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